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20 terms

Biology Chapter 38

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Conservation Biology
a goal-driven science that seeks to counter the biodiversity crisis, the rapid decrease in the number of species on Earth
Biodiversity
the variety of living things
Genetic Diversity
occurs within and between populations of a species - provides raw material for microevolution and adaptation
Species Diversity
the variety of species in an ecosystem or throughout the biosphere
Endangered Species
in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range
Threatened Species
those that are likely to become endangered in the foreseeable future
Ecosystem Diversity
the interaction of populations of different species within an ecosystem
Major Threats to Biodiversity:
habitat destruction, invasive species, overexploitation
Habitat Destruction
- single greatest threat to biodiversity
- made by humans
Invasive Species
compete with, prey upon, or parasitize native species
Overexploitation
involves harvesting wildlife at rates that exceed the ability of populations to rebound
Effects of Pollution:
acid rain, ozone depletion, "dead zones", biological magnification
Population Fragmentation
the splitting a consequent isolation of portions and populations
Landscape Ecology
the application of ecological principles to the study of the structure and dynamics of a collection of ecosystems
Edges
boundaries between ecosystems
Movement Corridors
small strips or clumps of high quality habitat that connect fragmented habitat
Biodiversity Hotspots
areas with large numbers of endangered, threatened, and endemic species
Nature Reserves
undisturbed wildlands surrounded by buffer zones of compatible economic development
Sustainable Development
the longterm prosperity of human societies and the ecosystems that support them
Restoration Ecology
uses ecological principles to return degraded areas to their natural state