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24 terms

Bio 271 Exam 3 Key Terms Respiratory Disorders

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Infectious Rhinitis
a very contagious upper respiratory tract infection commonly caused by a rhinovirus; often called common cold.
decongestant
drug therapy for the common cold that stimulates vasoconstriction in the nasal mucosa to reduce edema and congestion in the respiratory tract. (i.e pseudoephedrine)
Antihistamines
drug therapy for the common cold that reduces mucous secretions and allergic response. (e.g. loratadine and diphenhydramine)
sinusitis
usually a bacterial infection secondary to a cold or an allergy that has obstructed the drainage of one or more paranasal sinuses into the nasal cavity.
pneumonia
an inflammatory condition of the lung—especially affecting the microscopic air sacs (alveoli)—associated with fever, chest symptoms, and a lack of air space (consolidation) on a chest X-ray; it is typically caused by an infection (bacterial, viral, fungal and parasites) but there are a number of other causes.
lobar pneumonia
a type of pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae where the infection is localized in one or more lobes.
congestion
first stage of lobar pneumonia, in which inflammation and vascular congestion develop in the alveolar wall, and exudate forms in the alveoli; this greatly interferes with oxygen diffusion.
consolidation
the second stage of lobar pneumonia, in which neutrophils, RBCs, and fibrin accumulate in the alveolar exudate, forming a solid mass in the lobe.
empyema
infection in the pleural cavity; can cause adhesion between pleural membranes that restrict ventilation if not resolved quickly.
Tuberculosis
a common, and in many cases lethal, infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria; typically attacks the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body.
cavitation
tissue necrosis that forms a large open area in the lung eroding into the bronchi and blood vessels.
Cystic Fibrosis
also called mucoviscidosis, this genetic disorder results in a defect in the chloride ion transport causing the exocrine glands to produce an abnormally thick secretions, such as a tenacious mucus.
meconium ileus
a condition in newborn in which the small intestine is blocked by mucus, preventing the excretion of meconium shortly after birth.
steatorrhea
condition associated with cystic fibrosis, in which the stool becomes fatty , bulky, and putrid because the excess mucous production has blocked the secretions of pancreatic enzymes needed for digestion.
Lung cancer
the third most common cancer in the US; 90% of cases related to smoking.
pneumothorax
an abnormal collection of air or gas in the pleural space that separates the lung from the chest wall, and that may interfere with normal breathing.
hemothorax
perfusion of blood in the pleural space that separates the lung from the chest wall.
asthma
disease that involves periodic episodes of severe but reversible bronchial obstruction in persons with hypersensitive or hyperresponsive airways.
extrinsic asthma
a type of asthma that occurs early during childhood involving acute episodes triggered by type I hypersensitivity.
intrinsic asthma
a type of asthma that occurs later during adulthood involving acute episodes from a stimuli that targets hyperresponsive tissue.
status asthmaticus
severe persistent asthma attack where the person is no longer responsive to therapy;
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
a group of disorders that involves progressive tissue damage and obstruction of airways; includes asthma, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis.
emphysema
a long term, progressive lung disease characterize by the breakdown of alveolar wall, resulting in decrease surface area for gas exchange, loss of pulmonary capillaries, loss of elastic fibers (less recoil), and altered perfusion-ventilation ratio.
chronic bronchitis
another lung disease that may present similar basic conditions as other COPDs, but is differentiated by the significant changes in the bronchi from constant irritation from smoking or exposure to industrial pollution.