A formal organization that is designed to accomplish goals and tasks through the efforts of a large number of people in the most efficient way possible.
A complex and structured secondary group that was deliberately created to achieve specific goals in an efficient manner.
A collection of attitudinal and organizational biases in the work place that prevent women from advancing to leadership positions.
A tendency of in- group members to conform without critically testing, analyzing, and evaluating ideas, that result in a narrow view of an issue.
Sets of people who share a sense of identity and "we-ness" that typically excludes and devalues outsiders.
Iron Law of Oligarchy
The tendency of a bureaucracy to become increasingly dominated by a small group of people.
People who are treated and viewed negatively because they are seen as having values, beliefs, and other characteristics different from those of an in- group.
A relatively small group of people who engage in intimate face- to- face interaction over an extended period of time.
A large, usually formal, impersonal, and temporary collection of people who pursue a specific goal or activity.
Two or more people who interact with one another and who share a common identity and a sense of belonging or "we-ness."
An organized and established social system that meets one or more of societies basic needs.
A formal organization created by people who share a common set of interests and who are not paid for their participation.
The condition in which people are unsure of how to behave because of absent, conflicting, or confusing social norms.
White- collar crimes committed by executives to benefit themselves and their companies. (AKA Organizational crimes)
Crime Control Model
An approach that holds that crime rates increase when offenders don't fear punishment.
Criminal Justice System
The government agencies- including police, courts, and prisons- that are charged with enforcing laws, passing judgement on offenders, and changing criminal behavior.
Researchers who use scientific methods to study the nature, extent, cause, and control of criminal behavior.
People learning deviance through interaction, especially with significant others.
A perspective that holds that society's reaction to behavior is a major factor in defining oneself or others as deviant.
Crimes committed in the work place by individuals acting solely on their own personal interests.
Activities of individuals and groups that supply illegal goods and services for profit.
The social control approach that holds that appropriate treatment can change offenders into productive, law- abiding citizens.
A negative label that devalues a person and changed his or her self concept and social identity.
The idea that people may engage in deviant behavior when they experience a conflict between goals and the means available to obtain those goals.
A method of gathering data that involves interviewing people about their experiences as crime victims.
Acts that violate laws but involve individuals that don't consider themselves as victims.
White- Collar Crimes
Illegal activities committed by high status individuals in the course of their occupation.
Closed Stratification System
A system in which movement from one social position to another is limited by ascribed statuses such as one's sex, skin color, and family background.
Lavish spending on goods and services to display one's social status and enhance one's prestige.
An array of direct subsidies, tax breaks, and assistance that the government has created for businesses.
Davis- Moore Thesis
The functionalist view that social stratification has beneficial consequences for a society's operations.
Moving up or down the class hierarchy relative to the position of one's parents.
The extent to which people have positive experiences and can secure the good things in life because they have economic resources.
A belief that individuals are rewarded for what they do and how well rather than on the basis of their ascribed status.
Open Stratification System
A system that is based on an individuals achievement and allows movement up or down.
The minimal level of income that the federal government considers necessary for basic subsistence.
The ability of individuals or groups to achieve goals, control events, and maintain influence over others despite opposition.
A category of people who have a similar standing or rank in a society based on wealth, education, power, prestige, and other valued resources.
The hierarchical ranking of people in a society who have different access to different resources, such as property, prestige, power, and status.
An overall ranking of a persons position in the class hierarchy based on income, education, and occupation.
People who are persistently poor and seldom employed, segregated residentially, and relatively isolated from the rest of the population.
The money and other economic assets that a person or family owns, including property and income.
People who work at least 27 weeks a year but receive such low wages that they live in or near poverty.
Gender Pay Gap
The overall income difference between women and men in the work place. (AKA the wage gap)
The characteristics, attitudes, feelings, and behaviors that society expects of females and males.
People's unequal access to wealth, power, status, prestige, and other valued resources as a result of their sex.
The belief that heterosexuality is superior to and more natural than homosexuality or bisexuality.
An attitude or behavior that discriminates against one sex, usually females based on the assumed superiority of the other sex.
Any unwanted sexual advance, request for sexual favors, or other conduct of a sexual nature that makes a person uncomfortable and interferes with his or her work.
A preference for sexual partners of the same sex, of the opposite sex, or of both sexes.
Specifies the formal and informal norms for legitimate or unacceptable sexual activity, which individuals are eligible sexual partners, and the boundaries of sexual behavior.
A process of conforming to the culture of the dominant group and intermarrying with that group.
The idea that the more people get to know members of a minority group personally, the less likely they are to be prejudice against that group.
Any physically or culturally distinctive group that has the most economic and political power, the greatest privileges and the highest social class.
A set of people who identify with a common national origin or cultural heritage that includes language, geographic routes, food, customs, traditions, and or religion.
The belief that one's own culture, society, or group is inherently superior to others.
The systematic effort to kill all members of a particular ethnic, religious, political, racial, or national group.
Harmful action directed intentionally, on a one- to- one basis by a member of a dominant group against a minor of a minority group.
Unequal treatment and opportunities that members of a minority group experience as a result of the everyday operations of a society's law, rules, policies, practices, and customs.
A group of people who may be subject to differential and unequal treatment because of their physical, cultural, or other characteristics, such as gender, sexual orientation, religion, ethnicity, or skin color.
A group of people who share physical characteristics, such as skin color and facial features, that are passed on through reproduction.
Racial- Ethnic Group
A group of people who have both distinctive physical and cultural characteristics.
An economic system in which the ownership of the means of production is in private hands.
An approach that examines the ways in which groups disagree, struggle over power, and compete for scarce resources.
Division of Labor
An interdependence of different tasks and occupations, characteristic of industrialized societies, that produce social unity and facilitate change.
Information that is based on observations, experiments, or experiences rather than on ideology, religion, or intuition.
Approaches that try to explain the social, economic, and political position of women in a society.
An approach that maintains that society is a complex system of interdependent parts that work together to ensure a societies survival.
Functions that are unintended and unrecognized; they are present but not immediately obvious.
The study of large- scale patterns and processes that characterize society as a whole.
Functions that are intended and recognized; they are present and clearly evident.
The study of small scale patterns of individuals social interaction in specific settings.
A micro- level perspective that looks at individuals everyday behavior through the communication of knowledge, ideas, beliefs, and attitudes.
Separating one's personal values, opinions, ideology, and beliefs from scientific research.
Data collection method that systematically examines examples of some form of communication.
The group of subjects in an experiment who are not exposed to the independent variable.
Reasoning that begins with a theory, prediction, or general principle that is then tested through data collection.
Research that uses all of the standard data collection techniques to assess the effectiveness of social programs in both the public and private sectors.
A carefully controlled artificial situation that allows researchers to manipulate variables and measure the effects.
The group of subjects in an experiment who are exposed to the independent variable.
A statement of a relationship between two or more variables that researchers want to test.
Reasoning that begins with a specific observation, followed by data collection and the development of a general conclusion or theory.
A sample for which little or no attempt is made to get a representative cross section of the population.
Any well- defined group of people or things about whom researchers want to know something.
A sample for which each person has an equal chance of being selected because the selection is random.
Research that focuses on a numerical analysis of peoples responses or specific characteristics.
A group of people or things that are representative of the population that researchers wish to study.
The steps in the research process that include careful data collection, exact measurement, accurate recording and analysis of the findings, thoughtful interpretation of the results, and when appropriate, a generalization of the findings to a larger group.
A systematic method for collecting data from respondents including questionnaires, face- to- face or telephone interviews, or a combination of these.
A group or category of people who deliberately oppose and reject some of the basic beliefs, values, and norms of the dominant culture.
The influence or domination of the cultural values and products of one's society over those of another.
The consistency of various aspects of a society, which promotes order and stability.
The recognition that no culture is better than another and that a culture should be judged by its own standards.
The learned and shared behaviors, beliefs, attitudes, values, and material objects that characterize a particular group or society.
A sense of confusion or uncertainty that accompanies exposure to an unfamiliar way of life or environment.
Norms that members of a society look upon as not being critical and may be broken without severe punishment.
Formal rules about behavior that are defined by a political authority that has the power to punish violators.
Norms that members of a society consider very important because they maintain moral and ethical behavior.
The coexistence of several cultures in the same geographic area, without any one culture dominating another.
The shared set of meaning that people in a society use to interpret and understand the world.
The beliefs, practices, activities, and products that are widely shared among a population in everyday life.
A group of people that has lived and worked together long enough to become an organized population and to think of themselves as a social unit.
A group or category of people whose distinctive ways of thinking, feeling, and acting differ somewhat from those of the larger society.
Anything that stands for something else and has a particular meaning for people who share a culture.
The standards by which members of a particular culture define what is good or bad, moral or immoral, beautiful or ugly.
Agents of Socialization
The individuals, groups, or institutions that teach us what we need to know to participate effectively in society.
A term used by George Herbert Mead to refer to people who do not have close ties to a child but who influence a child's interalization of society's norms and values.
The process of providing information and cues to others to present oneself in a favorable light while downplaying or concealing one's less appealing qualities.
The process of learning cultural behaviors and expectations so deeply that we assume they are correct and accept them without question.
A process of unlearning old ways of doing things and adopting new attitudes, values, norms, and behavior.
The people who are important in one's life, such as parents or other primary caregivers and siblings.
Social Learning Theories
Approaches whose central notion is that people learn new attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors through social interaction, especially during childhood.
The life long process of social interaction in which the individual acquires a social identity and ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that are essential for effective particpation in a society.
A theoretical approach that applies biological principles to explain the behavior of animals, including human beings.
Places where people are isolated from the rest of society, stripped of their former identities, and required to conform to new rules and behavior.
A social position that a person attains through personal effort or assumes voluntarily.
A technique that examines social interaction as if occuring on a stage where people play different roles and act out scenes for the audiences with whom they interact.
The study of how people construct and learn to share definitions of reality that make everyday interactions possible.
The frusterations and uncertainties a person experiences when confronted with the requirements of two or more statuses.
Self- Fulfilling Prophecy
A situation where if we define something as real and act upon it, it can, in face, become real.
Social Exchange Theory
The perspective whose fundamental premise is that any social interactio between two people is based on each person trying to maximize rewards and minimize punishments.
The conflict or tension that arises from occupying social positions that are ranked differently.
A political system in which the state controls the lives of citizens but generally permits some degree of individual freedom.
Authority based on exceptional individual abilities and characteristics that inspire devotion, trust, and obedience.
A political system in which, ideally, citizens have control over the state and its actions.
A representative of a special- interest group who tries to influence political decisions on the groups behalf.
A political system in which power is allocated solely on the basis of heredity and passed from generation to generation.
Political Action Committee (PAC)
A special- interest group set up to raise money to elect a candidate to public office.
An organization that tries to influence and control government by recruiting, nominating, and electing its members to public office.
A social process through which individuals and groups acquire an exercise power and authority.
Rational- Legal Authority
Authority based on the belief that laws and appointed or elected political leaders are legitimate.
Special- Interest Group
A voluntary and organized association of people that attempts to influence public policy and policy makers on a particular issue.
People who don't expect their jobs to last or who say that their jobs are temporary.
A social entity that has legal rights, privileges, and liabilities apart from those of its members.
A process of social and economic change due to the reduction of industrial activity, especially manufactoring.
Unemployed people who want a job and have looked for work in the proceeding year but have not searched in the past 4 weeks because they have given up.
A social insitution that determines how a society produces, distributes, and conosumes goods and services.
The growth and spread of investment, trade, production, communication, and new technology around the world.
A situation in which the same people serve on the boards of directors of several companies or corporations.
An economic and political system based on the principle of the public ownership of the production of goods and services.
A corporation that owns a collection of different companies in various industries in a number of countries.
A large company that is based in one country but operates across international boundaries.
People who have part- time jobs but want full- time work or whose jobs are below their experience and education level.
Proposes that many older people remain engaged in numerous roles and activities, including work.
Young adults who have moved back into their parents home after living independently for a while or who never leave it in the first place.
A wide range of behaviors that place a child at serious risk, including physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional mistreatment.
An arrangement in which two unrelated people are not married but live together and have a sexual relationship.
Posits that older adults can substitute satisfying new roles for those they've lost.
Any knowing, intentional, or negligent act by a caregiver or any other person that causes harm to people aged 65 or older.
A family consisting of parents and children as well as other kin, such as uncles and aunts, nieces and nephews, cousins, and grandparents.
An intimate group consisting of two or more people who: 1) live together in a committed relationship, 2) care for one another and any children, 3) share close emotional ties and functions.
Cultural norms and laws that forbid sexual intercourse between close blood relatives, such as brothers and sisters, father and daughter, or uncle and niece.
A process in which prospective spouses compare the assets and liabilities of eligible partners and choose the best available mate.
Matriarchal Family System
The oldest females control culture, political, and economic resources and, consequently, have power over males.
No- Fault Divorce
State laws the do not require either partner to establish guilt or wrongdoing on the part of the other to ge a divorce.
A form of family consisting of married parents and their biological or adopted children.
Patriarchal Family System
The oldest men control culture, political, and economic resources and, consequently, have power over females.
People in middle generations who care for their own children as well as their aging parents.
A household in which two adults are married or living together and at least one of them has a child.
Self- governing public schools that have signed an agreement with their state government to improve students education.
An emphasis on certificates or degrees to show that people have certain skills, education attainment levels, or job qualifications.
A social institution that transmitts attitudes, knowledge, beliefs, values, norms, and skills to its members through formal, systematic training.
School practices that transmit nonacademic knowledge, values, attitudes, norms, and beliefs which legitimize economic inequality and fill unequal work roles.
Teaching children in the home as an alternative to enrolling them in a public or private elementary, middle, or high school.
Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
An index of an individuals performance on a standardized test relative to the performance level of others of the same age.
A public school that is typically small and offers students a distinctive program and specialized curriculum in a particular area, such as business, science, the arts, or technology.
Assigning students to specific educational programs and classes based on the basis of test scores, previous grades, or perceived ability.
Public funded payments that parents can apply toward tuition or fees at a public or private school of their choice.
A religious leader whom followers see as having exeptional or superhuman powers and qualities.
A religious group that is devoted to beliefs and practices that are outside of those accepted in mainstream society.
A subgroup within a religion that shares its name and traditions and is generally on good terms with the main group.
A belief that hard work, diligence, self- denial, frugality, and economic success will lead to salvation in the afterlife.
A social institution that involves shared beliefs, values, and practices based on the supernatural and unites believes into a community.
Anything that people see as mysterious, awe- inspiring, extraordinary and powerful, holy, and not part of the natural world.
The term sociologists use instead of profane to charcterize worldly rather than spiritual things.