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of or relating to the study of the origins and development of human beings

cultural ecology

Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships.

cultural landscape

the visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape

earth system science

Systematic approach to physical geography that looks at the interaction between the earth's physical systems and processes on a global scale.

environmental geography

..., The intersection between human and physical geography, which explores the spatial impacts humans have on the physical environment and vice versa.


The head librarian at Alexandria during the third century BC; he was one of the first cartographers. Performed remarkably accurate computation of the earth's circumference. He is also credited with the term "geography"

fertile crescent

Where agriculture first began about 8,000 bc
Stretches from the nile valley to mediterranean cooast to Syria.

geographical information systems

..., A set of computer tools used to capture, store, transform, analyze, and display geographic data.

global positioning system

..., A set of satellites used to help determine location anywhere on the earth's surface with a portable electronic device.


..., Pertaining to the unique facts or characteristics of a particular place.

geeorge perkins marsh

Inventor, diplomat, politician and scholar, in his classic work Man and Nature or Physical Geography modified by human action provided the first description of the extent to which natural systems had been impacted by human actions

natural landscape

..., The physical landscape or environment that has not been affected by human activities.


..., relating to or involving the search for abstract universal principles

W. D. Pattison

He claimed that geography dew from four distinct traditions
Earth Science
locational tradition
area-analysis tradition

Physical geography

..., the study of physical features of the earth's surface


Roman geographer-astronomer and author of guide to geography which included maps containing a grid system of latitude and longitude.

qualitative data

..., Data associated with a more humanistic approach to geography, often collected through interviews, empirical observations, or the interpretation of texts, artwork, old maps, and other archives.

quantitative data

..., Data associated with mathematical models and statistical techniques used to analyze spatial location and association.

quantitative revolution

..., A period in human geography associated with the widespread adoption of mathematical models and statistical techniques.


A territory that encompasses many places that share similar attributes in comparison with the attributes of places elsewhere

remote sensing

..., The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods.

carl sauer

Geographer from the university of california at berkeley who defined the concept of cultural landscape as the fundamental unit of geographical analysis. This concept of landscape results from interaction between humans and the physical environment. Sauer argued that virtually no landscape has escaped alteration by human activities.

spatial perspective

..., observing variations in geographic phenomena across space.


..., the ability to meet humanities current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs

systematic geography

..., The study of the earth's integrated systems instead of focusing on particular phenomena in a single place.

thematic layers

Individual maps of specific features that are overlaid on one another in a Geographical Information System to understand and analyze a spatial relationship.

vernacular regions

Regions that exist only in the mind

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