How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

31 terms

SOCIOLOGY

SOCIOLOGY CH. 4
STUDY
PLAY
structural forces
There aren't enough good-paying jobs in
nonwhite communities.
social interaction forces
Racial inequality is reinforced when police
officers assume nonwhites are more likely to
be criminals.
social structure
recurrent pattern f relationships
enable and constrain us
can be found in all levels of society
reinforced by formal rules and/or custom
3 elements: status, role and institution
status
A specialized position in a group.
achieved statuses
(good or bad) position that a person can attain for life
ascribed statuses
are fixed by
birth and inheritance; ex: race, sex, age, etc..
status set
refers to the
combination of all statuses held
by an individual.
roles
Sets of norms specifying
rights and obligations
associated with status.
role strain
occurs when incompatible role demands develop within a single status. ex: like mothers not being able to feed kids
role conflict
occurs
when incompatible role
demands develop
because of multiple statuses. ex: working student
institutions
enduring social structures that meet basic human needs.
basic social institutions
family
economy
gov
education
religion
institutional interdependence
Each institution
affects the others
and is affected by
them.
Interdependence
reinforces norms
and values; adds
to social stability.
structural functional theory
--Institutions allow
social life to run
smoothly in stable
and predictable ways.
Sanctified by
tradition, viewed as
morally right - they
provide satisfaction
and security.
conflict theory
who benefits from existing institutions?
institutions support the interests of those in power
help maintain inequality
types of society
hunting, fishing and gathering
horticultural
agricultural
industrial
post-industrial
hunting fishing and gathering
Those societies in which most food must be
obtained by killing wild animals or finding
edible plants.
Simple subsistence economy does not
produce surpluses.
Individuals are homogenous (alike) having
the same everyday experiences.
horticultural
Characterized by small-scale, simple farming,
without plows or large animals, settlement
Began when people began to cultivate crops
(first agricultural revolution).
agricultural
are based on growing foods using plows and large beasts of burden
industrial
Characterized by mass production of nonagricultural goods.
Arose only a few hundred years ago in Western
Europe.
gemeinshaft
societies in
which most people share
close personal bonds.
gesellschaft
societies in
which people are tied
primarily by impersonal,
practical bonds.
frame
an answer to the question What is going on here?
identity negotiation
Identities will depend somewhat on the frame.
Identity is negotiated by trying to get others to
play the roles we have assigned them.
Negotiation is based on power relations
dramaturgy
A version of symbolic
interaction developed by
Erving Goffman, that
views social institutions
as scenes manipulated
by the actors to convey
the desired impression to
the audience.
impression management
Actions and
statements made
to control how
others view us.
Consists of two
general strategies:
• avoiding blame
• gaining credit
avoiding blame
accounts, excuses, justifications, disclaimer
accounts
are explanations of unexpected or untoward behavior: excuses and justifications
excuses
one admits that an act is wrong, or inappropriate; claims one couldn't help it
justifications
explains reasons one had for choosing to break the rule; often an appeal to an alternate rule
disclaimer
verbal device used in advance toward off negative reactions to one's conduct