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A formal set of riles and procedures that must be observed for two devices to transfer data efficiently and successfully.


The most widespread Transmission Level protocol for the transfer of data between nodes and local area networks.

Disadvantages of Ethernet

Not suitable for communication over wide area networks (WANs) carrying enormous amounts of data over long distances.


The process of negotiating and establishing the rules of communication between two or more devices.


Asynchronous Transfer Mode - used on most ADSL connections.


Synchronous Optical Network - used for connections between network access points (NAPs)


Wide Area Network


Network Access Point

Protocols contributing to the transfer of web pages

HTTP, TCP, IP, Ethernet


Hypertext Transfer Protocol. The primary protocol used by web bowsers to communicate and retrieve web pages from web servers.

Three primary HTTP commands



Retrieves entire documents (HTML files, image files, video files etc.) The browser requests a document form a particular web server using a GET command together with the URL of the document.


Universal Resource Locator


Retrieves just the header information for the file. Used to check if the file had been updated since the browser last retrieved the file.


Used to send data from the browser to a web server. Used to send all the data input by users within web-based forms.


Transmission Control Protocol. Along with IP, this protocol is responsible for the transmission of most data across the Internet. The primary responsibility is ensuring messages are actually delivered correctly. TCP requires IP to be operating, as it uses elements of the IP header, and the two are commonly referred to as TCP/IP.


Internet Protocol. The protocol that causes datagrams to move from sender to receiver. Does not guarantee datagrams will reach their destination and it makes no attempt to acknowledge datagrams that have been received. Rather IP simply fires off each datagram one after the other.

Strengths of IP

Ability to reroute messages over the most efficient path o their destination using routers, which in turn use the ARP.


A chunk of IP data. Also known as a data packet.

Data packet

A chunk of IP data. Also known as a datagram.


Address Resolution Protocol


Allows for two nodes to transmit a frame at the same time.


Ethernet packets

Problems with Ethernet

If two nodes share the same physical transmission line, then a data collision will occur and both frames will be corrupted. This is dealt with using a the CSMA/CD system


Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection

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