Points of Parity


Points of Difference


Demographic, Socio-cultural, Behavioral

Segmentation Bases

Positioning by type of user, Positioning by attributes, Positioning against a competitor

3 Positioning Strategies

Competitors, Social, Technological, Economic, Political & Legal

Environmental Factors

Undifferentiated, Concentrated, Multi Segmented

Types of Market

Core Product, Actual Product, Augmented Product

Product segmentation

Specialty, Convenience, Shopping, Unsought

Product Involvement

Innovators, Early Adopters, Early Majority, Late Majority, Laggards

Five Stages of Adoption

Name, Symbol and Image

What is a Brand?

Name, Logo, Character, Slogan

Brand Elements

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