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Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Mollusca, & Annelida
Terms in this set (24)
Phylum (2 clades)
Porifera (sponges) and Eumztaeoa (all other animals)
Mulitcellular or unicellular?
heterotrophic or autotrophs?
heterotrophic - obtain food by ingesting other organisms or their by-products
Emuetazoa differs in basic physical characteristics ___ and ___
symmetry and body form
2 different types of symmetry:
radially symmetrical - parts arranged around a central axis
bilaterally symmetrical - right and left halves are mirror images
2 different types of body forms:
-saclike body with only one opening into digestive cavity
-others have 2 outer openings: mouth & anus - digestive tracts forms from tube within side a tube
differences in animal groups is based on:
-the number of embryonic germ layers (layers of tissue that form early in development from which all other tissues in the body arise)
-different type of body cavity (coelom) : forms in the embryo and the embryonic development of the digestive tract
three germ layers:
ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm
2 developmental modes in bilaterally symmetrical animals:
- protostome development
- deuterostome development
- differ in cleavage (early divisions of fertilized egg), manner of coelom formation, and origin of mouth/ anus
blastopore (embryonic structure)
Phylogenetic organization of animals
1) Metazoa [(2)] porifera & Emetazoa
2) Emetazoa: radial symmetry (2 tissue layers) & clade bilateral symmetry (3 tissue layers)
3) Radial Symmetry to 4) cnidaria
3) Clade Bilateria (3 layer): to 4) Deuterostomia, Ecdysoza, & Lophotrochozoa
5) Deuterostomia: [(6)] echinodermata & chordata
5) Ecdysozoa: [(6)] nematoda & arthropoda
5) Lophotrochozoa: [(6)] mollusca, annelida, platyhelminthes
animals with protostome development
assigned to one of two clades: Lopotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa
-have true tissues
-3 germ layers
-they are bilaterally symmetric
-mouth developed first during embryonic development exs: flatworms, nematodes, mollusks, annelids, & arthropods
3 clades of bilateria
-Ecdysozoa (molting/ ecdysis)
molten covering for nematodes & arthropods:
space between gut and body wall - only in 3 layer organism (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm)
3 body forms:
3 layer without body cavity - tissue from mesoderm (muscle) fills space where cavity would be -
3 layer with a cavity between the endoderm (gut) & mesoderm (muscle)
3 layer with coelom (cavity) within the mesoderm [completely surrounded by mesoderm]
the 13 characteristics
1) symmetry (bilateral vs radially vs asymmetrical)
2) tissue organization
3) body cavity (3 layers: acoelomate, pseudocoelomate, & coelomate)
4) opening into the digestive tract (one opening or posterior/anterior openings)
5) circulatory system (open - blood flows through coelomic spaces in tissue & blood vessels & closed)
6) habitat (terrestrial or aquatic)
7) organs for respiration
8) organs for excretion
9) type of locomotion
10) support system (exoskeleton, endoskeleton, & hydrostatic skeleton)
13) type of nervous system
What is the origin of the green pigment in hydra organisms?
Hydra's live symbiotically with Chlorella (Green Algae). The Chlorella provides food for the Hydra explaining the green pigmentation
What are the characteristics of sponges that have led scientists to classify them in a group separate from the eumetazoa?
A sponge's body has specialized cell types but not true tissues. Its body is perforated by pores through which water flows.
what criteria are used to distinguish between protostome and deuterostome development?
Which opening is formed first
-Protostomes: the mouth opening is the first to be formed later followed by the anus.
-Deuterostomes: the anus forms first followed by the mouth.
all occurs in the gastrulation stage
two primary groupings of bilateral symmetrical animals
protostomes & deuterostomes. also called superphyla- three superphyla within protostomes — Lophotrochozoa, Edcysozoa, and Platyzoa.
-deuterostomes: more complex, and include echinoderms, hemichordates, chordates (all vertebrates), and a few smaller phyla
-protostomes: contain everything else, including arthropods, annelids, flatworms, mollusks, etc.