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65 terms

Oncology

STUDY
PLAY
Thrombocytopenia
Decrease in platelets.
Nociceptive Pain
Result of activation of nociceptors pain fibers deep in cutaneous tissue.
Somatic Pain
Arises from bone joint or connective tissue; well localized gnawing sensation.
Visceral Pain
Result of nociceptor activation in thoracic or abdominal tissue; can be pancreas, liver, GI poorly localized... cramping.
Mass Screening
screen entire population (PKU)
Selective or Prescriptive Screening
high risk populations (BRCAI, sickle cell)
Single Screening
looking for defect or condition. (BP check)
Multiple Screening
2 or more defects or conditions; school vision and hearing.
Multiphasic Screening
screening over time; height, Denver Developmental Screening Test.
Prostate Screening
50 years
Cervical Screening
21 years of 3 years post inter
Morals
values or rules based on a clients conscience. Serve as guide to right/wrong behavior.
Ethics
From Greek word Ethos, means conduct, customs and character. A process of deciding best course of action when faced with conflict.
Data and Saftey Monitoring Board
Reports to IRB, monitors client safety in large clinical trials.
IRB
Institut. review board
Phase 1 Clinical Trials
Assist in developing safe drug levels and schedules of new drug using human subjects.
Phase 2 Clinical Trials
Usually focus of particular type of cancer, study safety and effect of drug on human body.
Phase 3 Clinical Trials
Compare new drug with standard therapy; usually large number of participants.
Phase 4 Clinical Trials
Long term safety and effectiveness; large number of participants needed.
Proto-Oncogenes
Genetic portion of DNA that regulates normal cell growth. Promote cell division
Tumor Supressor Genes
Genetic portion of DNA that stops, inhibits, or supersede cell division.
P53
Is most common mutated tumor suppressor gene.
failure of _________ may lead to malignancy.
Apoptosis
Oncogenes
Altered forms of normal proto-oncogenes. May give rise to cancers.
Signal Transduction
process of transmitting information received on the cell membrane to the cell's nucleus.
Overproduction of RAS oncogenes have been identified in what cancers?
Pancreatic, colorectal, lung, and thyroid.
Invasion
cells divide, increase bulk, and secrete enzymes. Invade surrounding tissues.
Angiogenesis
Ability of tumor to grow new blood vessels.
Metastasis
Spread of primary tumor to distant sites.
Inherited Cancers occur via...
carcinogenic mutation in germ cells. Account for 10% of cancer in the USA
Methotrexate
does not mix with ASA or NSAIDS; increases risk of methotrexate toxicity.
Combination therapies that include etoposide and alk. agents...
cause increase FSH levels and azoospermia or olgiospermia in 30-40% mals. Test funct. may be normal if tx with etoposide and nonalkylating agents (vincrustine, doxorubiein)
Extravasation
Warm Pack Plant Alkaloids. Cold- all other chemos
DIC
only lab increase in DIC is D-Dimer and FDP titers; everything else decrease.
SIADH
too much ADH mostly from pituitary gland.
ADH
causes water to be reabsorbed instead of excreted through the kidneys.
SIADH
fluid restriction
Severe SIADH
High concentrate sodium IVF
Sepsis
T=>100x4, P>90, Resp>20, WBC> 12,000
TLS
during cell kill. Give IVF
Lead time bias
cancer detected early but does not affect survival.
Pneumonectomy
whole lung removed
wedge recection
small wedge near lung surface
segmental resection
removal of 1 or more segments of lung
lobectomy
removal of lobe of lung
GCSF
granulocyte stimulating factor- stimulates myloid line; increases WBC's; starts 24 hours post chemo for 3-14 days.
Neulasta
long acting G-CSF
Infection
most common cause of death in person with cancer.
Very high Emetogenic
Cisplat, Cytoxan, Melphalan
High Emetogenic
Barbo, Cisplant, Etoposiac, Irinotecan, Oxaliplatin, Doxrubicin
Low Emetogenic
Vinoustine; age less than 50 risk for N+V (may have more anticiporty nausea)
Ibuprofen use caution in...
liver disease
Increased risk DIC
leukemia, lymphoma, buliany, breast, colon, gastric, lung, pancreatic, prostate, melanoma
Temozolomidic
delayed neutropenia
IL2
cytokine, based on the bodys own cytoxic response. Flu like symptoms, fever and chills.
Myclonus
jerking R/+ drg metabolites -->switch drug!
primary
diet exercise
secondary
prevention
oral mucusitis
oral cane. brush 90 seconds bid
Combination therapy
etoposide, cytoxin = azoospermia 30-40%post-pubertal men
Bleo
Anorexia+mucositis/esophagitis fever
Interferon, Interleukin + Vanc
Can produce a fever
90% of all bowel obstruction occur in...
the small intestine (think: small- can't get through!)
Vinoustine
pred- may need stool softeners
Pelvic Exentenation
removes all reproductive organs + adjacent tissues; involves colon, bladder, ureters, and other organs. Freq requires colostomy and urostomy.