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Bio 1406

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viroids
1 smallest known particles that are able to replicate
39 sets
prions
Infectious protein particles that do not have a genome
prophage
A phage genome that has been inserted into a specific site on the bacterial chromosome.
lyric cycle
Dna injected into the host cell immediately begins to be used to make protiens which assemble into new virons and destroy the cell with their exit
virulence
ability to produce disease, lyric cycle
mutagen
a chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation
base pairing rule
A nucleotide with an adenine (A) base if always paired with one containing a thymine (T) base for DNA and uracil (U) base for RNA. Same applies for a cytosine (C) base which goes with a guanine (G) base
mismatch repair
The cellular process that uses specific enzymes to remove and replace incorrectly paired nucleotides
excision repair
A process whereby cells remove part of a damaged DNA strand and replace it through DNA synthesis using the undamaged strand as a template. The repair of a DNA lesion by removal of the faulty DNA segment and its replacement with a new segment.
electroporation
a technique to introduce recombinant DNA into cells by applying a brief electrical pulse to a solution containing cells. The electricity creates temporary holes in the cells' plasma membranes, through which DNA can enter
episome
A genetic element that can exist either as a plasmid or as part of the bacterial chromosome.
transposons
(jumping genes) short strands of DNA capable of moving from one location to another within a cell's genetic material
inverted repeat
A pair of noncoding DNA sequences about 20 to 40 nucleotides long. The insertion sequence is repeated upside down and backward at the other end.
direct repeat
nucleotide sequences present in multiple copies in the genome
operon
a segment of DNA containing adjacent genes including structural genes and an operator gene and a regulatory gene
plasmid
a small, circular section of extra DNA that confers one or more traits to a bacterium and can be reproduced separately from the main bacterial genetic code
binary fission
type of asexual reproduction in which an organism replicates its DNA and divides in half, producing two identical daughter cells
transformation
(genetics) modification of a cell or bacterium by the uptake and incorporation of exogenous DNA
transduction
(genetics) the process of transfering genetic material from one cell to another by a plasmid or bacteriophage
conjugation
The process in which a unicellular organism transfers some of its genetic material to another unicellular organism.
oncogene
a gene that causes normal cells to change into cancerous tumor cells
horizontal transmission
A pathogen is passed from one living organism to another living organism through respiratory droplets, blood, or other bodily fluid.
vertical transmission
the route by w/c an infectious disease is transmitted from one generation to the next
provirus
Viral DNA that is integrated into a host cell's chromosome and replicated each time the host cell replicates
retrovirus
An RNA virus that reproduces by transcribing its RNA into DNA and then inserting the DNA into a cellular chromosome; an important class of cancer-causing viruses.
vaccine
substance prepared from killed or weakened pathogens and introduced into a body to produce immunity
emerging viruses
previously endemic (low level of infections in localized areas; small outbreaks); cross species; YELLOW FEVER, DINGUE FEVER (TROPICAL, W/ GLOBAL WARMING ITS HEADING NORTH), HIV (FROM SIV THAT AFFECTS MONKEYS {CROSS SPECIES}, POLIO, MEASLES
capsid
A protein sheath that surrounds the nucleic acid core in a virus
envelope
a membranelike layer that covers the capsids of some viruses
host range
the limited range of host cells that each type of virus can infect and parasitize
lysogenic cycle
A phage replication cycle in which the viral genome becomes incorporated into the bacterial host chromosome as a prophage and does not kill the host.
point mutation
mutation that affects a single nucleotide, usually by substituting one nucleotide for another
missense mutation
A point mutation in which a codon that specifies an amino acid is mutated into a codon that specifies a different amino acid.
nonsense mutation
a mutation that changes an amino acid codon to one of the three stop codons, resulting in a shorter and usually nonfunctional protein
frame shift mutation
Mutation that involves the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide in the DNA sequence
base pair substitution
A point mutation; the replacement of one nucleotide and its partner in the complementary DNA strand by another pair of nucleotides.
intron
sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein
exon
A coding region of a eukaryotic gene. Exons, which are expressed, are separated from each other by introns.
termination codon
One of the three codons (UAA, UAG, UGA) that signal the termination of translation of a polypeptide.
anticodon
A sequence of three bases of a tRNA molecule that pairs with the complementary three-nucleotide codon of an mRNA molecule during protein synthesis.
TATA box
the nucleotide sequence T-A-T-A; often occurs in the promoter region during mRNA transcriptions.
primary transcription
An initial RNA transcript; also called pre-mRNA when transcribed from a protein-coding gene.
pre mRNA
precursor mRNA; the first strand of mRNA produced by the gene transcription that contains both introns and exons
codon
A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code.
reading frame
On an mRNA, the triplet grouping of ribonucleotides used by the translation machinery during polypeptide synthesis
auxotroph
any mutant microorganism having a nutritional requirement that is absent in the parent
minimal medium
a defined medium that contains the minimal ingredients needed by genetically normal (wild type) strains of a particular species.
complete growth medium
This is a minimal medium that is supplemented with all 20 amino acids and a few other nutrients, usually required by the mutated species.
transcription
(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
translation
(genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
lagging strand
a discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates by means of Okazaki fragments, each synthesized in a 5' to 3' direction away from the replication fork
leading strand
the new continuous complementary DNA strand synthesized along the template strand in the mandatory 5' --> 3' direction
primer
A polynucleotide with a free 3´ end, bound by complementary base pairing to the template strand, that is elongated during DNA replication.
Watson and crick
Figured out structure of DNA was a double helix
bacteriophage
a virus that infects bacteria
histones
protein molecules around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin
multigene families
A type of variation in an organism's DNA sequence; this variation consists of several different genes that produce different proteins that are related in function
southern blotting
A technique that enables specific nucleotide sequences to be detected in a sample of DNA. It involves gel electrophoresis of DNA molecules and their transfer to a membrane (blotting), followed by nucleic acid hybridization with a labeled probe.
DNA fingerprints
patterns of bands made up of specific fragments from an individuals DNA
proto-oncogenes
a normal cellular gene that has the potential to become an oncogene.
complete medium
medium containing all the nutrients that a bacterium could possibly need; supports the growth of auxotrophs