CompTIA IT Fundamentals (EXAM FC0-U51); Glossary
Terms in this set (269)
The most recent encryption standard that provides improved encryption for wireless networking.
A complete wireless standard that adds strong encryption and authentication security to 802.11 and relies on 802.1x as the authentication mechanism. Also referred to as WPA2.
Mobile technology that can determine the
orientation of a device with a sensor that measures the
acceleration of the device direction.
The use of assistive technology to make computers available and easier to use.
A printed circuit board that you install into a slot on the
computer's system board to expand the functionality of the computer. Also referred to as an expansion card, I/O card, add-in, add-on, or board.
Tools that are designed to ensure that people with disabilities are able to use software applications.
A File Explorer component that is located below the ribbon and displays the address of an object.
Malicious code that enters the computer system while
installing some software applications, and is usually
distributed through freeware.
(Advanced Encryption Standard) A feature of WPA2 that
provides cipher-based Counter Mode with Cipher Block
Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol (CCMP)
encryption for even greater security and to replace TKIP.
A mobile device setting that you can use to quickly disconnect the mobile device from Wi-Fi and cellular connections, as well as disable the ability to send and receive calls, email, and text messages.
A computer that has the monitor and the computing
components all built into one physical device.
A layered environment built on the Linux kernel foundation that includes not only the OS, but middleware, which provides additional software for the OS, and additional built-in applications.
A program that provides specific functionality such as word processing, graphics creation, or database management.
A term for a user who gains unauthorized access to computers and networks for malicious purposes. See "cracker."
An adapter card that enables you to connect speakers,
a microphone, and headphones to a computer.
A feature of an operating system or a software application that enables updates to be downloaded and installed automatically on a system at a scheduled time.
A power connector used to supply power to floppy disk drives and some tape drives.
The smallest unit of information in a computer system.
Short for "binary digit," bits are represented either as 1 or 0.
A hacker who exposes vulnerabilities for financial gain
or for some malicious purpose.
A slang term that describes software that has lots of features and requires considerable disk space and RAM to install and run.
A method used by attackers to send out unwanted Bluetooth signals from mobile phones and laptops to other Bluetooth enabled devices.
A method in which attackers gain access to unauthorized information on a wireless device by using a Bluetooth connection within the 30-foot Bluetooth transmission limit.
A wireless technology that facilitates short- range wireless communication between devices.
(Bayonet Neill-Concelman connector) A connector that is used with coaxial cable to carry radio frequencies to and from devices.
brute force attack
A password attack in which the attacker uses password cracking software to attempt every possible alphanumeric password combination.
(base station) A transceiver on a cellular network. Also
referred to as a cell site.
Software programs that are sold together as a set or suite, or that are sold with an operating system or with a new computer.
A unit of computer storage equal to approximately
(cold cathode fluorescent lamp) The backlight source used by LCD monitors.
A radio network that consists of different areas called cells. Also referred to as a mobile network.
A laptop computer that comes pre-installed with the
A computing infrastructure in which resources, such as
storage and applications, are hosted in a distributed fashion by a third party over the Internet.
A type of copper cable that features a central conducting copper core surrounded by an insulator and braided or foil shielding.
A software licensing scheme that is intended to meet
commercial needs. Many commercial software publishers ask their users to register their copies within a specified period of time. This type of software does not allow users to access the source code or modify it.
Video connectors that transmit analog video
information as two or more separate signals.
The format of an analog (picture only) signal before it is combined with a sound signal and modulated onto a radio frequency (RF) carrier.
(cathode ray tube) A type of display device that uses
electron beams within a vacuum tube to create images
on a fluorescent screen.
A type of information protection scheme that enables you to store copies of critical files and folders on another medium for safekeeping.
A physical access point that enables a computer to
communicate with internal or external devices.
A type of information protection scheme that enables you to recover stored copies of critical files and folders from another medium.
A group of computers that are connected together to
communicate as well as share network resources such as files, applications, and devices.
The process of automatically merging and updating common data that is stored on multiple devices.
An electronic machine that uses binary data to automatically perform calculations.
A method used to remove any sensitive data from a mobile device and permanently delete it.
A File Explorer component that displays a list of files and subfolders within a folder.
A high-density video graphics array (VGA) connector that was the most common cable used for LCD monitors.
A text file that is created by a website and placed on a
computer's hard drive to store information that is used to identify users as well as to prepare customized web pages for them.
A computing device designed to be placed on
or near a user's desk.
A method of ensuring that all original work, and all the
derivative works created from it, are kept free and open.
A File Explorer component that displays the file properties such as file name, file type, author, last modified, size, and other properties.
(central processing unit) A computer chip where most of the computing calculations take place. Also referred to as the microprocessor or processor.
A collection of security tasks used to reduce the scope
of the device's vulnerability and attack surface.
The term preferred by the hacker community for a user who gains unauthorized access to computers and networks for malicious purposes.
An automated password attack that involves guessing by comparing encrypted passwords against a predetermined list of possible password values.
An electronic document that provides for the secure
exchange of information over a network.
A container object that can store your files in an organized manner. Often referred to as a folder.
(electrostatic discharge) A situation that occurs when
electrons rush from a statically charged body to another unequally charged body
A Bluetooth device mode that will transmit a friendly
signal to another device in close proximity.
A set of networking technologies and media access methods specified for LANs.
A digital display standard that aims to replace the DVI
and VGA standards.
A printed circuit board that is install into a slot on the
computer's system board to expand the functionality
of the computer.
Specialized software that controls a device attached
to a computer.
A ventilation component that cools the internal components of a computer.
A ventilation component that prevents dust from entering the critical components of a computer.
An object that stores information on a computer.
(digital video interface connector) A digital interface that
is used to connect a video source (for example, a display controller to a display device) such as a computer monitor
A characteristic that can be associated with a file or folder that provides the operating system with important information about the file or folder and how it is intended to be used by system users.
(Exchange ActiveSync) Microsoft's synchronization protocol that enables mobile devices to connect to an Exchange Server to access mail, calendar, and contacts.
The process of reducing the size of a file.
A device used to read electronic books, or eBooks.
A type of file protection that disguises the data within a
file or message so that the specific information included
within the file or message cannot be read or understood by unauthorized users.
(electromagnetic interference) A situation that arises when sources that output electromagnetic radiation interfere with your electronic devices.
A Microsoft Windows tool that offers a single view of all
the resources and information that you can access from
The process of converting data into a form that is not easily recognized or understood by anyone who is not authorized to access the data.
The study of a person's efficiency at the workplace as it
relates to his or her health, safety, and productivity
A series of characters at the end of a file name; used by an OS to identify the software application that is associated with a file.
A device or group of devices that connect and control access between networks.
(Global Packet Radio Service) A mobile data service that
promises data rates from 56 up to 114 Kbps and continuous connection to the Internet for mobile phone and computer users.
A computer connection that provides a high-speed interface for peripheral devices that are designed to use the IEEE 1394 standard.
A tablet surface typically used by artists as well as computer-aided design (CAD) designers to draw image and pictures by using a stylus the same way you would draw the image on paper, but instead, you draw on the tablet.
The process of restoring a compressed file to its original size.
Specialized software that is stored on a hardware device's read-only memory (ROM) whether or not the device is powered.
A solid state storage device that typically connects to a USB port on your computer.
The simplest type of password attack and involves an
individual making repeated attempts to guess a password by entering different common password values, such as the user's name, a spouse's name, or a significant date.
The process of overwriting existing firmware.
Mobile technology that changes the orientation of the device by reading the x and y coordinates of the device's position
A container object that can store your files in an organized manner. Also referred to as a directory
Applications that you can download from the Internet
directly and use without any restrictions.
A user who excels at programming or managing and
configuring computer systems, and has the skills to gain
access to computer systems through unauthorized or
(File Transfer Protocol) The set of rules used to transfer files across a TCP/IP network, such as the Internet.
(hard disk drive) A storage device that is used to store digital data in a computer.
FTP over SSH
(File Transfer Protocol over Secure Shell) A secure version of FTP that uses an SSH tunnel as an encryption method to transfer, access, and manage files. Also referred to as Secure FTP.
(high definition multimedia interface connector) The first industry-supported, uncompressed, all-digital audio/video interface; it has largely superseded DVI and is compatible with the DVI standard.
(File Transfer Protocol-Secure Sockets Layer) Same as FTPS
A cooling device that is metal, usually formed into ridges, and installed on components to increase the surface area that can be cooled by fans or liquid cooling systems.
(File Transfer Protocol Secure) FTP with additional support for SSL/TLS. Also referred to as FTP-SSL.
Any message containing incorrect or misleading information that is disseminated to multiple users through unofficial channels.
A Microsoft Windows-based peer-to-peer network that is typically implemented in a SOHO environment and that usually requires users to input a user name as well as password when they join the homegroup.
A printer that forms images by spraying liquid ink from an ink cartridge out of nozzles aimed carefully on the printer.
A local storage area that holds the files saved by a web
browser to decrease the time it takes to reload a web page
Storage media that places data on specialized devices that serve files to clients in a network based on each client's need.
The base software that allows all other applications to run on an iPhone, iPod touch, or iPad.
A patch that is often issued on an emergency basis to address a specific security flaw.
A pivoting stick or lever attached to a base that is used to control movement on a device.
The study of human movement
(Hypertext Transfer Protocol) The TCP/IP service that enables clients, such as a web browser application, to connect and interact with websites.
(Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) A secure version of HTTP that supports web commerce by providing a secure connection between web browsers and servers.
(local area network) A group of computers and associated devices that share the resources of a single processor or server within a small geographic area.
A networking device that connects multiple computers
to form a LAN.
A complete computer system that is small, compact,
lightweight, and portable.
hybrid password attack
A password attack in which multiple attack vectors, including dictionary, brute-force, and other attack methodologies, are used to try to crack a password.
A printer that uses a laser beam to form images and toner to print the images on a printing medium, such as paper or photo paper.
(Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) Pronounced "I-triple-E." An organization of scientists, engineers, and students of electronics and related fields whose technical as well as standards committees develop, publish, in addition to revise computing and telecommunications standards.
(liquid crystal display) A flat-panel display device that is a compact, lightweight alternative to traditional CRT displays.
(light emitting diode) A display device that uses either
dynamic RGB light-emitting diodes or white edge-lightemitting diodes as the light source.
(Internet Mail Access Protocol version 4) A protocol used to retrieve email messages and folders from a mail server.
An approach in which an attacker pretends to be someone he or she is not, typically an average user in distress, or a help-desk representative.
An OS that is an open-standards UNIX derivative originally developed and released by a Finnish computer science student named Linus Torvalds.
A complete Linux implementation, including kernel, shell, applications, utilities, and installation media, that is packaged, distributed, and supported by a software vendor.
An adapter card that enables you to connect to other
computers and the Internet by using an analog phone line.
liquid cooling system
A system that uses tubes filled with a coolant connected to a radiator and a pump to circulate the liquid coolant through the inside of your computer case, along with fans to move air across the tubes to decrease the temperature within the case.
A power connector that is used to supply power to Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment (PATA) drives, optical drives, and SCSI drives.
The personal computer component that acts as the backbone for the entire computer system. Also referred to as a system board.
Any storage media that is directly attached to the computer that uses it.
A piece of code that sits dormant on a target computer until it is triggered by a specific event
A small object that runs across a flat surface and has at least one, but typically two or three, buttons that send electronic signals to the graphical user interface (GUI).
A central processing unit (CPU) that has two or more
individual CPUs mounted in a single chip, working in parallel.
A large computer that might serve a large organization to process and store information for many users at once
A type of computer code that, often without manifesting itself to the targeted user, performs actions that cause undesirable results.
An authentication scheme that requires validation of two or more authentication factors.
A handheld device that enables you to play digitally recorded audio, video, and combination audio/video files.
A computer component that provides the temporary
workspace for a processor.
(multifunction device) A piece of office equipment that
performs the functions of a number of other specialized devices, such as a printer, scanner, fax machine, and copier
(network-attached storage) A storage device that is directly attached to the network and is used to supply file-based storage services to other computers on the network.
A File Explorer component that is located in the left pane of the File Explorer window; it enables you to scroll and directly access folders on your PC, your OneDrive files and folders, drives and devices connected to your computer, or other computers on the network.
(mini-high definition multimedia interface connector)
An HDMI connector that is specified for use with portable devices.
A compact software program that is developed to perform a predefined function on a smartphone or a handheld mobile device such as a mobile phone, tablet, or feature phone.
An adapter card that enables you to connect to other
computers over a wired or wireless connection. Also referred to as NIC (network interface card).
A shared printing device that can be used simultaneously by multiple users on a network.
(Near Field Communication) A standard of communication between mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets in very close proximity, usually when touching or being only a few inches apart from each other.
A computer connection that transfers data eight or more bits at a time over eight or more wires.
A case-sensitive string of alphanumeric characters that must be typed before a user can access a computer.
Any type of attack in which the attacker attempts to obtain and make use of passwords illegitimately.
A full-featured computer that is smaller and lighter than
(organic light emitting diode) A type of LED flat panel display device that uses organic compounds that emit light when subjected to an electric current.
A small unit of supplemental code meant to address either a security problem or a functionality flaw in a software package or operating system.
Open Handset Alliance
Developer of the Android OS.
(personal digital assistant) A mobile hand-held device that provides computing, information storage, and information retrieval capabilities for personal or business use.
A software licensing scheme that enables users to access its source code and gives them the right to modify it.
A network in which resource sharing, processing, and
communications control are completely decentralized.
A personal computer storage device, such as a CD, DVD, or Bluray disc, that stores data optically, rather than magnetically.
A device that connects to a computer to expand the
computer's functionality. This includes devices that
enable the user to input, output, store, and share data.
(operating system) A software package that enables a
computer to function. It performs basic tasks, such as
recognizing the input from a keyboard, sending the output to a display screen or monitor, as well as controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers.
Security properties that determine access to resources
such as files and printers.
An OS developed by Apple Computing, Inc., for use on
(PC) A computing device designed to be used by one
person at a time.
A form of phishing that redirects a request for a website, typically an e-commerce site, to a similar-looking, but fake, website.
A ventilation component that removes the ozone that is
generated inside printers during the printing process.
The process by which Bluetooth mobile devices can
establish a connection.
A type of email-based social engineering attack in which the attacker sends email from a spoofed source, such as a bank, to try to elicit private information from the victim.
A connection of two to eight Bluetooth- enabled devices.
(personally identifiable information) Any information
that can be used to determine who a person is.
(random access memory) Volatile memory that requires a constant source of electricity to keep track of the data stored in it.
Malicious software that prevents you from using your
computer and demands payment before your access will be restored.
A type of display device that uses xenon and neon rays and a flat panel of glass to provide visuals with high contrast, brightness, and vibrant colors that can be viewed from a multitude of angles.
A piece of software that enables a web browser to process specific types of content.
A connector that carries audio as well as video transmissions to and from a variety devices, such as TVs, digital cameras, and gaming systems.
A container object located on the Windows desktop
that temporarily stores deleted files.
(Post Office Protocol version 3) A protocol used to retrieve email from a mailbox on a mail server.
An alternate way in which to keep the network operating
A hardware interface that you can use to connect devices to a computer.
The ability of any network to survive disaster or avoid it
in the first place.
A device that attaches to a power outlet in order to provide more outlets for you to use.
A File Explorer component that is displayed below the title bar and shows a list of common tasks depending upon the selected object or objects.
An internal computer component that converts line voltage alternating current (AC) power from an electrical outlet to the low-voltage direct current (DC) power needed by system components.
Security settings that control what system-wide actions
users can perform on a computer.
A File Explorer component that displays a preview of files such as documents, presentation slides, and images without opening them in an application.
A six-position connector that uses just one pair of wires.
It is used in telephone system connections
An eight-position connector that uses all four pairs of wires. It is usually used for network connectivity
A device that transfers text and images from electronic
content onto physical media such as paper, photo paper, and labels.
(Restriction of Use of Hazardous Substances) A compliance directive launched in 2006 and enforced by the European Union that aims to restrict certain dangerous substances commonly used in electronic devices.
A round 6-pin port commonly used to connect keyboards and mice to computers. Also referred to as a mini-Din port.
A collection of previously issued patches and hotfixes,
usually meant to be applied to one component of a system, such as the web browser or a particular service.
Malicious code that is designed to hide the existence of
processes or programs from normal detection methods and to gain continuous privileged access to a computer system.
(Simple File Transfer Protocol) An early, unsecured file
transfer protocol that has since been declared obsolete.
Free applications that a user can download from the Internet directly. The only difference between a freeware and shareware application is that the shareware is usually provided on a trial basis.
A networking device used to send data among multiple
networks that use the same protocol.
A link or pointer to a program, file, or folder that is
represented by a small icon.
A video connector that carries S-Video, which is an analog video signal that carries the video data as two separate signals (brightness and color).
A method of gaining information by simply viewing the
information as the user enters it.
High-end mobile device that provides users with a wide range of functions, such as a portable media player, video camera, GPS, high-resolution touchscreen, high-speed Wi-Fi, web browser, mobile broadband, along with phone service.
SATA power connector
(Serial ATA power connector) A power connector that is used to supply power to SATA drives.
A peripheral device that takes a photo-identical copy (scan) of a physical hard copy of any kind of document, such as a piece of paper or a photo, and creates a digital-format copy of the document.
(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) A communications protocol used to send email from a client to a server or between servers.
(Secure File Transfer Protocol) Same as FTP over SSH.
social engineering attack
A type of attack that uses deception and trickery to convince unsuspecting users to provide sensitive data or to violate security guidelines.
A personal computer connection that transfers data one bit at a time over a single wire.
A network computer that shares resources with as well as responds to requests from computers, devices, and other servers on the network.
A larger compilation of system updates that can include functionality enhancements, new features, as well as typically all patches, updates, and hotfixes issued up to the point of the service pack release.
The practice of installing and updating operating system features, applications, drivers, as well as obtaining the appropriate licenses.
Software programs or code intended to address security flaws and performance issues in an existing version of software.
The process of replacing a software application completely with a newer version.
(small office home office network) A network that provides connectivity and resource sharing for a small office or home office.
A means of securing electronic components to a circuit board by using a combination of lead, tin, and silver (solder) and a tool called a soldering iron.
(Secure Sockets Layer/Transport Layer Security) A data
encryption method used by HTTPS.
(single sign-on) An access control property that you can use to provide users with one-time authentication to multiple resources, servers, or sites.
solid state storage
A personal computer storage device that stores data in
non-volatile special types of memory instead of on disks or tape.
An example of a cloud service in which media files are
transmitted by a provider over the Internet and viewed
by the end user in real time.
A message or email that is sent indiscriminately to many people around the world.
An input device that absorbs electricity for use on modern smartphones, tablets, and other capacitive touchscreens.
The fastest and the most expensive computer among all types of computers; often used to complete a single,
An IM-based attack similar to spam that is propagated
through instant messaging instead of through email.
A device that provides the additional outlets of a power
strip with the added benefit of protecting connected
devices from surges.
A human-based or software-based attack in which the goal is to pretend to be someone else for the purpose of identity concealment. Spoofing can occur in IP addresses, MAC addresses, and email.
A small network hardware device that joins multiple computers together within the same LAN.
Malicious software designed to intercept or take control of a computer's operation without consent.
The personal computer component that acts as the
backbone for the entire computer system. Often referred to as a motherboard.
(solid state drive) A storage device that uses solid state
memory to store data, and is an alternative to using a hard disk drive in a computer
(Service Set Identifier) A 32-bit alphanumeric string that
identifies a wireless access point (WAP) and all the devices attached to it.
(Secure Sockets Layer) A security protocol that provides
secure communications over the Internet.
A data restoration option that restores the entire state of an operating system and its corresponding software, by loading the image from a storage medium such as a DVD-ROM or USB thumb drive.
A computing device similar to a laptop in size and function, but does not include an integrated keyboard.
An input device that absorbs electricity for use on modern smartphones, tablets, and other capacitive touchscreens.
A personal computer storage device that stores data magnetically on a tape enclosed in a removable tape cartridge.
The technology that allows a person to feel as though they are present in a location different from the one they are in by including stimuli to encourage that feeling of presence.
A small button located in the center of laptop keypads that responds to user force in all directions in order to move the cursor on screen.
A malicious program that masquerades itself as a harmless application.
A typewriter-style keyboard and a display screen, or monitor, that is used to access the information stored on mainframes.
(uninterruptible power supply) A device that provides power without interruption of service to connected devices in the event of a general power failure.
Special paper that contains chemicals designed to react and change color as it is heated by the heating element within the printer to create images.
(universal serial bus connection) A computer connection that enables you to connect multiple peripherals to a single port with high performance and minimal device configuration.
A printer that uses a heating element to create the image on the paper with dye, ink from ribbons, or directly with pins while the feed assembly moves the media through the printer.
(universal serial bus drive) A small solid-state device, such as a "thumb" drive, or other drives that can be connected to the computer by using a USB connection.
A measurement of how much data can actually pass through the network channel in a given time period.
An information profile that uniquely identifies a user on
An input/output connection developed by Apple and Intel that carries data and display signals on a single cable.
A network security measure in which a computer user or some other network component proves its identity in order to gain access to network resources.
(Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) A security protocol created by the IEEE 802.11i task group to replace WEP.
A unique name identifying a user account on a computer
A small, touch-sensitive pad that enables you run to your finger across its surface, which sends electronic signals to the computer to control the pointer on the screen.
Information about the iteration of the software you are using.
(video graphics array) A video connector that, until recently, was the primary way of connecting a display device to a computer.
A device that enables input by touching images on the screen, while the screen acts as the display for the computing device
A mouse-like pointing device in which the ball is mounted on the top of the case.
An adapter card that enables you to connect display devices to your computer, and that typically has its own bank of memory to improve the rate at which the images on screen can be updated.
A software implementation or emulation of a host machine, which is created by virtualization software, and runs independently from the host on which it is installed.
The process of creating a logical (virtual) version of a
computer environment by separating the elements of the computing environment from each other and from the physical hardware it runs on via an additional software layer.
(Wired Equivalent Privacy) A security protocol for wireless local area networks (WLANs).
A form of phishing that targets individuals who are known or are believed to be wealthy. Also referred to as spear phishing.
A hacker who exposes security flaws in applications and
operating systems so manufacturers can fix them before they become widespread problems.
A computer program that spreads into a computer system by inserting copies of itself.
A human-based attack where the goal is to extract personal, financial, or confidential information from the victim by using services such as the telephone system and IP-based voice messaging services (VoIP) as the communication medium. Also referred to as voice phishing.
The most common wireless computer networking protocol, which is a LAN technology used by many different kinds of devices.
A device that converts digital data into radio waves and also receives radio waves and converts them into digital data.
wireless computer network
A network in which computers use wireless
connections to link with other computers.
(voice over IP) The transmission of voice communications over IP networks such as the Internet.
An encryption method that conceals and protects data
during transmission so that if the data were accessed during transmission it could not be read.
(wide area network) A network of computers
that are spread across a large geographic area.
A device that connects a computer to multiple networks
through a wireless connection
(wireless access point) A network device that provides a
connection between wireless devices and that can also
connect to wired networks.
A Microsoft Windows-based peer-to-peer network that is typically implemented in a SOHO environment and that usually contains fewer than 20 peers.
A software application that is installed on a web server and delivered to users through the Internet.
A parasitic program that replicates itself and exploits
a computer's file transmission capabilities.
A software application used to display web pages.
A peripheral device that sends periodic images or continuous frames to a website for display
(Wi-Fi Protected Access) A security protocol that provides a significantly stronger encryption scheme than WEP, and can use a shared private key, which are unique keys assigned to each user.
(Wi-Fi Protected Access version 2) A complete wireless
standard that adds strong encryption and authentication security to 802.11 then relies on 802.1x as the authenticationMmechanism. Also referred to as 802.11i.
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