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Unit 6


measured rates of behaviors in the absence of treatment. The child's skill level before treatment

evaluate child's progress over time, establish treatment effectiveness, establish clinician accountability

baselines are used to

write the goal, prepare stimulus items, prepare recording sheet, administer baseline trials

four steps to administering baselines

client's age, cultural background, linguistic abilities

things to consider when preparing stimulus items to administer baselines


what is the least amount of items/ target behaviors that should be prepared for administering baselines?

daily, short-term, long-term goals

types of goals needed to hold a therapy session

criteria for daily goal, reinforcement plan, activities for each goal, courage, enthusiasm, planning time, materials to use

things you need to hold a therapy session

long term goals

what the client will accomplish when therapy is completed. (IEP in Utah can be up to 3 years)

normative data, developmental charts, intelligibility, stimulability, family concerns, personal gut feeling

select articulation goals based upon your professional judgment from..

short term goals

where you think the client can be at the end of the semester (school year)

phoneme, position, level of complexity, and criteria

all goals should state..

test results

a goal must be justified by..


criteria for a goal should be

baseline data, therapy approach, and post-data

progress on a goal must include

plan goas, reinforcement, and activities; plan criteria for advancement; use daily therapy plan and log sheet

before therapy session

follow plan but be flexible

during therapy session

relax, determine daily performance, figure out percentages, fil out daily therapy plan and log

after session

subjective analysis

how you feel child performed


the criteria achieved


why child may have performed the way he/she did


what you will work on in next session

sandwich approach

approach to therapy that is easy, hard, easy

Charles Van Riper in late 1930s

Who developed the traditional articulation therapy approach and when?

children with few articulation errors and mostly developmental

who does traditional articulation therapy work on best?

baseline data and stimulability testing

what will tell you where to begin with traditional articulation therapy?

discrimination training, stimulability, sound stabilization, generalization, maintenance

steps of articulation therapy approach

discrimination training

ear training; can child listen and decide between error and correct production

clinician-client and client-client

two types of discrimination training


clinician produces sounds and sees if client can recognize the sound; client may hold up a red/ green light car, happy/ unhappy face card etc.


client records themselves producing sounds, listens to recording and holds up the cards when he recognizes the sound


sound elicitation


teach correct placement and production. Sometimes the hardest part of therapy. TEACH IT RIGHT


a stimulability item that demonstrates proper air flow

see scape

a stimulability item that words well with child having a had time differentiating oral vs. nasal production

video articulator

similar to a palatometer; can see own tongue placements

FM system

amplifies what child hears

auditory stimulation/ imitation, use of context, moto-kinesthetic, sound approximation (shaping)

stimulability approaches

use of context

pair with sounds that make it easier to produce


move the articulators with gloved fingers, tongue depressor, etc.

sound approximation

shaping, go from /t/ to /s/ by holding out the /t/, from /s/ to /th/ etc.

sound stabilization

expanding the productions in which the sound occurs; moving up the linguistic levels


to help with this step generate more natural practice situations to make production more natural and automatic; often the other toughest part of therapy

speech assignments, speech buddy, clear speech time periods, involve parents

examples of ways to improve generalization

speech assignments

give a report on..
read aloud each day..

speech buddy

listens and gives feedback during day; comes to therapy to report at times

clear speech time periods

specific times each day when have to focus on speech production (start with 10-15 min)

involve parents

keep data at home; report in each session; keep informed; involve in therapy


progressive check up of client to see that productions remain correct (1 month, 3 month, 6 months)

training deep approach

a select number of sounds is taught intensively

training broad approach

simultaneous teaching of multiple targets

traditional approach

which approach is the training deep approach usually utilized?

phonological approach

which approach is the training broad approach usually utilized?

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