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lymphatic vessels

complete set and separate from the blood vessels.


the fluid in the lymphatic vessels

interstial fluid

plasma leave the BV wall to go to the tissue and the fluid is now termed this, then goes into the lymphatic vessel and then termed Lymphatic fluid. its all the same fluid

lymphatic capillaries

just like cardiovascular capillary however the lymphatic one is closed ended.

fluid balance, absorption, defense

three functions of the lymphatic system

3 L of interstitial fluid

how much fluid is not reabsorbed into the capillaries per day and stays in the interstitial space.

The lymphatic capillary

what vessel picks up the excess interstitial fluid

causes the cells of the lumen wall to split apart and fluid rushess into lymph vessel

what happens when the interstitial fluid has higher pressure on the outside of the lymphatic capillary than the inside of the lumen.

the lymphatic vessel cell walls to close up together so fluid can not move back out

when the pressure in the lymphatic capillary is greater inside the lumen than the outside it causes this.

muscles contracting

what helps fluid flow through the lypmhatic vessels

fat absorption

putting substances into the vessels

hepatic portal vein

nutrients from the small intestine go into this blood vessel


where does the absorbed nutrients from the hepatic portal vein go to this organ.


the only nutrient that is not absorbed in the hepatic portal vein are these


the lipids are absorbed into lymphatic veins from the small intestine called these.


fat soluble vitamins that are absorbed by lympatic lacteles


lymphatic system defends the body against these substances

start in the fingertips

the closed end lymphatic capillaries start here

larger and larger

the lymphatic veins start small in the periferal and change in size as it gets ...

thoracic duct, right lymphatic duct

the two lymphatic vessels in the body

left subclavian vein

what BV does the thoracic duct empty into

right sublcavian vein

what BV does the right lymphatic duct empty into.

red bone marrow

major lymphatic organ, it makes the blood cells, WBC

in mature state

what state do the blood cells leave the red bone marrow except the T-cells

pre T-cells

the immature T-cells leave the red bone marrow and are called these

thymus gland

the pre-T cells go to this gland over the heart to mature.


this substance heps T-cells mature in the thymus gland

bi-lobed glands

how many lobes on the thymus

after puberty

when does the thymus gland stop growing and begins to shrink


the lymphatic organ that filters the blood, left Upper quadrant, and is very vascular, blood reservoir

blood reservoir, fliters blood

two functions of the spleen are.

yes can live without it

can humans live without spleen

lymphatic tissue

patches of reticular fibers with b- cells, t- cells, and NK cells, and macrophages.

lymph nodules

little patches of lymphatic tissue embedded in mucuous membranes that lines body cavities

lines any body cavity that opens to the outside

mucous membranes are lining the vagina, GI tract and respiratory tract because.


the three largest lymphatic nodules are

pharyngeal tonsils

the tonsils in the back of the nose

palatine tonsils

the tonsils in the back of the throat

lingual tonsils

the tonsils in theback of the tongue


the pharyngeal tonsils are aka

T/A ectomy

the pharyngeal and palatine tonsils are removed in this procedure


these are always within the lymphatic vessel, and are encapsulated

reticular fibers, b, t, nk cells and macrophages

what is inside the lymphnode

afferent lymph vessel

the vessel that leads to the lymphnode is this

efferent lymph vessel

the vessel that leads away from the lymphnode is this

cervical lymphnodes

lymphnodes tend to cluster to areas of entry like this in the neck

axillary lymphnodes

nodes in the armpits are called


inguinal lymphnodes are located here.

2 days (4-6L of total blood volume)

3 L per/day of plasma is absorbed in the lymphatic vessels and is filtered every __ days and returned to the blood


lymphatic system provide most of these to protect us to be healthy

non specific defenses

type of defense we all are born with. they act the same way toward any invading antigen, no memory

specific defenses

defenses that are aquire during the lifetime, make a memory of all infection, and then to never get that again. like chicken pox


anything that the body percieves as being foreign.


disease causing antigens

what each were exposed to

why are specific defenses different in each individual.

first line defense

non specific defense category - surface barriers physically prevent something coming into the body or removes pathogens from surface of body

skin, mucous membrane, tears, and sweat.

examples of non specific - first line defense

second line defense

non specific defense - where the pathogens have entered the body and this type of defense is then activated

phagocytic cells

2nd line defense type of WBC's that eat the bacteria

inflammatory response

2nd line defense where basophils that produce histamines to create this reaction


2nd line defense where the bacteria like to grow in this condition. The body increases its this to killoff the bacteria.

temperature, inflammatory response, and phagocytic cells, chemicals

the 4 types of second line of defense

prostaglandins, leukotrienes

two chemicals that help the basophils with the inflammatory response of 2nd line defense


group of 20 different plasma proteins that make this system for 2nd line defense and highly activated in any infection as a cascade event.

enhance the inflammatory response

complement group tells the basophils this due to the presence of infection doing this -


complement protein C3b holds onto a macrophage and a pathogen to enhance the macrophage to eat the pathogen.

Big Mac attack

membrane attack complex, where several complement proteins come together to form a complex and beats holes in a pathogen membrane.

enhance inflammatory response, opsonization, big mac attack

the three responses of thecomplement proteins


these are activated from the presence of a virus. the host infected cell from a virus, will make these and distribute to neighboring unaffected cells and they bind on cell and warn them to make antiviral proteins.

leukemia cancer

if interferon is defective in the cell, the cells are vulnerable to this type of cancer.

third line defenses

specific defenses are these line of defense

humoral pathway, cell mediated pathway

the two pathways of the specific defenses are


the stuff in between the cells

humoral pathway

target the extracellular antigens of the specific defense

cell mediated pathway

target the intracellular antigens of the specific defense.

key players

antigen, antibody,

foreign marker on an antigen

every antibody is not looking for an antigen it's looking for a ..


foreign marker of a antigen

self antigen

when your body percieves your own marker as foreign

auto-immune diseases

lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, Lou Gerigs Dx., MS, are these where antigens perceives your own marker as foreign.


proteins made by differentiated b-cells that are plasma cells to kill antigens. gamma globulin or immunoglobulin aka

skin cells make keratin-protein, pancreas make insulin-protein

example of individual cells will make protiens if they require that protein


organelle that makes proteins and the antibody protein

antibody protein

the b-cell has 23 pairs of chromosomes and the genes within the chromosome will make this


the middle man for making antibody with the ribosome within the cell

T's in DNA, U's in RNA

the pattern of chromosomes for T's belong to this and the U's belong to this.


RNA copy codon sequence - AUG CCC GCU CUA AAG , what is the DNA


each group of 3 mRNA sequence, each one is specific for amino acids

billion different

how many different antibodies doesthebody make

order of DNA

red bone marrow contains HSC using a growth process, where differentiation involving shuffling DNA nucleotides of the antibody gene into a different __ in the b-cell

constant region

the antibody is shaped like a y and the stem of the y is called.. remains the same

variable region

the upper portion of the antibody "y" is called __ d/t the shuffling of the dna for each tobe ableto match every antigen possible

the chicken pox antibody

if the b - cell antibody ahas a specific variable region that is compatible with chicken pox. it is then dedicated as

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