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Structures, Processes, Responses of Protist, Fungi, and Plants
Terms in this set (96)
are organisms that are classified into the Kingdom Protista
Common characteristics of all protist
-usually single celled organisms
-live in moist environments
-vary in the ways they move and obtain energy
Animal-like protist obtain their energy by:
ingest or absorb food after capturing or trapping it
Plant-like protist obtain their energy by:
producing food through photosynthesis
Fungus-like protist obtain their energy by:
external digestion either as decomposers or as parasites
Three main ways protist move (locomotion)
a long whip-like tail used to move and/or catch food
small hair-like projections on the surface (cell membrane) of the cell used to sweep food into mouth-structures and/or beat them in rhythm to move.
(false foot) a finger-like projection of the cell membrane and cytoplasm used to catch food and/or movement
An example of a flagellated protist
An example of a ciliated protist
An example of a protist with pseudopod
are classified into the Kingdom Fungi
Example of fungi found with the Kingdom Fungi
-microorganisms (yeast and mold)
3 main ways Fungi obtain energy :
Fungi that get their energy from decaying organic matter
Fungi that feed on other living organisms (host) and harm the host
Fungi that feed on other living organisms (host) but do NOT harm the host
in many cases the host benefits from the fungi
Fungi can be categorized based on
their fruiting structures (structures for reproduction and spore dispersal)
How do fungi ensure survival within their environment?
-fungi are able to respond to information from their environment to ensure survival of the organisms. (Respond to stimuli from the environment)
-in early development, many fungi species will grow in response to light
-in early development, many fungi species will grow away from gravity
As the fungal species mature they:
tend to display negative gravitropism
instead of a root system, fungi use:
- are long fibrous strands that allow the fungus to obtain water and nutrients
Hyphal growth is greatly influenced by
stimuli and will grow toward a food source, water, or even toward reproductive units of other fungi
Collectively, a mass of hyphae are referred to as
Plants are classified into two major groups based on their internal structures:
-have well-developed system for transporting water and food (they have roots, stems, and leaves)
-have tube-like structures that provide support and help circulate water and food throughout the plant
-transport water and minerals from the roots to the rest of the plant
-transport food from the leaves to the rest of the plant
example of vascular plants
-many shrubs with woody stems that grow very tall and grasses
-tomato plants with soft stems.
-do NOT have a well-developed system for transporting water and food
-do NOT have true roots, stems, or leaves
nonvascular plants must obtain nutrients how:
directly from the environment and distribute it from cell to cell throuhgtout the plant.
most nonvascular plant grow small in size and close to the ground because
of how nonvascular plants obtain nutrients
examples of nonvascular plants
nonvascular plant size
-plants are not very large
-all parts must be near their water source
vascular plant size
-plants can be up to 300 ft tall
-parts can be distant from water source
What processes are necessary for the survival of all plants?
-the process by which plants make their own food (simple sugar) for survival
plant cells require 3 things to undergo photosynthesis
-found in the cells of the leaf
-absorbs light energy from the sun
a green pigment found inside chloroplast
Step 1:Process of photosynthesis
-chloroplasts absorbs light energy from the sun
Step 2: Process of photosynthesis
-carbon dioxide is taken in through the stomatas on the leaf and water is absorbed through the roots
Step 3: Process of photosynthesis
-glucose (simple sugar) and oxygen gas are produced
During photosynthesis what do plants use the glucose and oxygen gas they produced for
-use glucose for food
-use oxygen gas released into the air through the stomata
pores (openings) found on the leaf
Photosynthesis provides what to the atmosphere
oxygen gas that most living organisms need
glucose created through photosynthesis is used to provide
energy needed by the plants to perform life functions such as growing and repairing
for plants to obtain energy from the food they produce
plants must undergo the processes of respiration
the break down of sugar in the cells throughout the plant
What do cells required to undergo respiration?
Step 1: Process of Respiration
oxygen gas from the air (taken in through the stomata) combines with the glucose, which is then broken down producing carbon dioxide and water
Step 2: Process of Respiration
energy is released and used by plants to perform life functions such as growth and repair
Step 3: Process of Respiration
the carbon dioxide gas and water that are formed are then given off through the stomata in the leaves
Why do organisms undergo respiration?
to release energy from food
Process of Transpiration
the process in which plants lose water through the leaves.
Step 1: Process of Transpiration
some of the water taken in through the roots of plants is use for photosynthesis and some is stored inside of the plants cells
Step 2: Process of Transpiration
guard cells open and close the stomata and allow plants to control transpiration
open and close the stomata
When the stomata on the leaves are closed
water cannot escape from the leaf
The reactants of an equation are...
at the beginning of the reaction (left side of the arrow)
The products of an equation are..
the substances that are formed (right side of the arrow)
Structural Adaptations for Defences
protect plants from threats that could potentially kill the plant
Example of a natural defense for some plants
-thorns that defend the plant from being eaten
Example of a natural defense for some plants
-fruits and leaves with poisons so that they are not eaten by animals
Example of a natural defense for some plants
-the ability to close its leaves when touched
- a plants ability to close its leaves when they are touched
Structural Adaptations for Survival
plants have structures that allow them to survive in their habitats when conditions are NOT suitable
Examples of part of flowering plants that function for survival may be:
What is the function of the leaves as a means for plant survival?
-leaves function as the site of photosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration in plants.
What is the function of the stems as a means for plant survival?
-stems support that plant and hold the leaves up to the light
-the stems are food storage sites
The stems of plant provide what two forms of transport..
xylem and phloem
What is the function of the roots as a means for plant survival?
-roots help anchor that plant in the ground
-roots absorb water and nutrients from the soil and store extra food for the plants.
What allow seeds to be dispersed by wind, water, or animals?
their special structures
How does the seed coat protect the embryo?
keeps it from being injury and from drying out
What are the two types of roots?
fibrous roots and taproots.
consist of several main roots that branch off to form a mass of roots. Examples are
grass, corn, and some trees.
consist of one large, main root with smaller roots branching off. Examples are carrots,
dandelions, or cacti.
Parts of the flowering plant that function in reproduction include:
flowers, stamen, pistil, and seed
-contain both male and female organs needed to produce new flowers.
-petals are often colorful or have a scent to attract insects and other animals.
-The male organ of a flower that has an anther on a stalk (filament).
-The anther produces the pollen that contains the sperm cells.
-part of the male organ of a flower that produced the pollen that contains the sperm cells
- The female organ of the flower that contains the ovary, stigma, and style
-part of the female organ of a flower which contains the ovules where the egg cells are produced.
-part of the female organ of a flower that is the sticky top where pollen grains land
-part of the female organ of a flower that is a stalk down which the pollen tube grows after pollination has taken place
-The ovule that contains the fertilized egg (embryo) from which new plants are formed.
How are the cells of fungi similar to the cells of plants?
they have a cell wall
Kingdom that contains single-celled organisms without a nucleus that lives in soil, water, and animals
Kingdom that contains plantlike organisms that lacks chlorophyll
Kingdom that contains microscopic organisms that have a nucleus
Kingdom that contains many-celled organisms that can NOT make their own food
Kingdom that contains many-celled organisms that makes their own food
Kingdom that contains single-celled organisms without a nucleus that lives in extremely harsh environments
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