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36 terms

Biology Chapter 35

STUDY
PLAY
Behavior
individually, an action carried out by the muscles or glands under control of the nervous system in response to a stimulus; the sum of an animal's responses to external and internal stimuli
Behavior Ecology
the study of behavior in an evolutionary context
Proximate Questions
focus on the immediate causes of behavior
Ultimate Questions
focus on the evolutionary causes of behavior
Innate Behavior
appears to be performed in virtually the same way by all individuals
Fixed Action Pattern
unchangeable behavioral sequences
Learning
modification of behavior as a result of specific experiences
Habituation
loss of a response to a stimulus after repeated exposure
Imprinting
learning that is irreversible and limited to a sensitive time period in an animal's life
Spatial Learning
use of landmarks to learn the spatial structure of an environment
Cognitive Mapping
an internal representation of the spatial relationships among objects in the environment
Associative Learning
behavioral change based on linking a stimulus or behavior with a reward or punishment; includes trial-and-error learning
Social Learning
learning by observing a mimicking others
Problem Solving
inventive behavior that arises in response to a new situation
Sensitive Period
the limited phase in an animal's development when it can learn certain behaviors
Kinesis
random movement in response to a stimulus
Taxis
an automatic movement directed toward or away from a stimulus
Spatial Learning
based on experience of the spatial structure of the environment; involves the use of landmarks
Migration
the regular movement of animals back-and-forth between two geographic areas, allows for the study of internal maps
Cogintion
the ability of an animal's nervous system to perceive, store, process, and use information gathered by sensory receptors
Foraging
food obtaining behavior
Optimal Foraging Theory
states that an animal's feeding behavior should provide maximal energy gain with minimal energy expense and minimal risk of being eaten while foraging
Signal
a behavior that causes a change in behavior of another animal
Communication
the sending of, reception of, and response to signals
Courtship Rituals Advertise:
the species, sex, and physical condition of potential mates
Promiscuous
no strong pair-bonds
Monagamous
one male with one female
Polygamous
individual of one sex mating with several of the other
Territory
an area, usually fixed in location, that individuals defend and from which other members of the same species are usually excluded
Agonistic Behavior
settles disputes over resources through threats, rituals, and sometimes combat
Reconciliation Behavior
includes posturing and physical contact to settle disputes and maintain social bonds
Dominance Hierarchies
partition resources among members of a social group
Altruism
behavior that reduces an animal's fitness while increasing the fitness of others in a population
Inclusive Fitness
refers to the total effect an individual has on proliferating its genes by producing its own offspring and by providing aid to close relatives to increase the production of their offspring
Kin Selection
a phenomenon of inclusive fitness that is used to explain altruistic behavior between related individuals
Reciprocal Altruism
an altruistic act that may be repaid at a later time by the beneficiary