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Ch.25 Quiz Text Questions
Terms in this set (67)
What accounted for the nativism of the 1920s?
With the end of the Great War, race riots and the fear of communism ushered in a wave of virulent nativism. With many "old stock" Americans fearing that many immigrants were socialists, Communists, or anarchists, Congress passed laws to restrict immigration. The revived Ku Klux Klan was devoted to "100 percent Americanism" and regarded Catholics, Jews, immigrants, and African Americans as threats to America.
What was meant by the Jazz Age?
The carefree fads and attitudes of the 1920s, perhaps best represented by the frantic rhythms of jazz music and the fast-paced, sexy movies from Hollywood, led F. Scott Fitzgerald to dub the decade the Jazz Age. The hemlines of women's dresses rose, and sex was openly discussed. The Harlem Renaissance gave voice to black literature and music, and African Americans in northern cities
felt freer to speak out against racial injustice and express pride in their race.
How did the new social trends of the 1920s challenge traditional attitudes?
Many white Americans felt that their religion and way of life were under attack by modern trends. They feared that women's newly earned right to vote might destabilize the family and that scientific scholarship would undermine biblical truth. These modern and traditional forces openly clashed at the Scopes trial in Dayton, Tennessee, in 1925, where the right to teach evolution in public schools was tested in court.
What was modernism, and how did it influence American culture?
The carnage of the Great War shattered Americans' belief in the progress of Western civilization. In the movement known as modernism, young artists and intellectuals reflected this disillusionment. For modernists, the world could no longer be easily observed through reason, common sense, and logic; instead, reality was something to be created and expressed through new artistic and literary forms, like abstract painting, atonal music, free verse in poetry, and stream-of-conscious narrative and interior monologues in stories and novels.
What replaced the idealism of the Progressive era after the experiences of World War I?
Although progressivism lost its appeal after the Great War, the Eighteenth Amendment (paving the way for Prohibition) and the Nineteenth Amendment (guaranteeing women's suffrage) marked the culmination of that movement at the national level. Reformers still actively worked for good and efficient government at the local level, but overall the drive was for a "return to normalcy"—conformity and moral righteousness.
From where were most of the immigrants coming in the 1920s at an alarming rate for most Americans?
Because of the needs of the southwestern agricultural sector, what was the fastest growing ethnic minority at the end of the 1920s?
What was the largest black political organization in the 20th century?
What became the international center of movie production?
What became the national pastime of the 1920s?
Who was the first athlete to appear on the cover of Time Magazine?
Emergency Immigration Act
Act restricting newcomers from Europe in any given year to 3% of their nationality who had been living in the United States in 1910
Immigration Act 1924
limited the number of immigrants allowed entry into the United States through a national origins quota. The quota provided immigration visas to two percent of the total number of people of each nationality in the United States as of the 1890 national census.
Italian anarchist, in the U.S. after 1908: together with Bartolomeo Vanzetti, found guilty of robbery and murder 1921; executed 1927.
United States anarchist (born in Italy) who with Nicola Sacco was convicted of murder and in spite of world-wide protest was executed (1888-1927)
William J. Simmons
the founder of the second Ku Klux Klan on Thanksgiving Night of 1915.
Ku Klux Klan
a secret organization of White Protestant Americans, mainly in the South, who use violence against Black people, Jewish people, and other minority groups.
After World War I, deep feelings of patriotism and anti-German sentiment gave rise to the 100 Percent Americanism movement. The movement celebrated all things American while it attacked ideas (and people) it viewed as foreign and/or anti-American. (
Scopes "monkey" trial
The trial of John Scopes, a high school teacher in Tennessee, for teaching the theory of evolution in violation of state law. The trial was held in 1925, with eminent lawyers on both sides — William Jennings Bryan for the prosecution and Clarence Darrow for the defense.
John T. Scopes
high school teacher in Tennessee, for teaching the theory of evolution in violation of state law.
nonpartisan, non-profit organization whose stated mission is "to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person in this country by the Constitution and laws of the United States."
American lawyer and leading member of the American Civil Liberties Union. He was among the first attorneys to be called a "labor lawyer." He also was known for defending teenaged thrill killers Leopold and Loeb, and John T. Scopes in the Scopes Monkey Trial. Early days.
William Jennings Bryan
American orator and politician from Nebraska, and a dominant force in the populist wing of the Democratic Party, standing three times as the Party's candidate for President of the United States (1896, 1900 and 1908).
Scopes monkey trial took place here
provided the enforcement apparatus for prohibition, lacing its administration with Commissioner of Prohibition under Bureau of Internal Revenue.
"Scarface" Al Capone
murderous booze distributor, who began a six years of gang warfare and gained millions of dollars
Replacement to saloons, where one could secretly go to drink alcohol
time when many people defied Prohibition, indulged in new styles of dancing and dressing, and rejected many traditional moral standards.
period in the 1920s, ending with the Great Depression, in which jazz music and dance styles became popular, mainly in the United States, but also in Britain, France and elsewhere.
Austrian neurologist and the father of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
young middle class women, seeking independence and equality, also went out more, wearing lipstick, but also wearing short dresses, rolling their stockings down, and smoking in public
feminist ideal that emerged in the late nineteenth century and had a profound influence on feminism well into the twentieth century. The term "New Woman" was coined by writer Sarah Grand in her article "The New Aspect of the Woman Question," published in the North American Review in March 1894.
term popularized during the Harlem Renaissance implying a more outspoken advocacy of dignity and a refusal to submit quietly to the practices and laws of Jim Crow racial segregation. The term "New Negro" was made popular by Alain LeRoy Locke.
relocation of more than 6 million African Americans from the rural South to the cities of the North, Midwest and West from 1916 to 1970, had a huge impact on urban life in the United States.
the flowering of African American intellectual life during the 1920's and 1930's, mainly centered in the Harlem neighborhood. Also known as the "New Negro Movement"
A leading poet of the Harlem Renaissance. He wrote "The Negro Speaks of Rivers" and "My People"
James Weldon Johnson
American author, educator, lawyer, diplomat, songwriter, and civil rights activist. Johnson is best remembered for his leadership of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), where he started working in 1917.
Claimed the "New Negro" needed black artists to help African Americans throw off subjugation and discover the race's true identity
A twentieth-century African-American jazz trumpet player and singer. His nickname, "Satchmo," was short for "Satchel Mouth."
founded the United Negro Improvement Association to promote resettlement of American blacks in their own "African homeland"
Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA)
The Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL) is a black nationalist fraternal organization founded by Marcus Mosiah Garvey.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, is a civil rights organization founded in 1909 to fight prejudice, lynching, and Jim Crow segregation, and to work for the betterment of "people of color."
As editor of the black publication "The Crisis," he publicized his disdain for Washington and was instrumental in the creation of the "Niagara Movement," which later became the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People).
Guinn v. U.S.
United States Supreme Court decision that dealt with provisions of state constitutions that set qualifications for voters. It found grandfather clause exemptions to literacy tests to be unconstitutional.
Buchanan v. Worley
United States Supreme Court case in which the Court addressed civil government instituted racial segregation in residential areas.
The first radio commercial broadcast took place here. Class A clear-channel radio station licensed in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Wilbur and Orville Wright
These brothers were bicycle mechanics from Dayton, Ohio who built and flew the first plane at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina on December 17, 1903 for 12 seconds over a distance of 120 feet. This launched the air age
Kitty Hawk NC
a village in NE North Carolina: Wright brothers' airplane flight 1903.
Charles Lindbergh Jr
first man to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean in 1927. His flight energized and gave a strong boost to the new aviation industry
an American aviation pioneer and author. Earhart was the first female aviator to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean. She received the U.S. Distinguished Flying Cross for this record.
Father of the assembly line, created the Model T and erected an immense personal empire on the cornerstone of his mechanical genius
Model T ("Tin Lizzie") Ford
"Tin Lizzie" cheap, rugged, and reasonably reliable, though rough and clattering, automobile designed by Henry Ford. It allowed for more Americans to own cars
George Herman "Babe" Ruth
Famous baseball player who played for the Yankees. He helped developed a rising popularity for professional sports
Henry Louis "Lou" Gehrig
American baseball first baseman who played 17 seasons in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the New York Yankees, from 1923 through 1939.
college and professional American football halfback for the University of Illinois, the Chicago Bears, and for the short-lived New York Yankees.
also known as "Kid Blackie" and "The Manassa Mauler", was an American professional boxer, who became a cultural icon of the 1920s.
a form of a religion, especially Islam or Protestant Christianity, that upholds belief in the strict, literal interpretation of scripture.
a movement toward modifying traditional beliefs in accordance with modern ideas, especially in the Roman Catholic Church in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
a physicist, born in Germany, who was possibly the greatest scientist of the 20th century. In 1905 he published his theory of relativity. This led to the equation giving the relationship between mass and energy, E=mc2, which is the basis of atomic energy.
theory of relativity
a theory, formulated essentially by Albert Einstein, that all motion must be defined relative to a frame of reference and that space and time are relative, rather than absolute concepts: it consists of two principal parts.
German theoretical physicist, considered to be the initial founder of quantum theory, and one of the most important physicists of the 20th Century.
the theoretical basis of modern physics that explains the nature and behavior of matter and energy on the atomic and subatomic level. The nature and behavior of matter and energy at that level is sometimes referred to as quantum physics and quantum mechanics.
German physicist who won a 1932 Nobel Prize as one of the founders of quantum mechanics. He later developed the uncertainty principle.
any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known simultaneously.
F. Scott Fitzgerald
a novelist and chronicler of the jazz age. his wife, Zelda and he were the "couple" of the decade but hit bottom during the depression. his novel THE GREAT GATSBY is considered a masterpiece about a gangster's pursuit of an unattainable rich girl.
This Side of Paradise
the debut novel of F. Scott Fitzgerald. Published in 1920, and taking its title from a line of the Rupert Brooke poem Tiare Tahiti, the book examines the lives and morality of post-World War I youth.
The Great Gatsby
novel by F. Scott Fitzgerald, recounting the rise and fall of Jay Gatsby, who lives extravagantly from bootlegging and other criminal activities. He loves a beautiful woman, Daisy, who is the cause of his downfall.
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