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32 terms

sociology 2

sociology ch. 2
STUDY
PLAY
culture
total way of life shared by members of a community
society
the population that shares same territory, bound together by economic and political ties
nonmaterial culture
language, values, rules and knowledge shared by a society
material culture
physical objects a society produces such as tools, streets, sculptures, and they depend on nonmaterial for meaning.
STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONALIST APPROACH
Culture as underlying
basis of interaction.
Culture as a 'given'.
Culture shapes us rather
than in how culture itself
is shaped.
conflict theory approach
Culture as a social product.
Whose interests are served
by how culture develops?
cultural capital
refers to having the attitudes and knowledge that characterize the upper social classes
basis of human behavior
Problem
solving.
Relative.

A social
product.
problem solving
Cultural patterns evolve
to provide solutions to
recurrent problems
humans encounter.
Problems are universal,
but the solutions
people adopt vary
considerably.
relative
cultural relativity requires that each cultural trait be evaluated in the context of its won culture
ethnocentrism
is tendency to judge other cultures according to norms and values of our culture
social product
--Immense cultural diversity
not from unique gene pools,
but cultural evolution.
Some aspects are
deliberately produced.
Culture relies on language.
sociobiology
is the stuy of biological basis of all forms of human behavior
carriers of culture
language, values, and norms
language
is the ability to communicate in symbols- orally, by signing, or by wrting
values
are shared ideas about desirable goals; tenderness and cooperation, or toughness and competition
norms
are shared rules of conduct that specify how people ought to think; folkways, mores, and laws
folkways
are norms that are customary, normal, habitual ways a group does things
mores
are norms associated with fairly strong ideas of right or wrong
laws
are mores that are enforced and sanctioned by the gov
sanctions
are rewards and punishments
subcultures
are groups that share the overall culture of a society but maintain a distinctive set of vales, norms, lifestyles and language
countercultures
are groups whose values, interests, beliefs, and lifestyles conflict with those of the larger culture
assimilation
is process through which individuals learn and adopt values and social practices of dominant group, more or less giving up their own values.
multiculturalism
is belief that different cultural strands within a culture should be valued and nourished
cultural diversity and change
Enviroment
Cultural diffusion
Isolation
Tech
Exposure to Mass media
cultural diffusion
The process by which
aspects of one culture
or subculture are
incorporated into
another.
popular culture
refers to aspects of
culture that are widely accessible and
commonly shared by most members of
a society, especially those in the middle,
working, and lower classes.
high culture
e refers to the cultural
preferences associated with the upper
class.
cultural lag
occurs when one part of a
culture changes more rapidly than another
culture shock
refers to the discomfort that
arises from exposure to a different culture.
globalization of culture
e is the process
through which cultural elements (including
musical styles, fashion trends, and cultural
values) spread around the globe.