What type of immunity results from transfer of antibodies from one individual to a susceptible individual by means of injection?
Artificially acquired passive immunity
What type of immunity results from recovery from mumps?
Naturally acquired active immunity
A human's resistance to canine distemper is an example of
Newborns' immunity due to the transfer of antibodies across the placenta is an example of
Naturally acquired passive immunity
What type of immunity is NOT due to antibodies?
What type of immunity results from an injection of tetanus toxoid?
Artificially acquired active immunity
Immunity due to injection of an antigen is an example of
Artificially acquired active immunity
CD4+ T cells are activated by
CD4+ and MHC II
Which of the following recognizes antigens displayed on host cells with MHC II
The specificity of an antibody is due to
The variable portions of the H and L chains
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of B cells?
They recognize antigens associated with MHC I
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of cellular immunity?
B cells make antibodies
Plasma cells are activated by a(n)
The antibodies found in mucous, saliva, and tears are
The antibodies found on B cells are
The antibodies that can bind large parasites are
In addition to IgG, the antibodies that can fix complement are
Large antibodies that agglutinate antigens are
The most abundant class of antibodies in serum
In Figure 17.1, which letter on the graph indicates the patient's secondary response to an antigen?
C The second increase on the first antibody titer
In Figure 17.1, which letter on the graph indicates the patient's response to a second antigen?
E The stretch of time indicated on the second antibody titer
In Figure 17.1, the arrow at time (d) indicates
Exposure to a new antigen
Which statement is false? A. The variable region of a heavy chain binds with antigen B. The variable region of a light chain binds with antigen C. The Fc region attaches to a host cell D. The constant region of a heavy chain is the same for all antibodies E. All of the above statements are true
The constant region of a heavy chain is the same for all antibodies
The best definition of antigen is
A chemical that elicits an antibody response and can combine with these antibodies
The best definition of antibody is
A protein made in response to an antigen that can combine with that antigen
The following events elicit an antibody response. What is the third step?
TH cell recognizes antigen-digest and MHC II
In Figure 17.2, which areas are similar for all IgG antibodies?
c and d The parallel verticle lines
In Figure 17.2, which areas are different for all IgM antibodies?
a and b The parallel diagonal lines on the left
In Figure 17.2, which areas represent antigen-binding sites?
a and b The parallel diagonal lines on the left
In Figure 17.2, what can attach to a host cell?
e The length of c the verticle line on the left
Figure 17.2 could be any of the following EXCEPT
The presence of which of the following indicates a current infection rather than a previous infection or vaccination?
Which of the following destroys virus-infected cells?
The following events occur in cellular immunity. What is the third step?
TH cells proliferate
Cytokines released by TH1 cells
Activate CD8+ cells to CTLs
Which one of the following causes transmembrane channels in target cells?
Patients with an inherited type of colon cancer called familial adenomatous polyposis have a mutation in the gene that codes for
Destroys T cells that don't recognize self-molecules of MHC
Which of the following statements about natural killer cells is false?
They are stimulated by an antigen
An antibody's Fc region can be bound by
A Treg cell deficiency could result in
Cell death caused by perforin and granzymes is caused by
IL-2, produced by TH cells
Stimulates TH cell maturation
Which of the following statements about IL-12 is false?
It causes autoimmune diseases
Which antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are important factors in the control of such intracellular pathogens as the tubercle bacillus and virus-infected cells?
If a patient is infected with parasitic protozoa or helminths, what must occur prior to lysis of the target cell?
Cells of the immune system bind to the Fc regions of attached antibodies.
Which of the following best characterizes clonal selection? a)The production of identical B cells producing the same antibody b)The production of identical B cells producing different antibodies c)The production of identical T cells producing the same antibody d)The production of different antigens by the same B cell
a)The production of identical B cells producing the same antibody
What is produced by the process of clonal expansion?
Plasma cells and memory B cells
An antigen that is potent enough to activate a B cell on its own is known as
T cells recognized the antigen displayed by what protein of the B cell?
How can a sufficient humoral immune response occur if a plasma cell only lives for a few days?
Each plasma cell can produce up to 2000 antibodies every second.
Antigen processing and presentation
is a way for a cell to give information about its activities
Why would a body cell that is not a phagocyte need to present antigens?
Non-phagocytic body cells can become infected with a virus.
How do phagocytes communicate to other cells what they have captured?
They present antigens from engulfed foreign cells.
Which of the following statements does not accurately describe cells involved with cellular immunity? a)Cellular immunity involves cells that recognize antigens and make specific antibodies against them. b)The lymphocytes involved with cellular immunity are found primarily in lymphoid organs and blood. c)The cells involved with cellular immunity mature under the influence of the thymus. d)The lymphocytes involved with cellular immunity respond to antigens by means of receptors.
a)Cellular immunity involves cells that recognize antigens and make specific antibodies against them.
Which immunoglobulin class, found in blood, lymph, and the intestine, enhances phagocytosis, neutralizes toxins and viruses, and protects the fetus and the newborn?
Regarding antibody structure, which regions of adjacent antibodies can bind complement if left exposed after both antigen-binding sites attach to an antigen?
What makes agglutination by antibodies possible?
Each antibody has at least two antigen-binding sites.
What is the role of plasma cells in humoral immunity?
Plasma cells produce antibodies.
How might a pathogenic bacterium be affected by antibodies?
The antibodies may block proteins necessary for binding the pathogen to the host, may opsonize the bacterium, or may agglutinate bacteria.
If virus-infected cells are present in a patient, which of the following cell populations are transformed into cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) whose function is to directly kill the virus-infected cells?
CD8+ T cells with receptors for the antigen
Which of the following types of T cells is effective in opsonization and inflammation?
Where are MHC molecules located on a cell?
On the surface of the cell
What is a feature of the small fragments presented by MHC-I proteins?
They are small peptides, roughly 8-10 amino acids long.
Which organelle assists directly with the presentation of MHC-I antigens?
The endoplasmic reticulum
When does MHC-II loading occur?
During the fusion of vesicles containing MHC-II proteins with vesicles containing digested pathogens
Which of the cells listed below can present antigens on Class II MHC proteins?
What is apoptosis?
The process of programmed cell death
What is the function of the CD8 receptor?
Bind to MHC molecules
What is the fate of activated cytotoxic T-cells?
They proliferate into a clone of cells specific to the same antigen; some of these cells then differentiate into long-lived memory T-cells, while others mature to attack infected cells.
Which molecule triggers apoptosis?
Which event happens first during cytotoxic T-cell activation?
CD8 binds to MHC molecules of infected cells
Which receptor on the helper T-cell recognizes the specific antigen from an antigen-presenting cell?
TH2 cells produce cytokines that activate
Which proteins on the antigen-presenting cell are recognized by the helper T-cell?
When do helper T-cells develop into TH1 or TH2 cells?
After proliferation into a clonal population
Natural killer cells are activated by
Which type of cell directly attacks infected cells?
Cytokines are produced by which of the following cells?
HIV directly infects T-cells. Why is this problematic for cell-mediated immunity?
Cytotoxic T-cells begin to attack the virally infected T-cells, reducing the number of T-cells in the body
Helper T-cells produce cytokines to activate other cells of the immune system.
How do helper T-cells and cytotoxic T-cells work together?
Which structure do antigen presenting cells utilize to directly help them present bacterial antigens?
Which of the following are likely to be found on an MHC-I protein?
Damaged mitochondrial fragment
What would a virally infected skin epithelial cell have on its cell surface?
Class I MHC with skin cell antigens
Which of the following would you likely see on the surface of a human dendritic cell following phagocytosis of a bacterium?
Class I MHC with dendritic cell antigens and Class II MHC with engulfed bacteria
Where would you most likely find bacteriophage antigens?
Macrophage Class II MHC proteins
Which cytokines are powerful factors involved in inflammatory reactions of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis?
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)
If a patient has been exposed to an antigen for the first time, which class of immunoglobulins appears first?
The primary immune response involves
a slow rise in the concentration of antibodies, followed by a gradual decline.
Which cells are involved in a secondary response?
Memory B cells and plasma cells
How is the secondary response different from the primary response in terms of antibody concentration in the blood?
The secondary response is faster and produces more antibodies than the primary response.
An anamnestic response is
another name for secondary response.
In the antigenic immune response, the antibodies produced in response to the second exposure to an antigen are mostly
Which type of adaptive immunity is involved when someone is exposed to antigens but shows no signs or symptoms of illness?
Naturally acquired active immunity
What is the final step in the sequence of events that occur in cellular immunity?
CD8+ T cell becomes a cytotoxic T lymphocyte
Includes cilia, mucous membranes, dendritic cells
immunological response brought about by antibody production
immunological response that kills infected host cells
use(s) BCRs to recognize etitope. First step in clonal selection
immature B cells
Phagocytes that engulf anything foreign. Eventually display etitope to helper T cells using MHC I or II
lymphocytes that activate B cells and CTLs
differentiated B cells that are stored in lymph nodes to provide protection against future infections by the same pathogen
produce and secrete antibodies
Kill(s) infected host cells
cytotoxic T cells
What is the role of helper T cells in the adaptive immune response?
Helper T cells activate B cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes to kill infected host cells.
What is meant by the clonal expansion of a B cell?
An activated B cell divides into cells that give rise to memory B cells and plasma cells
The student who caught the cold caused by this specific Rhinovirus was exposed to the exact same Rhinovirus 18 months later. What component of the immune system will protect her from getting the same cold again?
Memory B cells
Correctly order the steps involved cellular immunity: 1)The Tc recognizes the infected host cell 2)The Tc interacts with epitope presented by MHC-I on the dendritic cell 3)The Tc secretes perforin and granzyme, causing apoptosis 4)The helper T cell activates the Tc cell
Which of the following is NOT a step used by cytotoxic T cells to kill infected host cells?
Recognition of infected host cell using its CD4 glycoprotein
Place the following steps of phagocytosis in the order that they occur: 1)Endosome fuses with lysozome 2)Dendritic cell engulfs Rhinovirus 3)Epitopes are attached to MHC-II 4)Digestion of the Rhinovirus 5)MHC-II plus the attached epitope move to the outside of the dendritic cell
Which pair of molecules do NOT directly interact with one another?
BCR and TCR
Which of the following is NOT a step that ultimately leads to antibody production?
Activation of cytotoxic T cells by helper T cells
A person who has AIDS contracts rare and often life-threatening infections because their helper T cell count is so low. Which of the following components of the immune response still respond to antigen despite the low helper T cell count?
Clonal selection of B cells
Which of the following statements is true? a)Innate defenses are enough to keep a person healthly b)Memory B cells are typically established when the B cell binds to an antigen. c)Adaptive defenses include humoral immunity only. d)Adaptive defenses include both humoral and cellular immunity.
d)Adaptive defenses include both humoral and cellular immunity.