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e.g. cystitis - bacterial infections often cause acute or chronic cystities. In acute cystities, the bladder contains blood as a result of mucosal hemorrhage
e.g. cystectomy, cystostomy- an opening is made into the urinary bladder from the outside of the body. A catherter is placed into the bladder for drainage
e.g. paranephric, nephropathy
e.g. nephroptosis- downward displacement or dropping of a kidney when its anatomic supports are weakened.
e.g. nephropexy- is an operation to put a floating kidney in place (pexy- means fixation)
e.g. hydronephrosis- obstruction of urine flow may be caused by renal calculi compressionn of the ureter by tumor, or hperplasia of the prostate gland at the base of the bladder in males
e.g. nephrostomy- surgical opening to the outside of the body (from the renal pelvis). This is necessary when a rueter becomes obstructed and the obstruction cannot be removed easily. the renal pelvis becomes distended with urine (hydronephrosis), making nephrostomy necessary
e.g. pyelotithotomy- removal of a large calculus (stone) contributing to blockage of urine flow and developemtn of infection. The renal pelvis is surgically opened
e.g. renal ischemia, renal colic
Colic- is intermittent spasms of pain caused by inflammation and distention of an organ. In renal colic, pain results from calculi in the kidney or ureter
e.g. ureteroplasty, ureteroileostomy- after cystectomy, the urologic surgeon forms a pouch from a segment of the ileum, used in place of the bladder to carry urine from the ureteres out of the body. It is an ileal conduit
e.g. urethrities, urethroplasty, urethral stricture
stricture is an abnormal narrowing of an opening or passageway
e.g. intravesical, vesicoureteral reflux
***dont confuse the term vesical with the term vesicle, which is a small blister on the skin***
albumin (a protein in the blood)
e.g. albuminuria- the suffix -uria means urine condition. This finding can indicate malfunction of the kidney as protein leaks out of damaged glomeruli. Microalbuminuria is leakage of very small amounts of albumin thru the glomeruli
e.g. azotemia- this toxic condition is characteristic of uremia. It is indicated by an elevated BUN (blood urea nitrogen) test
e.g. bacteriuria-usually a sign of urinary tract infection (UTI). The bacteria in the urine are cultured (grown in a special nutrient enviroment), and then tested with antibiotics to determine which antibiotic will inhibit growth. This known as cuure and sensitivity testing (C&S)
e.g. hyperdalemia- since potassium is normally excreted y the kidneys, it accumulates in blood when the kidneys fail
Ketone bodies (ketoacids and acetone)
e.g.ketonuria, ketosis-often called detoacidosis because acidss accumulate in the blood and tissues. The breath of a patient with ketosis has a sweet or "fruity" ordor. This is produced by acetone (a ketone body) released from the blood in the lungs and exhaled through the mouth
e.g. hyponatremia- this condition can occur in advanced chronic kidney disease as fluid builds up in the blood and tissues, diluting the amount of salt in the body. It can also occura in high-endurance events, such as marathons,when athletes drink too much water
e.g. uremia- this toxic state results when nitrogenous waste accumulates abnormally in the blood
e.g. enuresis- literally, a condition fo being "in urine" ; bed wetting
e.g. diuresis- di- (from dia-) means complete. Caffeine and alcohol are well known diuretics- they induce increased excretion of urine (diuresis)
e.g. antidiuretic hormone- this hormone from the pituitary gland normally acts on the renal tubels to promote water reabsorption. It is also called vasopressin and abbreviated ADH
e.g. urinary incontinence- incontinence literally means not (in-) able to hold (-tin) together (con-). This is loss of control of the passage of urine from the bladder. Stress incontinence occurs with strain on the bladder opening during coughing or sneeezing. Urgency incontinence occurs with inability to hold back urination when feeling the urge to void
urination; urine condition
e.g. dysuria, anuria: commonly caused by renal failure or urinary tract obstruction
e.g. hematuria, glycosuria-sign of diabetes mellitus
e.g. polyuria: symptom ofboth diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus
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