An antigen that is potent enough to activate a B cell on its own is known as
BCG is a vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The vaccine is composed of a live Mycobacterium bovis variant called bacillus of Calmette and Guérin. This is an example of which type of vaccine?
attenuated whole agent vaccine
Both the innate and adaptive defenses of the immune system work to prevent
the penetration and colonization by pathogens, and the diseases they cause.
Diapedesis is the process of
the squeezing of cells through the lining of capillaries to attack invading microbes.
The disease known as cryptococcal meningitis
results from exposure to bird droppings and begins as a lung infection.
Enhanced immune responses to subsequent exposures to an antigen to which the body has already been exposed are known as
First line defenses have what aspect in common with each other?
They are physical barriers against invading pathogens.
Functions of the meninges include
support for the brain and spinal cord and protection from external shock.
The glycoprotein and glycolipid molecules on the surface of red blood cells
stimulate the production of antibodies that contribute to the development of a transfusion reaction.
HIV directly infects T-cells. Why is this problematic for cell-mediated immunity?
Cytotoxic T-cells begin to attack the virally infected T-cells, reducing the number of T-cells in the body.
How can a sufficient humoral immune response occur if a plasma cell only lives for a few days?
Each plasma cell can produce up to 2000 antibodies every second.
How can type I allergic reactions be diagnosed?
by injecting very small quantities of dilute solutions of suspected allergens under the skin
How do helper T-cells and cytotoxic T-cells work together?
Helper T-cells produce cytokines to activate other cells of the immune system.
How do phagocytes communicate to other cells what they have captured?
They present antigens from engulfed foreign cells.
How is phagocytosis in the immune system different from protozoan phagocytosis?
Protozoan phagocytosis is used for feeding; phagocytosis by immune cells is used to fight infection.
How is the secondary response different from the primary response in terms of antibody concentration in the blood?
The secondary response is faster and produces more antibodies than the primary response.
How might a pathogenic bacterium be affected by antibodies?
The antibodies may block proteins necessary for binding the pathogen to the host, may opsonize the bacterium, or may agglutinate bacteria.
If a new bacterial pathogen entered a human body through an accidental needle stick, the first cell that would try to kill the pathogen would likely be
If a person turns their ankle, how would one determine if damage to the tissue in the ankle has occurred?
The ankle is red, swollen, and warm to the touch.
Legionella pneumophila is an opportunistic pathogen that
survives in the environment as an intracellular parasite of a protozoan.
The leukocytes called natural killer lymphocytes
are nonspecific leukocytes that secrete toxins onto the surface of virally infected cells.
Limiting exposure to rodents and their waste materials is an important means of controlling
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.
Listeria monocytogenes pathogenesis is directly related to its ability to
live and reproduce inside its host's cells.
The M protein on the surface of Streptococcus pyogenes
is part of the capsule and prevents adherence of phagocytes to its surface.
nfection with which of the following species of Plasmodium is most likely to be fatal?
Opportunistic infections typical of AIDS but rare otherwise include
Pneumocystis pneumonia and Kaposi's sarcoma.
Pathogenic streptococci of the upper respiratory tract (such as Streptococcus pyogenes) are distinguished from non-pathogenic streptococci by
beta hemolytic activity.
A patient enters the emergency room with itchy, swollen hives. This is an example of a ___________ allergic response called __________.
A patient exhibiting arthritis secondary to Lyme disease is likely in which phase of the infection?
Patients can receive one of two different types of influenza vaccine, both of which use whole viruses. The nasal spray uses live virus and is an example of a(n) ________ vaccine, while the injection uses killed virus and is an example of a(n)___________ vaccine.
attenuated whole agent, inactivated whole agent
The phenomenon know as chemotaxis is defined as
the movement of a cell toward or away from a chemical stimulus.
The primary immune response involves
a slow rise in the concentration of antibodies, followed by a gradual decline.
Protection from infection known as species resistance is a result of
both the absence of necessary receptors and lack of suitable environment in the body.
A response that is uniquely directed against pathogenic Bordetella pertussis would involve what component?
The skin is an effective barrier against invading microbes because
the outer layers are dead and covered in salt.
To vaccinate children against the bacterial infection diphtheria, pure diphtheria toxin is chemically modified and injected as a vaccine. This is an example of which type of vaccine?
Transovarian transmission is a process by which
an infected female vector transmits a pathogen to the eggs in its ovaries.
Tuberculosis is the name of the ___________ caused by the _________ Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
The typical signs and symptoms of flu are a result of
cytokines released as part of the immune response.
What can you deduce from the treatment strategy for M. tuberculosis infection?
The organism has some innate resistance to antibiotics.
What is a feature of the small fragments presented by MHC-I proteins?
They are small peptides, roughly 8-10 amino acids long.
What is the fate of activated cytotoxic T-cells?
They proliferate into a clone of cells specific to the same antigen; some of these cells then differentiate into long-lived memory T-cells, while others mature to attack infected cells.
What is the function of inflammation in response to a burn from a hot iron?
To repair the damaged tissue
What is the underlying problem in most acquired immunodeficiencies?
declining cell-mediated immunity
What makes agglutination by antibodies possible?
Each antibody has at least two antigen-binding sites.
When does MHC-II loading occur?
During the fusion of vesicles containing MHC-II proteins with vesicles containing digested pathogens.
Which event happens first during cytotoxic T-cell activation?
CD8 binds to MHC molecules of infected cells
Which of the following best characterizes clonal selection?
The production of identical B cells producing the same antibody
Which of the following causative agents of bacterial meningitis is transmitted by contaminated food?
Which of the following could be true of tuberculosis of the kidney?
The patient would likely be infected with MDR TB or XDR TB.
The disease could be subsequent to a normal primary infection.
The patient would likely have a positive skin test.
The disease could be subsequent to a reactivated latent infection.
ALL OF THE ABOVE COULD BE TRUE.
Which of the following factors is primarily responsible for the ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to survive long periods of time in dried droplets of respiratory aerosols?
the presence of mycolic acid in the cell wall
Which of the following is classified as a spongiform encephalopathy?
variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Which of the following is NOT one of the signs of inflammation?
swelling (tumor), heat (calor), redness (rubor), ODOR, pain (dolor)
Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the common cold?
Cold viruses are frequently spread by contaminated fomites.
Which of the following types of bacterial toxins is associated exclusively with Gram-negative bacteria?
Which of the following would be most affected by treatment with an antihistamine?
mast cells and basophils
Which of the following would NOT be an example of a common allergen?
HAY FEVER, dust mites, pollen, peanuts
Which of the following would test positive for the tuberculin response?
someone who has been immunized with the tuberculosis vaccine or has previously had tuberculosis
Which receptor on the helper T-cell recognizes the specific antigen from an antigen-presenting cell?