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individually, an action carried out by the muscles or glands under control of the nervous system in response to a stimulus; the sum of an animal's responses to external and internal stimuli
an internal representation of the spatial relationships among objects in the environment
behavioral change based on linking a stimulus or behavior with a reward or punishment; includes trial-and-error learning
based on experience of the spatial structure of the environment; involves the use of landmarks
the regular movement of animals back-and-forth between two geographic areas, allows for the study of internal maps
the ability of an animal's nervous system to perceive, store, process, and use information gathered by sensory receptors
Optimal Foraging Theory
states that an animal's feeding behavior should provide maximal energy gain with minimal energy expense and minimal risk of being eaten while foraging
an area, usually fixed in location, that individuals defend and from which other members of the same species are usually excluded
includes posturing and physical contact to settle disputes and maintain social bonds
behavior that reduces an animal's fitness while increasing the fitness of others in a population
refers to the total effect an individual has on proliferating its genes by producing its own offspring and by providing aid to close relatives to increase the production of their offspring
a phenomenon of inclusive fitness that is used to explain altruistic behavior between related individuals
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