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MGMT Chp 11
Terms in this set (49)
the set of shared, taken-for-granted implicit assumptions that a group holds and the determines how it perceives, thinks about, and reacts to its various
shared concept, learned over time, influences behavior at work, impacts outcomes at multiple levels
What are the four characteristics of organizational culture?
Learned over time
The characteristic of organizational culture that is passed on to new employees through the process of socialization and mentoring
Influences our behavior at work
The characteristic of organizational culture that is why "culture eats strategy for breakfast" (culture must be aligned with strategy
Impacts outcomes at multiple levels
the characteristic of organizational culture that affects outcomes at the individual group/team, and organizational levels
The characteristic of organizational culture that consists of beliefs and values that are shared among a group of people
Drivers that effect culture
These include: the founder's values, the industry and business environment, the national culture, the organizations vision and strategies, and the behavior of leaders
The physical manifestation of an organization's culture. Ex: acronyms, manner of dress, awards, myths and stories told about the organization, published lists of values, observable rituals, social parking places, and decorations
explicitly stated values and norms that are preferred by an organization. Usually in writing established by the founder and top management - what we stand for
values and norms that are actually exhibited or converted into employee behavior. What we actually do
Basic underling assumptions
organizational values that have become so taken for granted over time that they become assumptions that guide organizational behavior. Deep seated beliefs that employees have about their organizations and the core of organizational beliefs. Highly resistant to change
organizational identity, facilitates collective commitment, promotes social system stability, shapes behaviors by helping members make sense of their surroundings
What are the four functions of organizational culture?
Promote social system stability
One of the four functions of organizational culture; the extent to which the work environment is perceived as positive and reinforcing, and the extent to which conflict and change are effectively managed
Shapes behaviors by helping members make sense of their surroundings
One of the four functions of organizational culture; helps employees understand why the organization does what it does and how it intends to accomplish its long term goals
clan culture, adhocracy culture, market culture, hierarchy culture
What are the four types of organizational culture?
companies with this type of organizational culture have an internal focus and they value flexibility rather than stability and control. Effectiveness achieved by encouraging collaboration, trust, and support. Employee-focused. Represents family type that strives to instill cohesion through consensus and job satisfaction and commitment through employee involvement
Competing values framework
looks at whether an organization focuses its attention on internal dynamics and employees or outward toward its external environment and customers and shareholders and an organizations preference on flexibility and discretion or control and stability. These two axis combine to form 4 types of organizational culture that are based on different core values and different set of criteria for assessing organizational effectiveness
A type of organizational culture that has external focus and value flexibility. Creation of new products and services and culture is adaptable, creative, and fast to respond to the marketplace. Do not rely on centralized power and relationships but empower and encourage employees to take risk, think outside the box and experiment with new ways of getting things done.
A type of organizational culture that has strong external focus and value stability and control. Characterized by competition and strong desire to deliver results and accomplish goals. Competition is the strategic thrust. Focused on external environment, customers and profits take precedence over employee development and satisfaction. Major goal of managers is to drive toward productivity, profits, and customer satisfaction
Which level of organizational culture is the hardest to change? A) artifacts B) transactional C) enacted values D) Espoused values E) Basic underlying assumptions
A type of organizational culture that has internal focus and formalized and structured work environment, Values stability and control over flexibility and efficiency, timeliness, and reliability. Control is the strategic thrust. This orientation leads to the development of reliable internal processes, extensive measurement, and the implementation of a variety of control mechanisms. Effectiveness is likely to be assessed with measures of efficiency, timeliness, safety and reliability. Can have both positive and negative effects
Conclusions about organizational culture
1. Organizational culture is related to measures of organizational effectiveness 2. Employees are more satisfied and committed to organizations with clan culture 3. Innovation and quality can be increased by building characteristics associated with clan, adhocracy, and market cultures 4. Financial performance is not strongly related to organizational culture 5. Market cultures tend to have more positive organizational outcomes
Truths about culture change
1. Leaders are the architects and developers of organizational change 2. Changing culture starts with one of the three levels of organizational culture - artifacts, espoused values, and basic underlying assumptions 3. Consider how closely the current culture aligns with the organization's vision and strategic plan 4. Use a structured approach when implementing culture change
creation and management of culture
According to Schein, what is the most important role of a leader?
This can be a source of competitive advantage
Who are the architects and developers of organizational change? Culture is not determined by fate, it is formed and shaped by the ongoing behavior of everyone who works at a company
The fastest way to do this is through the use of observable artifacts - however you can't do this unless you change underlying assumptiosn
long term goal that describes what an organization wants to become
outlines an organization's long term goals and the actions necessary to achieve those goals
multiple approaches can be used to change culture, cultural change is frequently met with resistance
A mechanism for creating culture change; use of organizational philosophy, mission, vision, values, and materials used for recruiting. Represents visible artifacts.
12 common mechanisms
Changing organizational culture involves a teaching process. What is used in the teaching process?
Design of physical space
A mechanism for creating culture change; physical spacing among people and buildings. Location of office furniture. Ex: open office environment is more appropriate for an organization that wants to foster collaboration
Slogans, language, acronyms, and sayings
A mechanism for culture change; easy to remember and easy to repeat
role modeling, training, coaching
A mechanism for culture change; structure training to prove an in-depth introduction about organizational values and basic underlying assumptions
Explicit rewards, status symbols
A mechanism for culture change; strong impact on employees due to its highly visible and meaningful nature. Strongest way to embed culture. This is one of the strongest ways to embed culture - remember to consider what motivates your employees when it comes to culture
stories legends or myths
A mechanism for culture change; powerful way to send messages about values and behaviors that are desired.
organizational activities and processes
a mechanism for culture change; leaders pay attention to those activities they can measure and control. Sends message to employees about acceptable norms
leader reactions to critical incidents
a mechanism for culture change; people learn and pay attention to emotions exhibited by leaders. Positive emotions spread and negative emotions travel faster and further
Rite and rituals
A mechanism for creating culture; planned and unplanned activities and ceremonies. Used to celebrate important events or achievements
Workflow and organizational structure
A mechanism for creating culture; hierarchical structure vs. flatter organizations. Reducing the number of organizational layers is an attempt to empower employees and increase employee involvement
Organizational systems and procedures and Organizational goals
A mechanism for creating culture; throughout employee lifecycle - how a company handles communication, recruitment, selection, development, promotion, layoffs, and retirements. This is how a company handles basic HR duties
the process by which a person learns the values, norms, and required behaviors which permit them to participate as a member of an organization. This turns outsiders into fully functioning insiders by promoting and reinforcing the organizations core values and beliefs. A three phase model of this includes anticipatory socialization, encounter and change and acquisition. Each phase has associated perceptual and social process. Can take a few weeks to year to complete depending on individual differences and the complexity of the situation
Anticipatory socialization, encounter, change and acquisition
What are the three phases in organizational socialization?
Phase one of organizational socialization; occurs before an individual actually joins an organization. Information learned about careers and organizations. Learned from: current employees, social media, and internet. Unrealistic expectations can arise during this phase and unrealistic expectations can lead to turnover organizations can use realistic job preview during this phase = giving recruits a realistic idea about what lies ahead by presenting both the positive and negative aspects of the job
Phase two of organizational socialization; employees come to learn what the organization is really like. Organizations use onboarding programs. Begins when the employment contract has be signed. Reconciles unmet expectations and makes sense of the work environment.
Occurs during the encounter phase of organizational socialization - helps employees to integrate, assimilate, and transition into new jobs by making them familiar with corporate policies, procedures, culture, and politics. And by clarifying work-role expectations and responsibilities
change and acquisition
Phase 3 of organizational socialization; employees master important tasks and roles and adjust to their group's values and norms. This will occur only when employees have a clear understanding about their roles and they are effectively integrated with in the work unit
Practical application of organizational socialization research
1. Effective on boarding programs result in increased retention, productivity, and rates of task completion for new hires. 2. Many organizations use socialization tactics to reinforce a culture that promotes ethical behavior 3. Managers need to help new hires integrate with the culture to overcome stress associated with a new environment 4. Support for the stage model is mixed, different techniques are appropriate for different people at different times 5. Managers should pay attention to the socialization of diverse employees
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