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1 smallest known particles that are able to replicate
39 sets


Infectious protein particles that do not have a genome


A phage genome that has been inserted into a specific site on the bacterial chromosome.

lyric cycle

Dna injected into the host cell immediately begins to be used to make protiens which assemble into new virons and destroy the cell with their exit


ability to produce disease, lyric cycle


a chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation

base pairing rule

A nucleotide with an adenine (A) base if always paired with one containing a thymine (T) base for DNA and uracil (U) base for RNA. Same applies for a cytosine (C) base which goes with a guanine (G) base

mismatch repair

The cellular process that uses specific enzymes to remove and replace incorrectly paired nucleotides

excision repair

A process whereby cells remove part of a damaged DNA strand and replace it through DNA synthesis using the undamaged strand as a template. The repair of a DNA lesion by removal of the faulty DNA segment and its replacement with a new segment.


a technique to introduce recombinant DNA into cells by applying a brief electrical pulse to a solution containing cells. The electricity creates temporary holes in the cells' plasma membranes, through which DNA can enter


A genetic element that can exist either as a plasmid or as part of the bacterial chromosome.


(jumping genes) short strands of DNA capable of moving from one location to another within a cell's genetic material

inverted repeat

A pair of noncoding DNA sequences about 20 to 40 nucleotides long. The insertion sequence is repeated upside down and backward at the other end.

direct repeat

nucleotide sequences present in multiple copies in the genome


a segment of DNA containing adjacent genes including structural genes and an operator gene and a regulatory gene


a small, circular section of extra DNA that confers one or more traits to a bacterium and can be reproduced separately from the main bacterial genetic code

binary fission

type of asexual reproduction in which an organism replicates its DNA and divides in half, producing two identical daughter cells


(genetics) modification of a cell or bacterium by the uptake and incorporation of exogenous DNA


(genetics) the process of transfering genetic material from one cell to another by a plasmid or bacteriophage


The process in which a unicellular organism transfers some of its genetic material to another unicellular organism.


a gene that causes normal cells to change into cancerous tumor cells

horizontal transmission

A pathogen is passed from one living organism to another living organism through respiratory droplets, blood, or other bodily fluid.

vertical transmission

the route by w/c an infectious disease is transmitted from one generation to the next


Viral DNA that is integrated into a host cell's chromosome and replicated each time the host cell replicates


An RNA virus that reproduces by transcribing its RNA into DNA and then inserting the DNA into a cellular chromosome; an important class of cancer-causing viruses.


substance prepared from killed or weakened pathogens and introduced into a body to produce immunity

emerging viruses

previously endemic (low level of infections in localized areas; small outbreaks); cross species; YELLOW FEVER, DINGUE FEVER (TROPICAL, W/ GLOBAL WARMING ITS HEADING NORTH), HIV (FROM SIV THAT AFFECTS MONKEYS {CROSS SPECIES}, POLIO, MEASLES


A protein sheath that surrounds the nucleic acid core in a virus


a membranelike layer that covers the capsids of some viruses

host range

the limited range of host cells that each type of virus can infect and parasitize

lysogenic cycle

A phage replication cycle in which the viral genome becomes incorporated into the bacterial host chromosome as a prophage and does not kill the host.

point mutation

mutation that affects a single nucleotide, usually by substituting one nucleotide for another

missense mutation

A point mutation in which a codon that specifies an amino acid is mutated into a codon that specifies a different amino acid.

nonsense mutation

a mutation that changes an amino acid codon to one of the three stop codons, resulting in a shorter and usually nonfunctional protein

frame shift mutation

Mutation that involves the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide in the DNA sequence

base pair substitution

A point mutation; the replacement of one nucleotide and its partner in the complementary DNA strand by another pair of nucleotides.


sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein


A coding region of a eukaryotic gene. Exons, which are expressed, are separated from each other by introns.

termination codon

One of the three codons (UAA, UAG, UGA) that signal the termination of translation of a polypeptide.


A sequence of three bases of a tRNA molecule that pairs with the complementary three-nucleotide codon of an mRNA molecule during protein synthesis.

TATA box

the nucleotide sequence T-A-T-A; often occurs in the promoter region during mRNA transcriptions.

primary transcription

An initial RNA transcript; also called pre-mRNA when transcribed from a protein-coding gene.

pre mRNA

precursor mRNA; the first strand of mRNA produced by the gene transcription that contains both introns and exons


A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code.

reading frame

On an mRNA, the triplet grouping of ribonucleotides used by the translation machinery during polypeptide synthesis


any mutant microorganism having a nutritional requirement that is absent in the parent

minimal medium

a defined medium that contains the minimal ingredients needed by genetically normal (wild type) strains of a particular species.

complete growth medium

This is a minimal medium that is supplemented with all 20 amino acids and a few other nutrients, usually required by the mutated species.


(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA


(genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm

lagging strand

a discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates by means of Okazaki fragments, each synthesized in a 5' to 3' direction away from the replication fork

leading strand

the new continuous complementary DNA strand synthesized along the template strand in the mandatory 5' --> 3' direction


A polynucleotide with a free 3´ end, bound by complementary base pairing to the template strand, that is elongated during DNA replication.

Watson and crick

Figured out structure of DNA was a double helix


a virus that infects bacteria


protein molecules around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin

multigene families

A type of variation in an organism's DNA sequence; this variation consists of several different genes that produce different proteins that are related in function

southern blotting

A technique that enables specific nucleotide sequences to be detected in a sample of DNA. It involves gel electrophoresis of DNA molecules and their transfer to a membrane (blotting), followed by nucleic acid hybridization with a labeled probe.

DNA fingerprints

patterns of bands made up of specific fragments from an individuals DNA


a normal cellular gene that has the potential to become an oncogene.

complete medium

medium containing all the nutrients that a bacterium could possibly need; supports the growth of auxotrophs

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