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γαῖα, γαίᾱς, ἡ

earth; land

γῆ, γῆς, ἡ

earth; land

ξένος, ξένου, ὁ

host, guest, guest-friend; stranger, foreigner

οὐρανός, οὐρανοῦ, ὁ

sky, heaven

πόνος, πόνου, ὁ

labor, toil; distress, suffering

σύμμαχος, συμμάχου, ὁ


ἄρχω, ἄρξω, ἦρξα, ἦρχα, ἦργμαι, ἤρχθην

rule (+gen.); (middle) begin (+gen.)

διδάσκω, διδάξω, ἐδίδαξα, δεδίδαχα, δεδίδαγμαι, ἐδιδάχθην

teach, explain; (middle) cause (someone) to be taught

ἐθέλω/θέλω, ἐθελήσω, ἠθέλησα, ἠθέληκα, --, --

be willing, wish

λέγω, λέξω, ἔλεξα/εἶπον, --, λέλεγμαι, ἐλέχθην

say; speak (of), tell (of), recount

μέλλω, μελλήσω, ἐμέλλησα, --, --, --

intend, be about, be likely (+ inf.)

παύω, παύσω, ἔπαυσα, πέπαυκα, πέπαυμαι, ἐπαύθην

stop (trans.); (middle) stop (intrans.), cease

πείθω, πείσω, ἔπεισα, πέπεικα, πέπεισμαι, ἐπείσθην

persuade, (middle) obey; heed; believe (+ dat.)

πέμπω, πέμψω, ἔπεμψα, πέπομφα, πέπεμμαι, ἐπέμφθην


αἰσχρός, αἰσχρᾱ́, αἰσχρόν

disgraceful, shameful; ugly

κοινός, κοινή, κοινόν

common (to), shared (with); (+ gen. or dat.) public


(interrog. particle) introduces a question


(postpositive conj.) explanatory, for; confirming, indeed, in fact


(postpositive conj.) adversative, but; connective, and


(adv.) well


(postpositive conj.) on the one hand; μέν . . . δέ . . . on the one hand . . . , on the other hand . . . ; . . . , but . . .


(adv.) now


(adv.) many times, often


(interrog. adv.) when


(prep + gen.) from; by; in the name of; (prep. + dat.) near; in addition to; (prep + acc.) toward; against; in reply to, in the face of, in relation to


(interrog. adv.) how


(prep. + gen.) (from) under; by; at the hands; (prep. + dat.) under, under the power of; (prep. + acc.) under; during

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