Geography Population Key Terms
Key terms and case studies
Terms in this set (35)
how population is spread out in an area
number of people in an area
Number of individuals per unit area
a lot of people in one area
few people in an area
the number of births in a population in a certain amount of time
The number of deaths in a population in a certain amount of time
A figure indicating how long, on average, a person may be expected to live. Normally expressed in the context of a particular state.
birth rate - death rate
Annual population growth
birth rate - death rate -/+ migration
it grows faster and faster
e.g world population within the past few years
What is the population pyramid?
A diagram that shows the % of men and women of different ages within a certain country
Population Pyramid Stage 1
Wide base due to HIGH birth rate. Very low/short and flat due to HIGH death rate and LOW life expectancy. Gaps due to illnesses which wipe out large numbers
Population Pyramid Stage 2
Still wide and low but getting taller as the DEATH RATE drops
Population Pyramid Stage 3
Narrowing due to dropping death rate
Population Pyramid Stage 4
Base narrows further and the height extends higher
Demographic Transition Model (DTM)
Stage 1 - Bother birth rates and death rates are high because children die young
Stage 2 - the death rate drops due to improved healthcare and medicine
Stage 3 - birth rate drops due to contraception and the emancipation of women
Stage 4 - birth rate and death rate are both low
This causes natural increase
Population in MEDCs and LEDCs
population is usually stable
some MEDCs like Germany and Sweden have a falling population (stage 5)
movement in or out of an area/country
INTO a country
OUT of a country
from one country to another
move within the same country
choose to move
told that they have to move
PUSH factors examples
push people away from where you are - bad things
drought, famine, poverty, no jobs, isolated
PULL factors examples
pull people towards somewhere else - good things
food, jobs, family, climate, schools, healthcare
Migration case study
Poland to the UK
VOLUNTARY, INTERNATIONAL AND ECONOMIC
Why did people move from Poland?
They come to work in factories, supermarkets and building sites
When the EU expanded many Eastern Europeans took the opportunity to move and make money
(Sweden, Ireland and Britain allow EU workers to work immediately)
Effects on the UK as a result of the Polish migration
Peterborough is very popular with polish immigrants, so it has many polish shops and culture.
Polish people have better jobs and more pay
£300 a month in Lithuania but £300 a week in UK
Enthusiastic and hard working workers
Population policies - France and Thailand
France - Problem: not enough people
Solution: encouraged women to take time off/ supported costs of having a family NOT SUCCESSFUL
Thailand - Problem: too many people
Solution: media campaign to teach people its better have fewer children SUCCESSFUL POLICY
China case study - controlling population
Problems: 1.3 billion population, in 1950's encourages people to have more kids bc they believed it would create a powerful country. Population was expanding too fast and led to famines as they couldn't produce enough food.
Solutions: 1 child policy (1979)
Instructions: families were offered benefits if they only had one child e.g, free education, priority housing, family benefits
Fined a lot of money if they have more than 1 child, as do all their work colleges, their new child/children wont be recognised as Chinese citizens. They lose all benefits.
Exceptions: Live in the countryside (children needed for work), both parents are only children, twins.
Effects of the 1 child policy
Good: prevented 400 million babies being born, so has dropped birth rate, less pressure on resources
Bad: some parts of china are very strict and give forced abortions and sterilisation. Killed baby girls (they prefer boys traditionally and as only one child allowed they kill girl to pretend they never had a child). Lots of spoilt baby boys 'little emperors'.
UK aging population
Problem: Good healthcare means low death rate so people live longer. Pensions payed from young people's taxes. Not enough money to pay them. Pressure on health service.
Solution: Increase taxes (very unpopular), raise retirements age so people don't get pension until older. Make old people work part time. Encourage immigration of young workers. Use old people to help e.g with childcare for grandchildren. Encourage people to have more children (long term solution)
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