There aren't enough good-paying jobs in nonwhite communities.
social interaction forces
Racial inequality is reinforced when police officers assume nonwhites are more likely to be criminals.
recurrent pattern f relationships enable and constrain us can be found in all levels of society reinforced by formal rules and/or custom 3 elements: status, role and institution
A specialized position in a group.
(good or bad) position that a person can attain for life
are fixed by birth and inheritance; ex: race, sex, age, etc..
refers to the combination of all statuses held by an individual.
Sets of norms specifying rights and obligations associated with status.
occurs when incompatible role demands develop within a single status. ex: like mothers not being able to feed kids
occurs when incompatible role demands develop because of multiple statuses. ex: working student
enduring social structures that meet basic human needs.
basic social institutions
family economy gov education religion
Each institution affects the others and is affected by them. Interdependence reinforces norms and values; adds to social stability.
structural functional theory
--Institutions allow social life to run smoothly in stable and predictable ways. Sanctified by tradition, viewed as morally right - they provide satisfaction and security.
who benefits from existing institutions? institutions support the interests of those in power help maintain inequality
types of society
hunting, fishing and gathering horticultural agricultural industrial post-industrial
hunting fishing and gathering
Those societies in which most food must be obtained by killing wild animals or finding edible plants. Simple subsistence economy does not produce surpluses. Individuals are homogenous (alike) having the same everyday experiences.
Characterized by small-scale, simple farming, without plows or large animals, settlement Began when people began to cultivate crops (first agricultural revolution).
are based on growing foods using plows and large beasts of burden
Characterized by mass production of nonagricultural goods. Arose only a few hundred years ago in Western Europe.
societies in which most people share close personal bonds.
societies in which people are tied primarily by impersonal, practical bonds.
an answer to the question What is going on here?
Identities will depend somewhat on the frame. Identity is negotiated by trying to get others to play the roles we have assigned them. Negotiation is based on power relations
A version of symbolic interaction developed by Erving Goffman, that views social institutions as scenes manipulated by the actors to convey the desired impression to the audience.
Actions and statements made to control how others view us. Consists of two general strategies: • avoiding blame • gaining credit
accounts, excuses, justifications, disclaimer
are explanations of unexpected or untoward behavior: excuses and justifications
one admits that an act is wrong, or inappropriate; claims one couldn't help it
explains reasons one had for choosing to break the rule; often an appeal to an alternate rule
verbal device used in advance toward off negative reactions to one's conduct