33 terms

Biology Chapter 8

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Autotrophs differ from heterotrophs because they....
make their own food from carbon dioxide and water
What is the principal pigment in plants?
Chlorophyll
What is NOT produced in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis?
sugars
The color of light that is LEAST useful to a plant during photosynthesis is ______.
Green
What is the first step in photosynthesis?
absorption of light energy
In a typical plant, all of the following factors are necessary for photosynthesis except.....
oxygen
What happens during the process of photosynthesis?
In the process of photosynthesis, plants convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy stored in the bonds of carbohydrates.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
compound used by cells to store and release energy
Heterotroph
organism that obtains food by consuming other living things; also called a consumer
Autotroph
organism that is able to capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer
Photosynthesis
process used by plants and other autotrophs to capture light energy and use it to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy-rich carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
What is the difference between ATP and ADP?
ATP has three phosphates and ADP has two.
Organisms that make their own food are called...
autotrophs
Energy is released upon the conversion of...
ATP to ADP
One way cells use the energy provided by ATP is to...
carry out active transport
Why are mushrooms considered heterotrophs?
Mushrooms feed by absorbing decomposing nutrients from organisms.
pigment
light-absorbing molecule used by plants to gather the sun's energy
chlorophyll
principal pigment of plants and other photosynthetic organisms
Thylakoid
saclike photosynthetic membranes found in chloroplasts
stroma
fluid portion of the chloroplast; outside of the thylakoids
NADP+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate)
carrier molecule that transfers high-energy electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules
light- dependent reactions
set of reactions in photosynthesis that use energy from light to produce ATP and NADPH
light-independent reactions
set of reactions in photosynthesis that do not require light; energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugar; also called the Calvin Cycle
What role do pigments play in the process of photosynthesis?
Photosynthetic organisms capture energy from sunlight with pigments.
What are electron carrier molecules?
An electron carrier is a compound that can accept a pair of high-energy electrons and transfer them, along with most of their energy, to another molecule.
What are the reactants and products of photosynthesis?
Photosynthesis uses the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide (reactants) into high-energy sugars and oxygen (products).
photosystem
cluster of chlorophyll and proteins found in the thylakoids
electron transport chain
series of electron carrier proteins that shuttle high-energy electrons during ATP-generating reactions
ATP synthase
cluster of proteins that span the cell membrane and allow hydrogen ions (H+) to pass through it
Calvin Cycle
light-independent reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugar
What happens during the light-dependent reactions?
The light-dependent reactions use energy from sunlight to produce oxygen and convert ADP and NADP+ into the energy carriers ATP and NADPH.
What happens during light-independent reactions?
During light-independent reactions, ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions are used to produce high-energy sugars.
What factors affect photosynthesis?
temperature, light intensity, and water availability