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sociology ch. 2


total way of life shared by members of a community


the population that shares same territory, bound together by economic and political ties

nonmaterial culture

language, values, rules and knowledge shared by a society

material culture

physical objects a society produces such as tools, streets, sculptures, and they depend on nonmaterial for meaning.


Culture as underlying
basis of interaction.
Culture as a 'given'.
Culture shapes us rather
than in how culture itself
is shaped.

conflict theory approach

Culture as a social product.
Whose interests are served
by how culture develops?

cultural capital

refers to having the attitudes and knowledge that characterize the upper social classes

basis of human behavior


A social

problem solving

Cultural patterns evolve
to provide solutions to
recurrent problems
humans encounter.
Problems are universal,
but the solutions
people adopt vary


cultural relativity requires that each cultural trait be evaluated in the context of its won culture


is tendency to judge other cultures according to norms and values of our culture

social product

--Immense cultural diversity
not from unique gene pools,
but cultural evolution.
Some aspects are
deliberately produced.
Culture relies on language.


is the stuy of biological basis of all forms of human behavior

carriers of culture

language, values, and norms


is the ability to communicate in symbols- orally, by signing, or by wrting


are shared ideas about desirable goals; tenderness and cooperation, or toughness and competition


are shared rules of conduct that specify how people ought to think; folkways, mores, and laws


are norms that are customary, normal, habitual ways a group does things


are norms associated with fairly strong ideas of right or wrong


are mores that are enforced and sanctioned by the gov


are rewards and punishments


are groups that share the overall culture of a society but maintain a distinctive set of vales, norms, lifestyles and language


are groups whose values, interests, beliefs, and lifestyles conflict with those of the larger culture


is process through which individuals learn and adopt values and social practices of dominant group, more or less giving up their own values.


is belief that different cultural strands within a culture should be valued and nourished

cultural diversity and change

Cultural diffusion
Exposure to Mass media

cultural diffusion

The process by which
aspects of one culture
or subculture are
incorporated into

popular culture

refers to aspects of
culture that are widely accessible and
commonly shared by most members of
a society, especially those in the middle,
working, and lower classes.

high culture

e refers to the cultural
preferences associated with the upper

cultural lag

occurs when one part of a
culture changes more rapidly than another

culture shock

refers to the discomfort that
arises from exposure to a different culture.

globalization of culture

e is the process
through which cultural elements (including
musical styles, fashion trends, and cultural
values) spread around the globe.

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