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socio ch.3


n is the process of learning
the roles, statuses, and values necessary
for participation in social institutions

theoretical perspectives

freud and psychiatric theory
piaget and cognitive theory
structural-functional theory
conflict theory
symbolic theory

freudian theory

Socialization is a contest
between the ID and


is the natural,
unsocialized, biological part
of self, including hunger and
sexual urges.


is composed of internalized social
ideas about right and wrong.

piaget and cognitive develp.

Four stages of cognitive
1. Understand what they see,
touch, feel, smell, or hear.
2. Understand cause and effect.
3. Learn to use language, symbols,
and numbers.
4. Develop an understanding of
abstract concepts.

structural functional theory

good for all!
believes that schools, churches, families, and other social arenas in which children are socialized are designed to integrate the young smoothly in to a proper sociolized enviroment.

conflict theory

only beneficial for those in power.

symbolic interaction theory

--To understand human behaviors, we must
first understand what those behaviors mean
to individuals.
Those meanings develop within social
Individuals actively construct their selfconcepts, within limits imposed by social
structures and social relationships.

self concept

is our sense of who we are as individuals

looking glass self

is the process of learning to view ourselves as we think others views us.
1. we imagine how we appear to others
2. we imagine how others judge us based on those appearances
3. we ponder, internalize, or reject these judgements

the other

I : refers to creative part of self
ME: describes part of self that responds to others expectations
we learn to function by balancing the I and ME through role taking

role taking

involves imagining ourselves in the
role of others in order to determine the criteria
others will use to judge our behavior

significant others

are the role players with
whom we have close personal relationships.

generalized other

combines the expectations of all with whom we interact

agents of socialization

All individuals, groups, and media that teach
social norms

anticipatory socialization

prepares us for the roles we will take in the future. adolescence!


Occurs when we abandon our self-concept
and way of life for a radically different one

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