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The study of structural and functional manifestations of disease


Any abnormal disturbance of the function or structure of the human body


Objective manifestation of disease perceptible to the managing physician


Subjective evidence of a disease as perceived by the patient


General term used to describe the various types of cellular change that can occur in response to a disease


Group of signs and symptoms that occur together and characterize a specific abnormal disturbance


The study of the cause and origin of disease


The name of a disease an individual is believed to have


Tthe prediction of course and outcome for a given disease


Having no identifiable causative factor


Sequence of events producing cellular changes that ultimately lead to observable changes known as manifestation


The condition or quality of being pathogenic; the ability to cause disease


The ease with which an organism can overcome body defenses; specifically, the disease-evoking severity of a pathogen.


Tthe quick onset of disease that lasts a short period of time (i.e. pneumonia)


The slow presentation of disease that lasts a very long time (i.e. multiple sclerosis)


Six categories of disease

-Congenital and Hereditary


Diseases present at birth and result from genetic or environmental factors.

-May be acquired in utero (within the uterus) from maternal infections, radiation or drugs.
-A major category is caused by abnormalities in the number and distribution of chromosomes.
-Occur sporadically and cannot generally be recognized before birth.


Diseases caused by developmental disorders genetically transmitted from either parent to child through abnormalities of individual genes in chromosomes.



-Derived from ancestors

Genetic abnormality present on one of the other 22 human chromosomes

Autosomal inheritance

Transmitted by a single gene from either parent


Transmitted by both parents to an offspring


Inherited disease may be either....

Dominant or Recessive

Typically guided by ultrasound, is a standard used (prenatally) to assess presence of certain hereditary disorders


Disease that results from the body's reaction to a localized injurious agent.

Inflammatory Disease

Results from invasion by microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi)


Results from poisoning by biologic substances


An overreaction of the body's own defense


Types of inflammatory disease


Diseases associated with antibodies that normally form to fight foreign antigens (toxic substances, proteins, bacterial particles) but instead form against and injure a patient's own tissues. These antibodies are called auto antibodies

Autoimmune disorders:

-General process nonspecific to the agent causing the injury.
-The purpose is to localize the injurious agent and prepare for subsequent repair and healing of the injured tissues.

Inflammatory Reaction

Cellular necrosis (cell death) is common. Characteristics include heat, redness, swelling, pain, and some loss of function; body temperature may elevate

Acute Inflammatory Reaction

-Damage caused by injurious agent may not result in tissue death.
-Conditions lasting for long periods.

Chronic Inflammatory Reaction

Damaged tissue is replaced by new tissue

Tissue regeneration

Removal of dead cells and materials; cell migration and replication - migration of adjacent cells into the injured area and replication of the cells via mitosis to fill the void in the tissue


Occurs in response to normal use of tissue


Inflammatory process caused by a disease-causing organism



-Pathogens invades, multiplies, and causes injurious effects
-The infection is usually accompanied by inflammation

-Deterioration of the body
-Associated with the aging process, may exist in younger patients after traumatic injury
-Aging results form gradual maturation of physiologic processes that reach a peak, then fades to point where body can no longer survive

Degenerative Disease

-Environmental factors

Factors affecting rate of age

What abilities of tissues decrease over time because of what of two reasons:

-Reduced cell numbers
-The function of each individual cell declines

Three diseases that are commonly associated with aging process


Deposits of plaque that form in the walls of arteries


Demineralization of bone


Produces gradual deterioration of joint cartilage.


Diseases caused by a disturbance of the normal physiologic function of the body

Metabolic Disease

Metabolic disorders

Include endocrine disorders

Secretes hormones into the bloodstream to regulate various metabolic functions.

Endocrine glands

-Pancreatic islets

Major endocrine glands:

Include fluid and electrolyte balance disturbances

Metabolic disorders

Caused by insufficient intake or excessive loss of water. The most common disturbance of fluid balance


Mineral salts (most commonly sodium and potassium) dissolved in the body's water. Depletion of them may occur from vomiting, diarrhea or diuretics (substances that promote excretion of salt water).


-Mechanical forces such as crushing or twisting body part or from effects of ionizing radiation on the human body.
-Extreme hot or cold temperatures such as burns or frostbite.
-Bone injury resulting in fracture

Traumatic disease

Injury of soft parts associated with rupture of the skin


What may be injured even if skin is unbroken?

Soft tissues

Bleeding into the tissue space as a result of capillary rupture.

Bruise (contusion)

Diseases that result in new, abnormal tissue growth.

Neoplastic Disease

Overgrowth of cells due to the malfunction of mechanisms that control cell growth


Localized , noninvasive

Benign neoplasm

Continues to grow, spread and invade other tissues. Generally referred to as cancer

Malignant neoplasm

Sometimes is difficult to classify abnormal cells as either _______because they may exhibit both types.

Benign or malignant

The spread of malignant cancer cells


Cancerous cells invade the circulatory system and spread via blood vessels

Hematogenous spread

Spread via lymphatic system

Lymphatic spread

Spread into surrounding tissue due to close proximity


Cancerous cells travel to distant site or distant organ systems


Cancer type derived from epithelial tissue


Arises from connective tissue


Arises from blood cells


Arises from lymphatic cells


Are cancer and carcinoma are synonymous?


A general term often used to denote various types of malignant neoplasms.



Fibrous tissue








-blood vessels



What are primary treatment modalities for cancer?

Surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy

Genetic abnormality present on one of the two human sex chromosomes

Sex-linked inheritance

A discontinuity of bone caused by mechanical forces either applied to the bone or transmitted directly along the line of a bone


-diagnose fracture or dislocation
-healing and any possible complications of fractures

What are the purposes in the evaluation of skeletal truma in Radiography?

Radiographs of the long bones should demonstrate the joint _____the area of trauma

Above and below

If a fracture is placed in a cast, the exposure factors must be increased to ____________, dry or wet plaster cast. However, no adjustment needs to be made for dry fiberglass.

Penetrate the wet fiberglass

Fractures usually appear as a ______?

Radiolucent line

Refers to a tissue or material that transmits x-rays and appears dark on a radiograph.


Occasionally, a fracture appears as a ___________ if the fragments overlap

Radiopaque line

Refers to a tissue or material that absorbs x-rays and appears bright on a radiograph.


Another radiographic indication of fracture is a __________, seen by a break in the normal bony contour.

Step in the cortex

1) Neurovascular damage
2) Capsular and ligamentous tears
3) Cartilage injury
4) Hemarthroses (blood in joints)

Skeletal trauma usually causes significant soft tissue injuries, including:

Bone tissue is unique in its ability to repair itself in that it reactivates processes that normally occur during______.



The phase of prenatal development involved in establishment of the characteristic configuration of the embryonic body

Initial break is filled with _____.

Blood clot

Within ____days, osteoblasts begin to appear around injured bone


What begins to form one week after a fracture?

Provisional callus

Rsults in bony callus replacement, which rigidly unites the fracture site

Calcium buildup

Unites within 4-6 weeks


The bone has penetrated the skin



The skin is not penetrated

one fractured bone end is jammed into the cancellous tissue of another fragment


fracture of the proximal femur located between the greater and lesser trochanters. This is not the same thing as a femoral neck fracture, which occurs above the intertrochanteric.



a fracture of the distal end of the humerus or femur located above the condylar region.


a fracture through the condyles of the humerus or femur

Comminuted fractures

The bone is essentially splintered or crushed at the site of impact resulting in two or more fragment

fragments split off or located on each side of a main fragment; any of the fragments can have a wedge-shaped appearance resembling the wings of a butterfly

Butterfly fracture

Splintered fracture

Thin, sharp fragments

Non-comminuted (complete) fractures

The bone has separated into two fragments. There are three types

There are three types of Non-comminuted (complete) fractures:


fracture line is at near right angle to the long axis of the bone


the fracture spirals around the longaxis(helical); usually results from a twisting injury


(in which the fracture line passes
through the bone at an oblique angle


occur when a fragment of bone is pulled away from the shaft

Avulsion fractures

Fractures in which only part of the bony structure gives way, with little or no displacement

Incomplete fractures

The cortex breaks on one side of the bone without separation or breaking of the opposite cortex. Found almost exclusively in infants and children under the age of 10 years

Greenstick fracture

is a greenstick fracture in which the cortex bulges outward. Sometimes called a buckle fracture. Commonly occurs in the radius or ulna

Torus fracture:

a fracture of the fifth metacarpal neck (occasionally the fourth) as a result of a blow to or with the hand.

Boxer's fracture

a fracture of the distal radius with the distal fragment usually displaced or angled posteriorly on the shaft (dorsal). Results from a fall on an outstretched arm. reverse Colles' fracture is a Smith fracture with displacement of the fragment toward the palmar (anterior) aspect of the hand

Colles' fracture

a fracture that occurs at the base of the first metacarpal and includes posterior dislocation. Occurs when the thumb is forced backward while in partial flexion and is commonly seen in basketball players and skiers

Bennett fracture

a fracture of the proximal third of the ulnar shaft, with anterior dislocation of the radial head

Monteggia's fracture

a complete fracture that involves both malleoli, with dislocation of the ankle joint

Pott's fracture

results when a bone is out of its joint and not in contact with its normal articulation


Most commonly dislocated anteriorly. The major causes are trauma, seizure disorders, and electric shock


Radiographic indications of shoulder dislocations are readily detectable because the humeral head is seen where?

below the glenoid fossa and coracoid process

With trauma, the femoral head is commonly displaced posteriorly to lie against the sciatic notch

Hip dislocation

-Usually bilateral
-Recognized by a shortening of the extremity

Congenital hip dislocation

Separations of the AC joints. More common in children than adults

Acromioclavicular joints

a partial dislocation, often occurring with a fracture


bone death resulting from inadequate blood supply

Avascular necrosis

Avascular necrosis

Most common in men 30-60 years of age

1) Most common fracture site is at the angles.
2) Patient cannot open their mouth.
3) Radiograph must view the entire mandible
slowest healing bone in the body

Mandible fracture

separation of the maxilla from the base of the skull

Horizontal (LeFort I)

verticle fracture through the maxilla at the malar and nasal bones

Pyramidal (LeFort II)

extends across the orbits and results in separation of the visceral and cerebral cranium

Transverse LeFort III)

orbital floor fracture just above the maxillary sinuses, resulting from a direct blow to the front of the orbit. Radiographic appearance is possible disruption of bony cortex

Blowout fractures

the zygomatic or malar bone is
fractured at all three sutures: frontal, temporal, and maxillary

Tripod fracture

Most frequently fractured facial bone. May be accompanied by a fracture of the nasal septum. A nose bleed is usually present

Nasal bone fracture

-Direct Trauma
-Hyperextension/flexion injuries (whiplash)
-The most common condition is generalized back pain, typically in the lumbar area.

Causes of vertebral (spinal injuries)

Most frequent type of injury involving a vertebral body.

Compression fractures

Compression fractures

The most common sites: T11-T12 and T12-L1

a fracture of the arch of C2.

Hangman's fracture (traumatic spondylosis)

when either anterior or posterior column is fractured or dislocated


when both columns are involved in the injury.


must include all seven vertebrae in their entirety, including spinous processes and intervertebral disk spaces. This may require assistance to depress the patient's shoulders or the use of the specialized cervicothoracic lateral projection.

lateral cervical radiograph

-Size, shape, and alignment
-Position and integrity of C2 odontoid process
-Facet joints
-Relationship of C1 to occipital bone
-The alignment of the spinolaminal lines

Trauma C-Spine radiographs are analyzed to evaluate

plays a vital role in the diagnosis and treatment of vertebral fractures and dislocations


may be used to evaluate the extent of
ligamentous and soft tissue injury


If patient is recumbent or semi-recumbent, the heart appears to be_________. This is due to the abdominal organs pushing the diaphragm and heart upwards inside the thoracic cavity.


At least __ posterior ribs should be visible in the lung fields


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