What factors contributed to or detracted from colonial population growth prior to 1750?
Plentiful land, younger marriage, higher birthrate, low death rate
What changes came for gender ratios in the colonial era? Explain.
Initially mostly men came over (slaves, indentured servants). But women married at an earlier age (thus allowing additional births) and high birthrate.
In what ways was a woman's colonial experience different from a man's?
Pg. 114 - Colonial women could not vote, preach, hold office, attend public schools/colleges, own property or enter into contracts. Women that challenged ministerial authority were typically prosecuted and punished. Women were basically to be whole-heartedly submissive to their husbands and had no role in any business transactions, educational experiences or governmental affairs. Women were responsible for nurturing the children and the "Taxing labor required to maintain the household". While not the norm, for certain women (i.e. widows, those with husbands away) were called to stand-in and run businesses, manage farms/plantations and duties of overseeing planting and decision making in their absence
What were South Carolina's most important exports by the early 1700s?
After the 1690's, South Caroline's staple crop was rice. The daily rise and fall of tidewater rivers worked as an advantage for growing this crop. Also, southern pine trees provided lumber and key items to the maritime industry. The resin from these trees could be made into tar as well. Their early leadership in pine tar production gave the Northern Carolinians the nickname of "Tar Heels".(pgs. 117-118)
The economy of the southern colonies centered on which fundamental fact?
Land was plentiful and laborers were scarce
What were indentured servants and what role did they play?
Indentured servants were people(typically young) who were legally bound by a contract that held an agreement to work on a piece of land, farm, etc. in exchange for living quarters, food, clothing, and various different items needed to live. Most indentured servants living in the time period of colonial America were immigrants from other European countries and needed a way to pay off debt incurred from making the move to colonial North America. In addition, the idea of having a worker for free for people already living in North American colonies appealed to them because of the fact that money was not plentiful. Therefore, it was an agreement conducive to the times. Also worked for a set period of time. Amount of years agreed to work were specified in the legally bound contract.
Of all the slaves brought to the New World from Africa, what percentage came to the colonies of British North America?
Most of the slaves were brought to English Colonies
What factors contributed to the shift from indentured servants to African slaves?
Slaves brought from Brazil/Carribean were experienced by the time they got to colonies. The rapid development of plantation economy drove the demand for labor
What was New England's most important export commodity? Why not rice, sugar or tobacco?
What were the key features of the colonial New England economy concerning money and the balance of trade?
The means to pay for imports. North colonies: lacked of cash crops to exchange for English goods, but were successful in shipping and mercantile enterprises. Consequently, New England bought more from England then they sold there (unfavorable trade balance) causing shortage of coins.
What were the key religious beliefs of the Puritans?
The Puritans were very loyal to the Bible. They lived by the passages in the Bible and would go to them for influence in their daily lives. They believed in many of the same commandments as today's Christians. Sex before marriage is completely forbidden and their were consequences for those who rebelled. They believed in a good drink for the taste and not for the affects of being drunk. They seeked the will of God and not the will of people. Supporting the Church was very important to the Puritans. They were to attend services twice a week and pay taxes. They did, however, keep the church and government separate.
What was the covenant theory from which the Puritans drew their ideas?
Separation of church and state
What was the "Half-Way Covenant" adopted by Puritan ministers in New England?
Baptized children of church members could be admitted to a "halfway" membership but could not vote or take communion
What were the next largest white ethnic groups in the colonies after the British? Why were they important?
Germans and Scot-Irish because they enriched the diversity of the poluation
What was the significance of the trial of John Peter Zenger?
In 1735, John Peter Zenger was on trial for "seditious libel" given that he published an article in the New York Weekly Journal criticizing New York/>/>'s governor. According to English law, you were not allowed to criticize the governments that promoted "an ill opinion of the government". However, during the trial, Zenger's lawyer argued that his client printed, the truth therefore could not be guilty of libel, and the jury agreed with his declaration and found Zenger not guilty. Zenger's not guilty verdict was a significant landmark in the progress of freedom of the press. (Page 148)
In what way(s) was Benjamin Franklin the living embodiment of the Enlightenment in America?
At a young age Benjamin Franklin was already a successful man, started out at 17 with a small printing shop then eventually founded a library, organized a fire company and a debate club, and started up the University of Pennsylvania. He obviously was an intellectual man, he shown interest mostly in science and shared his ideas in the fields of medicine, meteorology, geology, astronomy and physics. He would be one of the first major contributor in the Enlightenment era that impressively developed the Franklin stove, the lightning rod, and a glass harmonica. Not to mention, Franklin was a freethinker who envisioned a bright future for humankind; he had his own ideas and opinion. Believing that "as long as we may think as we will and speak as we think, the condition of man will proceed in improvement."But religion was a big issue for him, although he was raised as a Presbyterian, he never really cared about religious orthodoxy. Franklin quit going to church but still kept his faith in God. He was more favoring the Deistic beliefs, that God had created a universe animated by natural laws, laws that inquisitive people could discern through reason. pg. 150-152
How did the Enlightenment affect popular views of God?
Before the eighteenth century, there was a very brainwashed approach to how people believed and practiced religion. You were told time and time again what church you belonged to due to where you lived or where you came from. It was a formality for people to go to church, pray, and do/believe all the things their minister told them to do/believe. In the middle eighteenth century, the Enlightenment began. "Enlightened thinkers were willing to discard religious beliefs in favor of more 'rational' ideas and ideals". (pg. 149) With the new laws of Newton and the new discoveries of Copernicus, people of the Enlightenment era began questioning their religious beliefs, not because they no longer believed in "God", but because the science and logic being presented to them made more sense and seemed more realistic. Due to the Enlightenment, people no longer blindly followed anything, even religion, because they were on a mission to educate themselves and make the world make sense.
What factor(s) led to the development of the Great Awakening in the colonies?
The 3 major denominations sought to enforce their religious monopoly in their colonies. Colonies with an established church organized religious life on the basis of well-regulated local parishes, which defines their boarders and defended them against dissenters/heretics. Parishes were then thrown to turmoil, thus allowing traveling evangelists were able to speak. They believed that Christians were "reborn" in their convictions/behavior which invigorated religious life. People were excited to attend sermons and did so in masses.
What were the long-range results of the Great Awakening?
The great awakening ended up invigorating and fragmenting american religious life. Unlike the enlightenment which only appealed to the more intellectual individuals, the great awakening appealed to the masses. It was the first popular movement, before the revolution that spanned all thirteen colonies. Religion became the subject of conversation, and more and more people attended sermons.(151-152)