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75 terms

Medical Terminology 7

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AN/O
Anus.
CHOL/E
Bile or gall.
CHOLECYST/O
Gallbladder.
COL/O, COLON/O
Colon.
-EMESIS
Vomiting.
ENTER/O
Small intestine.
ESOPHAG/O
Esophagus.
GASTR/O
Stomach.
HEPAT/O
Liver.
-LITHIASIS
Presence of stones.
-PEPSIA
Digestion.
-PHAGIA
Swallowing.
PROCT/O
Rectum and anus.
RECT/O
Rectum.
SIGMOID/O
Sigmoid colon
aerophagia
The excessive swallowing of air while eating or drinking, and is a common cause of gas in the stomach.
amebic dysentery
An intestinal disorder caused by a parasite.
anastomosis
A surgical connection between two hollow or tubular structures; plural, anatomoses.
anorexia nervosa
An eating disorder characterized by a false perception of body appearance that leads to a refusal to maintain a normal body weight.
antiemetic
Medication administered to prevent or relieve nausea and vomiting.
aphthous ulcers
Gray-white pits with a red border that appear in the soft tissues lining the mouth; also known as canker sores or mouth ulcers.
ascites
An abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity.
bariatrics
The branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of obesity and allied diseases.
borborygmus
The rumbling noise caused by the movement of gas in the intestine.
botulism
Food poisoning characterized by paralysis and often death; caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.
bulimia nervosa
An eating disorder characterized by episodes of binge eating followed by inappropriate compensatory behaviors, such as self-induced vomiting.
cachexia
A condition of physical wasting away due to the loss of weight and muscle mass that occurs in patients with diseases such as advanced cancer or AIDS.
cheilosis
a disorder of the lips characterized by crack-like sores at the corners of the mouth.
cholangiography
A radiographic examination of the bile ducts with the use of a contrast medium.
cholangitis
An acute infection of the bile duct.
cholecystalgia
Pain in the gallbladder.
cholecystectomy
The surgical removal of the gallbladder.
cholecystitis
Inflammation of the gallbladder; usually associated with gallstones.
choledocholithotomy
An incision into the common bile duct for the removal of gallstones.
cholelithiasis
The presence of gallstones in the gallbladder or bile ducts.
cholera
Severe diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae .
cirrhosis
A progressive degenerative disease of the liver.
colonoscopy
The direct visual examination of the inner surface of the colon, from the rectum to the cecum.
Crohn's disease
A chronic autoimmune disorder that is most often found in the ileum and in the colon.
diverticulitis
Inflammation of one or more diverticula in the wall of the colon.
diverticulosis
The presence of a number of diverticula in the wall of the colon.
dyspepsia
Pain or discomfort in digestion; also known as indigestion.
dysphagia
Difficulty in swallowing.
emesis
To expel the contents of the stomach through the esophagus and out of the mouth; also known as vomiting.
enteritis
Inflammation of the small intestine caused by eating or drinking substances contaminated with viral or bacterial pathogens.
eructation
The act of belching or raising gas orally from the stomach.
esophageal varices
Enlarged and swollen veins at the lower end of the esophagus.
esophagogastroduodenoscopy
The endoscopic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and upper duodenum.
gastroduodenostomy
The removal of the pylorus of the stomach and the establishment of an anastomosis between the upper portion of the stomach and the duodenum.
gastroesophageal reflux disease
The upward flow of acid from the stomach into the esophagus.
gastrostomy tube
The surgical placement of a feeding tube from the exterior of the body into the stomach.
hematemesis
Vomiting blood.
Hemoccult
A laboratory test for hidden blood in the stools; also known as fecal occult blood test.
hepatitis
Inflammation of the liver caused by a virus or damage from toxic substances.
herpes labialis
Blisterlike sores on the lips and adjacent tissue caused by the oral herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1); also known as cold sores or fever blisters.
hiatal hernia
The protrusion of part of the stomach through the esophageal sphincter in the diaphragm.
hyperemesis
Extreme, persistent vomiting that may lead to dehydration.
ileus
The partial or complete blockage of the small intestine, large intestine, or both caused by the cessation of intestinal peristalsis.
inguinal hernia
The protrusion of a small loop of bowel through a weak place in the lower abdominal wall or groin.
jaundice
A yellow discoloration of the skin and eyes caused by greater-than-normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood.
melena
The passage of stools with a black and tarlike appearance that is caused by the presence of digested blood.
morbid obesity
The condition of weighing two or three times, or more, the ideal weight; also known as clinically severe obesity.
nasogastric intubation
The placement of a tube through the nose and into the stomach.
obesity
An excessive accumulation of fat in the body.
periodontium
The bone and soft tissues that surround and support the teeth.
peristalsis
A series of wavelike contractions of the smooth muscles in a single direction.
proctopexy
Surgical fixation of a prolapsed rectum to an adjacent tissue or organ.
regurgitation
The return of swallowed food into the mouth.
salmonellosis
An infectious disease of the intestines that is transmitted by food contaminated with feces.
sigmoidoscopy
The endoscopic examination of the interior of the entire rectum, sigmoid colon, and possibly a portion of the descending colon.
stomatorrhagia
Bleeding from any part of the mouth.
trismus
Any restriction to the opening of the mouth caused by trauma, surgery, or radiation associated with the treatment of oral cancer.
ulcerative colitis
A chronic condition of unknown cause in which repeated episodes of inflammation in the rectum and large intestine cause ulcers and irritation.
volvulus
Twisting of the intestine upon itself, causing an obstruction.
xerostomia
The lack of adequate saliva due to the absence of or diminished secretions by the salivary glands; also known as dry mouth.