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Which if the following represents the sequence of events during Mitosis?
Eukaryotic chromosomes consist of?
linear DNA molecules that are complexed with positively charged histone proteins
Each nucleosome has___base pair of DNA wrapped around a disc-shaped core of eight histone molecules?
The cell cycle of a typical somatic cell consists of___ and M (mitosis or meiosis) phase?
The M( mitosis or meiosis) phase of the cell cycle involves two main processes?
mitosis and cytokinesis
Once nerve cells become mature, they dont usually undergo cell division. Based on your knowledge of the cell cycle you would predict that mature nerve cells become arrested in the___ of the cell cycle?
*note thats the number 0 as a subscribt
Which enzyme catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group away from a substrate to ADP?
phosphoglycero-kinase and pyruvate kinase
Which enzyme transfers a phosphate group from one carbon to another carbon on the same organic molecule therefore it is which of the following type of enzymes?
Which is the last enzyme of glycolysis so it is which of the following?
pyruvate kinase...Anerobic Fermentation
If a cell is in G2?
It has twice the amount of DNA present in one telophase nucleus (there are two nuclei in a telophase cell)
The _____is responsible for the separation of the chromosomes during____ of mitosis?
Sister chromatids; centromers
The kinetichore serves which of the following in functions?
Kinetochores attach to mictotubles during mitosis
All of the following events occur during prometaphase EXCEPT:
the duplicated chromosomes become invisible with the light microscope
Duplicated centrioles move to opposite poles of a dividing____cell during____of the cell cycle?
To prevent disastrous consequences, the eukaryotic cell cycle is controlled by?
a series of cell cycle checkpoints
The correct number of chromosomes is maintained during sexual reproduction by:
meiosis, which reduces the chromosome number by half
If Meiosis did not occur in sexually reproducing organisms, then?
Chromosome number would double in each generation
During prophase 1 of meiosis, homologous chromosomes lie side by side. This phenomenon is know as?
An animal with a diploid number of 36 chromosomes will have ____ chromosomes in its gametes and _____chromosomes in its somatic cells?
WHich of the following events does not occur in prophase 2?
a formation of chiasmata (no synapsis, no crossing over)
The source of genetic variation during meiosis are?
crossing over and and the random assortment of maternal and paternal chromosomes
Prokayrotic DNA Polymerase 3 catalyzes the synthesis of a strand of DNA by bonding deoxyribonucleotides to a nucleotide chane by which type of bond?
Which of the following statements best described DNA polymerase 3?
It is an enzyme that requires the presence of a small RNA primer to catalyze the additoon of deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates to the 3' hydroxyl end of the chain
Which enzyme is required to to join Okazaki fragments by catalyzing the formation of a phosphodiester bond between them during DNA replication?
which molecule is responsible for breaking hydrogen bonds to separate double -stranded DNA into single strands?
WHich of the following produces short sequences of RNA which are complementary to the template DNA in order to allow DNA polymerase to synthesize a new complementary strand of DNA?
Which of the following statements is true of membrane phospholipids?
they freely move laterally within the membrane
After eating a meal, the end products digestion are transported by the blood stream to the liver which contains a large amount of glucogen. Therefore glucose is transported from the bloodstream into liver cell by which of the following?
What is meant by the term "fluid mosaic model"of membranes?
It is the movement of lipids and integral proteins within the lipid bilayer
What is the main role of the pigment molecules within the antenna of light-harvesting complex?
absorb photons of light energy and transfer them to the reaction center chlorophyll
During noncyclic electron flow of the light reaction, which molecule is the final acceptor of the high-energy electron?
which molecule is combines with CO(2) to form 3- phosphoglycerate in the calvin cycle?
ribulose 1,5, bisphosphate (RUBP)
The first step in the calvin cycle is the attachment of carbon dioxide to which of the following?
Which of the following are products of the light dependent reactions which are required for the dark reaction?
ATP, and NADPH+H
During the first enzyme catalyazed reaction of the calvin cycle, which molecule is bonded with CO(2) to form the 3-carbon substances, 3-phosphoglycerate?
In C4 plants, PEP carboxylase catalyzed reactions that fix CO(2) into four carbon compounds occur in which of the following?
Which of the following as the highest photosynthetic efficiency in hot and dry enviornments?
What is true of succlent plants such as cacti or pineapple?
they produce 4 carbon malate in the first step of carbon fixation
When NAD is reduced to NADH+H during glycolysis under aerobic conditions and cellular respiration the pair of hydrogens are transferred from NADH+H to which of the following?
Complex 1 of the electron transport chain
In the absense of O(2) hydrogen atmos generated by glyclysis to form NADH+H are transferred to the end product of glycolysis in which of the following process?
Which of the following is the end product- of glycolysis that is produced by yeast cells grown under anaerobic conditions?
NAD and ethyl alcohol
A single glucose molecule used for cellular respiration can drive how many turns of the Kreb cycle?
Which of the following are produced when pyruvate is decarboxylated during the firs step of cellular respiration?
CO(2), NADH+H and Acetyl CoA
Which of the following are substrates for the first enzyme step of turns of the Citiric acid cycle ?
Oxaloacetate, H(2)O and Acetyl CoA
Which of the following types of enzymes catalyxes the transfer of a phosphate group from substrate molecule to ADP to form ATP?
Which of the following enzymes catalyzes the transfer of hydrogens with frutose 1,6 bisphosphate in order to split the substrate into two smaller molecules consisting of 3 carbons each?
which of the following types of enzymes catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from one carbon on an organic molecule to another carbon on the same molecule?
which of the following types of enzymes catalyze reactions that transfers hydrogens frome substrate to to NAD or NADP to reduce them to NADH+H or NADPH(2)?
What substrate is the source of the phosphate group that is transferred to glucose and in a later step frutose 6 phospate during phosphorylation enzyme reactions of stage 1 of glycolysis
How many ATP molecules are consumed during stage 1 of the glycolysis for each glucose that centers the pathway?
Which of the following enzyme catalyze the reactions that synthesize ATP during glycolysis?
Phospoglycerate kinase and pyruvate kinase
Assuming a fatty acid with 12 carbons molecule can be oxidized into acetyl CoA molecules, which are immediately used in the Citric Acid cycle how many ATP can be produced by cellular respiration from this 12 carbon fatty acid molecule ?
The primary function of an enzyme or ribozyme or any biological catayst is to do which of the following?
reduce the energy of activation and increase the rate of a reaction
WHich of the following consist of molecular machines that organizes the cell and directs cellular movement?
Which portion of the photosynthetic apparatus is involved in the oxidation or splitting of water?
light harvested by chlorophyll
During aerobic respiration the final acceptor of the hydrogen atom at the end of the electron transport chain is which of the following?
How many NADH+H molecules are produced from one glucose molecuel, considering only glycolsis and the conversion of pyruvate molecules to acetyl CoA molecules?
During one turn of the citric acid (krebs) cycle, each acetyl CoA entering the cycle yields?
1 GTP, 3 NADH and 1 FADH(2)
WHich of the following steps in the Citric Acid Cycle directly produces a molecule of ATP (or GTP)?
succinyl CoA synthesis step
How many ATP and NADH molecules are produced from each molecules of glucose in the citric acid cycle?
2 ATP, 6 NADH
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