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25 terms

IPT - Protocols

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Protocol
A formal set of riles and procedures that must be observed for two devices to transfer data efficiently and successfully.
Ethernet
The most widespread Transmission Level protocol for the transfer of data between nodes and local area networks.
Disadvantages of Ethernet
Not suitable for communication over wide area networks (WANs) carrying enormous amounts of data over long distances.
Handshaking
The process of negotiating and establishing the rules of communication between two or more devices.
ATM
Asynchronous Transfer Mode - used on most ADSL connections.
SONET
Synchronous Optical Network - used for connections between network access points (NAPs)
WAN
Wide Area Network
NAP
Network Access Point
Protocols contributing to the transfer of web pages
HTTP, TCP, IP, Ethernet
HTTP
Hypertext Transfer Protocol. The primary protocol used by web bowsers to communicate and retrieve web pages from web servers.
Three primary HTTP commands
GET, HEAD, POST
HTTP GET
Retrieves entire documents (HTML files, image files, video files etc.) The browser requests a document form a particular web server using a GET command together with the URL of the document.
URL
Universal Resource Locator
HTTP HEAD
Retrieves just the header information for the file. Used to check if the file had been updated since the browser last retrieved the file.
HTTP POST
Used to send data from the browser to a web server. Used to send all the data input by users within web-based forms.
TCP
Transmission Control Protocol. Along with IP, this protocol is responsible for the transmission of most data across the Internet. The primary responsibility is ensuring messages are actually delivered correctly. TCP requires IP to be operating, as it uses elements of the IP header, and the two are commonly referred to as TCP/IP.
IP
Internet Protocol. The protocol that causes datagrams to move from sender to receiver. Does not guarantee datagrams will reach their destination and it makes no attempt to acknowledge datagrams that have been received. Rather IP simply fires off each datagram one after the other.
Strengths of IP
Ability to reroute messages over the most efficient path o their destination using routers, which in turn use the ARP.
Datagrams
A chunk of IP data. Also known as a data packet.
Data packet
A chunk of IP data. Also known as a datagram.
ARP
Address Resolution Protocol
Ethernet
Allows for two nodes to transmit a frame at the same time.
Frames
Ethernet packets
Problems with Ethernet
If two nodes share the same physical transmission line, then a data collision will occur and both frames will be corrupted. This is dealt with using a the CSMA/CD system
CSMA/CD
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection