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Pharm1 - Block3 - PNS general

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Most of the viscera is controlled by both divisions of the _______
ANS (PNS and SNS)
PNS activity results in _______ heart rate
SNS activity results in _______ heart rate
reduced
increased
PNS has what effect on vision
SNS has what effect on vision
Miosis
Mydriasis
PNS has what result on GI motility
SNS has what result on GI motility
Increased
Decreased
PNS has what effect on urination
SNS has what effect on urination
Increased
Decreased
Example of an organ system only innervated by one component of the SNS
Vascular (by SNS only)
Example of an organ that relies on both PNS and SNS to function normally
Penis (PNS --> erection, SNS --> ejaculation)
When a system is dominantly innervated by one component of the ANS, if you block both components, what is the overall result
The outcome will appear as if only the dominant innervation had been blocked

(ex. is ganglionic blockers)
If an organ is dually innervated by the PNS and SNS, blocking one or the other will result in
The other becoming temporarily dominant

(ex. administration of atropine in an elderly male results in blocking the PNS and retention of urine in a man that otherwise may already have BPH, thus worsening the condition and prventing urination completely)
Effect of _________ on the eye:
Loss of accomodation
Loss of pupil constriction
Mydriasis
Atropine
Preganglionic SNS and PNS nerves both rely on what neurotransmitter
ACh
Postganglionic SNS nerves rely on what neurotransmitters
NE (mostly)
ACh
Postganglionic PNS nerves rely on what neurotransmitters
ACh
Drugs which interract with Nicotinic receptors, do so primarily at what location
Neuromuscular Junction
Adrenal Medulla
Autonomic Ganglia
The PNS Muscarinic receptors will be sensitive to what neurotransmitter
ACh
The SNS alpha and beta receptors will be sensitive to what neurotransmitters
NE
E
The SNS muscarinic receptors (ex. sweat glands) will be sensitive to what neurotransmitter
ACh
Preganglionic nerves of the SNS innervate the Adrenal Medulla with ACh released onto which receptors
Nictonic
The Adrenal Medulla maked which neurotransmitters for the SNS
NE : E
80% : 20%
Disease --> reduced NE w/ increased E from Adrenal Medulla
Pheochromocytoma

(reduced production of NE from E is a component of the disease)
Of the two components of the ANS, which is more widely distributed throughout the body
SNS
SNS plays no role in which intraoccular eye muslce
Ciliary muscle

(so no drug which interracts with SNS receptors will have any effect on accomodation of the eye)
Synthesizes Acetylcholine
Choline Acetyltransferase
Process of ACh release is by
Ca++ ions --> exocytosis
Inactivation of ACh in the neuromuscular junction
Acetylcholinesterase (ACh-ase)
Inhibition of ACh inactivation
ACh-ase inhibitors
Inactivation of ACh in locations other than neuromuscular junction
Butyryl Transferase
Butyryl Transferase is located in
Liver
Intestine
Plasma
ACh-ase hydrolyses ACh into Acetate and Choline, so that Choline may be
Reuptaken by presynaptic neuron and reused
Nicotinic muscular receptors are only in the neuromuscular junction, while Nicotinic Nerveous receptors are located where
Autonomic Ganglia
Adrenal Medulla
Nicotinic receptors are ligand gated cation channels for
Na+/K+
M1 receptors are located in which organs
Autonomic Ganglia
CNS
When M1 receptors open, what biochemistry results
^PLC --> ^IP3 and DAG --> ^Ca++ entry
M2 receptors are located in which organs
Heart, heart, heart
When M2 receptors open, what biochemistry results
dec Adenylyl Cylcase --> dec cAMP --> K+ channels open --> K+ exit
M3 receptors are located in which organs
Smoo Musc
Endothelium
Sweat/lacrimal glands
When M3 receptors open, what biochemistry results
^PLC --> ^IP3 and DAG --> ^Ca++ entry
Large dose of ACh applied to M2 in heart -->
Dec heart rate
Dec conduction
Low dose of ACh --> what impact on M3 receptors in vessles
Nitric Oxide release --> Vasodilation
Vasodilation --> what changes in heart function
Baroreceptor reflex --> ^ heart rate
Low dose of ACh --> M3 receptors in bronchus --> ?
Constriction
Increased secretion
Vasodilation is mediated by Nitric Oxide when arginine is transformed into NO via Nitric Oxide Synthase. NO is used as a substrate for Guanylyl Cyclase in smoo musc for what reaction
GTP --> cGMP
cGMP production in smoo musc results in
Smoo musc relaxation and vasodilation
Smoo musc relaxation and vasodilation results in decreased blood flow to heart and
reflex tachycardia
ACh in the GI agonizes which receptor
M3
ACh in GI on M3 -->?
^ tone and peristalsis
^ GI gland and lacrimal gland decretion
Sphincter relaxation
ACh in bladder agonizes which receptor
M3
ACh in bladder on M3 -->
Detrussor relaxation
Trigone and sphincter relaxation
Diarrhea and Micturation due to which neuro-trans in which locations
ACh in GI and bladder on M3
ACh in eye agonizes which receptor
M3
ACh in eye on M3 --> ?
Miosos
Accommodation (fixed near vision)
Accomodation (for near vision) occurs when
Ciliary muscle contracts --> zonule fibers relax --> lens bulges
Muscarinic blocker in eye on M3 -> ?
Mydriasis
Accommodation (fixed far vision)