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Terms in this set (231)

30.Dr. Randazza shows participants a stylized map of a fictitious city. The map includes landmarks, such as a post office, a library, a shopping mall, a bus depot, and an airport. Some of the landmarks are close together, such as the library and the post office. Others are far apart, such as the airport and the shopping mall. Dr. Randazza removes the map. Participants are asked to imagine walking from one landmark to another, either a nearby one or a more distant one. Participants press a key when they've reached the destination in their minds. What should Dr. Randazza find? What would such a result say about mental imagery?
A) Participants should take the same amount of time to travel mentally between distant landmarks as between close landmarks. This result would suggest that mental imagery reflects the actual actions people perform with respect to real objects.
B) Participants should take the same amount of time to travel mentally between distant landmarks as between close landmarks. This result would suggest that mental imagery does not reflect the actual actions people perform with respect to real objects.
C) Participants should take longer to travel mentally between distant landmarks than between close landmarks. This result would suggest that mental imagery reflects the actual actions people perform with respect to real objects.
D) Participants should take longer to travel mentally between distant landmarks than between close landmarks. This result would suggest that mental imagery does not reflect the actual actions people perform with respect to real objects.
131.Collectivist cultures, such as Taiwan's, place a high priority on how individuals relate to each other. It might be reasonable to hypothesize that Taiwanese adults would outscore American adults on a test of Gardner's ______ intelligence.
A) naturalistic
B) intrapersonal
C) practical
D) interpersonal
Ans: D
132.Etta is taking an intelligence test based on Gardner's theory. How is Etta's performance likely to be scored?
A) She will receive a score for each of seven types of intelligence.
B) She will receive a score for each of three types of intelligence.
C) She will be classified as having one of seven types of intelligence.
D) She will receive an overall intelligence score, like an IQ.
Ans: A
133.______ is NOT among the three types of intelligence in Gardner's theory.
A) Bodily-kinesthetic
B) Spatial
C) Practical
D) Intrapersonal Ans: C
134.In Sternberg's terms, _____ intelligence drives one's ability to adjust to different environments.
A) creative
B) practical
C) analytical
D) logical
Ans: B
135.The notion of creative intelligence is associated with:
A) Gardner.
B) Spearman.
C) Sternberg.
D) Binet.
Ans: C
136.Mavis has advanced rapidly in the corporate world, despite her middling scores on such tests as the WAIS-IV, the SAT, and GRE. Sternberg would infer that Mavis has high _____ intelligence.
A) practical
B) general
C) analytical D) linguistic Ans: A
137.If one wished to predict an individual's ability or potential for success in a given area, one would use an _____ test. If one wished to measure an individual's level of knowledge in a given area, one would use an _____ test.
A) achievement; achievement
B) achievement; aptitude
C) aptitude; achievement
D) aptitude; aptitude
Ans: C
138.Aptitude test is to achievement test as ______ is to ______.
A) g-factor; IQ
B) assessing past performance; predicting future performance
C) IQ; g-factor
D) predicting future performance; assessing past performance
Ans: D
139.The first intelligence test was devised by:
A) Binet.
B) Stern.
C) Weschler. D) Spearman. Ans: A
141.Imagine that overall, 6-year-olds can complete a particular block design puzzle in 5 minutes. It takes 6-year-old Bailey almost 8 minutes to complete the task. In Binet's terms, Bailey's _____ age is _____ than 6.
A) chronological; higher
B) chronological; lower
C) mental; higher
D) mental; lower
Ans: D
142.The formula for the intelligence quotient as Stern defined it is:
A) CA/MA x 100.
B) MA/CA x 100.
C) CA/(MA x 100).
D) MA/(CA x 100). Ans: B
143.Laura is 8; her performance on a series of cognitive tasks is equivalent to that of the average 10-year-old child. Her intelligence quotient is:
A) 125.
B) 80.
C) 110.
D) 10.
Ans: A
144.Which statement BEST describes Binet's intelligence test?
A) It has had little lasting influence on contemporary intelligence testing.
B) It is still used in virtually the same form as Binet's original test.
C) It was used for a number of decades but was then abandoned.
D) It is still used in a heavily revised form.
Ans: D
145.Each of these is a widely-used intelligence test EXCEPT:
A) WISC-IV.
B) WAIS-IV.
C) Spearman G Scale.
D) Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale.
Ans: C
146.The MOST commonly used IQ test in the United States is the:
A) Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale.
B) WAIS-IV.
C) Spearman G Scale.
D) Terman Intelligence Battery.
Ans: B
147.Which statement BEST describes the relationships between the WAIS-IV and WISC-IV?
A) The WAIS-IV and the WISC-IV are alternative forms of the same test.
B) The WAIS-IV is a test of verbal intelligence, whereas the WISC-IV is a test of nonverbal intelligence.
C) The WAIS-IV is used to test adult intelligence, whereas the WISC-IV is used to test children's intelligence.
D) The WAIS-IV is the current successor to the WISC-IV, an older test of intelligence.
Ans: C
148.If one were to plot the IQ scores of every person in the United States on a graph, one would end up with a:
A) sore hand.
B) messy piece of paper.
C) uniform distribution—that is, a straight horizontal line
D) bell-shaped curve.
Ans: D
149.A psychological test is valid to the extent that it:
A) measures what it is supposed to measure.
B) has been normed using samples representative of those for whom the test was designed.
C) yields consistent measurements.
D) minimizes potential cultural biases.
Ans: A
151.A psychological test is standardized to the extent that it:
A) measures what it is supposed to measure.
B) has been normed using samples representative of those for whom the test was designed.
C) yields consistent measurements.
D) minimizes potential cultural biases.
Ans: B
152.As a condition for a test's validity, a test's reliability is:
A) B) C) D) Ans:
necessary.
sufficient.
both necessary and sufficient. neither necessary nor sufficient. A
153.An online intelligence test yields a different IQ each time a person takes it. The test is:
A) possibly reliable but definitely not valid.
B) not reliable and probably not valid either.
C) not reliable but possibly valid.
D) possibly reliable and potentially valid.
Ans: B
154.Dr. English develops a test that she believes will predict the academic success of college freshmen. Dr. English finds a correlation coefficient of .70 between high-school seniors' scores on the test and their freshman GPAs one year later. What can one conclude regarding Dr. English's test?
A) It is not reliable.
B) It is reasonably reliable.
C) It is not valid.
D) It is reasonably valid.
Ans: D
155.Dr. Feng devises a questionnaire to measure adults' extraversion, a stable personality trait. Dr. Feng computes the questionnaire scores of a large sample of adults. Six months later, he gives the same sample the same test. The correlation between the two sets of scores is . 10. What can one conclude regarding Dr. Feng's test?
A) It is not reliable.
B) It is reasonably reliable.
C) It is not valid.
D) It is reasonably valid.
Ans: A
156.A researcher develops a questionnaire to assess the personality trait of impulsivity among adults. In a journal article, she presents evidence that college students tend to get essentially the same score if they take the test twice, 2 months apart. She also presents the average score, the highest score, and the lowest score obtained by two large samples: one done with 2,000 college students and another done with 750 adults who are not in college. However, when one reviews the sample questionnaire items, it seems clear that they relate more to whether a person is sociable, outgoing, and fun than to whether an individual is impulsive. As a result, one would question the _____ of the researcher's questionnaire.
A) reliability
B) validity
C) standardization
D) reliability and validity
Ans: B
157.Dr. Cavanaugh examines the relationship between the personality trait of resilience and
senior citizens' compliance with medication regimes; however, the resilience measure he uses was normed on college students. Based on this information, what is the weakness of Dr. Cavanaugh's resilience measure?
A) its reliability
B) its standardization
C) its validity
D) its bell curve
Ans: B
158.A persistent finding in the study of group differences in intelligence is that compared to Caucasian Americans' IQ scores, African Americans' scores are, on average:
A) the same.
B) 5 points lower.
C) 10-15 points lower.
D) 20 points lower.
Ans: C
159.Angie is computing the correlation between the intelligence test scores and the household incomes of a large sample of American adults. Angie should find a ____ correlation.
A) zero
B) negative
C) positive
D) perfect
Ans: C
161.Approximately _____% of the population has an IQ score between 85 and 115.
A) 50
B) 68
C) 75
D) 85
Ans: B
162.Coral's IQ score is 104. She is in good company: nearly _____ out of 10 people have IQ scores between 85 and 115.
A) 5 B) 7 C) 8 D) 9 Ans: B
163.About 95% of the population has an IQ score between _____ and _____.
A) 70; 130
B) 85; 115
C) 90; 110
D) 55; 145
Ans: A
164.A test that does not discriminate against the members of any minority group is termed a _____ test.
A) culture-fair
B) culture-free
C) culture-neutral
D) culture-positive
Ans: A
165.Approximately what proportion of the population as a whole may be described as intellectually disabled?
A) 1 in 1,000 persons
B) 1 in 200 persons
C) 2 in 100 persons
D) 5 in 100 persons
Ans: C
166.Is there a difference between the terms "mental retardation" and "intellectual disability"? A) No. The terms are used interchangeably and equally often.
B) Yes. "Intellectual disability" is now the preferred term, although "mental retardation" is still used often.
C) Yes. The term "mental retardation" has replaced the term "intellectual disability" among psychologists.
D) Yes. The terms refer to different types of deficits in functioning.
Ans: B
167.How do the proportions of the population compare that are identified as intellectually disabled or as gifted?
A) There are twice as many individuals classified as intellectually disabled as there are who are identified as gifted.
B) There are twice as many individuals classified as gifted as there are who are identified as intellectually disabled.
C) We don't know the exact differences in proportions, but more individuals are classified as intellectually disabled then are identified as gifted.
D) Equal proportions of the population are identified as belonging in these two groups of intellectual abilities.
Ans: D
168.A cause cannot be identified in approximately _____% of the cases of intellectual disability.
A) 10
B) 25
C) 50
D) 75
Ans: C
169.The IQ of intellectually gifted individuals is _____ or above.
A) 100
B) 120
C) 130
D) 140
Ans: C
171.Compared to more typical individuals, the intellectually gifted are characterized by all of the following EXCEPT:
A) higher incomes.
B) lower life satisfaction.
C) physical attractiveness.
D) higher educational attainment.
Ans: B
172.Emotional intelligence is positively associated with: A) academic success.
B) occupational success.
C) both academic and occupational success.
D) neither academic nor occupational success.
Ans: C
173.Dyslexia reflects atypical connections in the _____ cortex.
A) left parietotemporal
B) right parietotemporal
C) left prefrontal
D) right prefrontal
Ans: A
174.A persisting issue or controversy in psychology that is especially relevant to the study of intelligence is that of:
A) nature vs. nurture.
B) free will vs. determinism.
C) unconscious vs. conscious roots of behavior.
D) observable behavior vs. mental processes.
Ans: A
175.The term ______ refers to a measure of the degree to which a characteristic can be attributed to genetic factors.
A) correlation
B) concordance
C) inheritance
D) heritability
Ans: D
176.The correlation between identical twins' IQ scores is:
A) about .50.
B) nearly .75.
C) approximately .90.
D) 1.00.
Ans: C
177.The ability to construct valuable results in innovative ways is known as:
A) convergent thinking.
B) insight.
C) creativity.
D) divergent thinking.
Ans: C
178.According to the text, scores on creativity measures are _____ correlated with scores on intelligence tests.
A) negatively
B) weakly
C) positively
D) variably Ans: C
179.Generating many potential solutions for a problem is called:
A) originality.
B) fluency.
C) creativity.
D) convergent thinking.
Ans: B
Availability heuristic. The availability heuristic refers to the tendency to base estimates of the frequency or probability of events on the ease with which instances of the events come to mind. One might overestimate the frequency with which members of a particular sociocultural group commit crimes if media coverage of a member of the group committing a crime comes easily to mind. One might similarly overestimate the frequency of crime in a particular neighborhood or section of town if media coverage of a crime in that area comes easily to mind. These estimates may lead an individual to behave differently toward members of a particular sociocultural group than one would toward one's own group. Representativeness heuristic. The representativeness heuristic refers to the tendency to form hypotheses, make decisions, or draw conclusions about an individual based on one's representation of the category of people the individual most closely resembles. If one holds a negative stereotype regarding a particular group, one might judge a newly encountered member of the group in terms of the stereotype; the stereotype may in turn drive discriminatory behavior toward the individual. Confirmation bias. The confirmation bias refers to the tendency for people to attend to and endorse evidence that supports their existing hypotheses or beliefs and to ignore or discount evidence that does not. Incidents that confirm a negative stereotype concerning a particular sociocultural group will be taken as critical evidence; incidents that do not will be ignored or discounted.