Body Image Exam 1
Terms in this set (47)
What are the risk factors on body image in children?
What is the single most consistent risk factor for body dissatisfaction among children?
The relationship between body dissatisfaction in children and BMI has been...
Documented cross culturally
When does the correlation between body dissatisfaction in children and BMI increase?
During elementary school
Who is more affected by the correlation of BMI and body dissatisfaction in children?
Explain what children as young has 4 have been seen doing.
They won't select the "chubby" doll to play with and instead will go for the "thinner" doll
Explain what children as young as 6 have been seen as having.
An anti-fat bias towards people who are overweight
Name a few sociocultural factors that have been a risk factor for body image and children.
Explain how mass media is a risk factor for children and body image.
The shows that children watch have characters in them that represent the thin-ideal for women and the muscular ideal for men. There is evidence that girls as young as 5-8 years old watching an appearance focused television show predicts appearance dissatisfaction. In boys reading magazines with hypermuscular found that there was an increased drive fro muscularity among young white males but not black males.
Explain how parents can be a risk factor in body image in children.
Comments about their child's body image. But also subtle messages about body shape, including the child's own appearance, via the food choices they make or their attempts to control their child's eating
How are individual characteristics a risk factor of body image in children?
If the child has an internalization of the thin ideal and appearance schemas both appear to be risk factors in late elementary school age girls.
What different effects does the Barbie have on body image in children?
Even brief interactions with Barbie can negatively impact the body satisfaction. Due to the fact that Barbie has unrealistic body shapes.
What different effects does GI Joe have on body image in children?
Action figures like GI Joe have been shown to lower body esteem in college age men. But no experimental longitudinal studies of this effect among young boys.
Peers body dissatisfaction may predict what in girls?
May predict a girl's own body esteem and desire to be thin, even in early elementary school
What 2 forms are there of peer influences on body image in children?
1. Modeling attitudes about weight and shape
2. Making comments to a child
Universal programs as a prevention program toward eliminating body image problems in children
The participants do not demonstrate an elevated risk for the development of body image or eating problems. These programs might actually prevent the development of body image problems. Universal programs are more beneficial when the child is younger.
What are three measures of body image in men?
1. Revised Male Body Attitudes Scale
2. Drive for Muscularity Scale
3. Body Builders Grid
What does the Revised Male Body Attitudes Scale assess?
Body image in men via the three sub-scales (muscularity, low body fat and height).
The MBAS-R muscularity.
Assess the satisfaction with muscle mass at various areas of one's body and one's body overall.
The MBAS-R low body fat.
Assess the perceptions of and attitudes toward the fat on one's body, globally, and in discrete ares.
The MBAS-R height.
Satisfaction with height and the desire to be taller
What did the R (revised) MBAS fix?
Issues with ambiguous language or language not appropriate for men, and added the number of items per category
Describe the Body Builders Grid
Comprised of individuals figures that represent a distance of 6.5% body fat from figure to figure, and a progressive increase from left to right starting with 3.5% and ending with 36% across the columns. The muscularity dimension includes figures that have a degree of muscularity and body fat percentage that is unattainable without the use of ergogenic drugs such as steroids
What did Smith et al. find about leanness?
That it may be equally as important as muscularity for both homosexual and heterosexual men.
What did Smith et al. find about what men thought their partners would find attractive?
Found that homosexual and heterosexual men did not differ on what they thought potential partners found attractive for both muscularity and leanness measures.
What did Smith et al. find about heterosexual men and muscularity?
Found that they wanted to be more muscular than what they thought women preferred
What did Smith et al. find about homosexual men and leanness?
Said that potential partners want them to be thinner than they themselves wanted to be.
What are some limitations of Smith et al?
They didn't look at male eating disorders and did't ask males if they wanted to be shorter, only if they wanted to be taller
What percentage of children and adolescents are dissatisfied with their bodies?
40% of girls
23% of boys
Why might we always find higher rates of body dissatisfaction in girls than boys?
Because there may not be the correct type of measure used for boys and correct wording
What have girls age 6 been reported doing and what have they been reported doing by age 8?
By age 6 girls have been reported as having negative body image and by age 8 girls reported dieting behavior and wanting to lose weight.
What is body dissatisfaction associated with in children?
Lower self-esteem, low self-worth, and greater levels of depression
What is body dissatisfaction in children a predictor of?
Disordered eating, eating disorders, binge eating, obesity, and negative affect (depression, suicide)
In children, greater BMI is typically associated with what?
Poorer body satisfaction
How many children are estimated to be affected by obesity ages 2-19?
What has been seen in children as young as 5?
Negative attitudes about being overweight and positive attitudes about being thin or lean
What is found across movies, magazine and tv programs for women?
Thinness, youth and normed beauty is consistently emphasized and rewarded in women.
What effects of the media have been found for males and body image?
Muscularity and leanness are emphasized in paper media (magazines), more diversity is found in terms of body size, attractiveness and age in other media sources
What is not necessarily included in the differential media effects that have been found in males?
Race or ethnicity.
Fardouly's Study who were the participants?
112 female university students from a school in the UK
Fardouly's Study what were the measures?
visual analog scales (VAS) used to measure state negative mood and body dissatisfaction both before and immediately after viewing Facebook online content for 10 minutes
What did Fardouly's study look at?
Trait appearance comparison tendency --> social comparison
What were the results of Fardouly's study?
Found that women reported being in a more negative mood after brief exposure to Facebook than following exposure to an appearance-neutral website. For women who were high in appearance comparison tendencies, spending time on Facebook led to greater face, hair and skin-related discrepancies but not significant.
What was the overall message regarding disclaimer ads on fashion magazine photos in relation to women's body image?
Does putting a disclaimer on magazine photos that have been photoshopped have an affect on how women feel viewing these photos.
What wad the results of the Tiggemann et al study?
Found that the label didn't make much of a difference when it came to decreasing body dissatisfaction
In Tiggemanns study who was affected more?
Those into trait comparisons were impacted more to the body dissatisfaction.
What are the eating and feeding disorders listed in the DSM-5?
Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, Binge-eating disorder, pica, rumination disorder, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, unspecified eating or feeding disorder (EDNOS)