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87 terms

Human Biology

Heart and Blood Vessels
STUDY
PLAY
away from
blood in the arteries always travels ______ the heart
lungs
In the human systemic circuit, blood will pass through all, but which of the following: liver, limbs, lungs, digestive organs, brain
left
the systemic circuit leaves the heart from the __________ ventricle
left
the aorta leaves the ______ ventricle
right
the pulmonary artery carries blood away from the _____ ventricle
right
blood from the body is first received by the heart in the ______ atrium
venules
in its travel through the human body, blood usually continues on from capillaries to enter ______
arterioles
the greatest drop in blood pressure occurs in the ______
arterioles
by controlling their musculature, which of the following can vary the resistance to blood flow? arteries, veins, capillaries, arterioles
veins and venules
because of their great elasticity, which of the following can function as blood volume reservoirs during times of low metabolic output?: veins and venules, arteries, arterioles, capillaries, all of these
arterioles
which controls the distribution of blood?: arterioles, capillaries, venules
interstitial fluid
the blood makes pickups and deliveries most directly to ....
erythrocytes
extracellular fluid contains all but which of the following: erythrocytes, ions, white blood cells, lymph, water
release of iron to aid in the clumping of platelets
hemostasis in vertebrates includes all of the following except: blood clot formation, vessel constriction, release of iron to aid in the clumping of platelets, vessel spasms
fats
which is transported in greater quantities in the lymphatic system than in the blood: red blood cells, wastes, fats, amino acids, white blood cells
stomach
the lymphoid organs include all, but the: spleen, stomach, thymus, tonsils, appendix
lymphatic
the system which reclaims fluids and proteins that have escaped from blood capillaries is the: cardiovascular, pulmonary, lymphatic, sinoatrial, venous
body's organs
the aorta transports blood to the: right atrium, left atrium, jugular vein, body's organs
less
the wall of an arteriole has (more/less) smooth muscle than the wall of an artery
lymphatic system
excess plasma fluid in the tissues is returned to the cardiovascular system by the: digestive system, spleen, lymphatic system
Purkinje fibers (Southerners Always Ask About Prime Rib)
Sinoatrial node, atria, atrioventricular node, atrioventricular bundle, ________, ventricles
B) Atria contract, causing blood to fill the ventricles
Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the phase of the cardiac cycle known as ventricular systole?:
A) The atrioventricular valves close
B) Atria contract, causing blood to fill the ventricles
C) The ventricles contract
C) Dilation of the blood vessels
which of the following is characteristic of the parasympathetic nervous system?:
A) increase in blood pressure
B) Secretion of the hormone epinephrine
C) Dilation of blood vessels
Veins are more distensible than arteries
Which of the following is a correct statement: Veins has smaller lumen than arteries; Veins are more distensible than arteries; Veins carry blood to the capillaries of the body
blood pressure
baroreceptors regulate _______
capillaries
exchange of water and solutes between the blood and cells occurs in the ______
arteries
_____ carry blood under higher pressure than blood found in veins or capillaries
veins
_______ can store excess blood
aorta
the left ventricle has a more muscular wall than the other three chambers of the heart because the left ventricle must generate enough blood pressure to pump blood into the ______
pericardium
the heart is contained within a tough fibrous sac called the
arteries
when blood first leaves the heart, it first enters the ______
heart sounds
the term lub-DUB is best associated with
pacemaker
the _______ regulates the rate of heart contraction
ventricular fibrillation
which of the following is typically treated by cardioversion?: stroke, aneurysm, ventricular fibrillation
right ventricle
which of the following is NOT part of the systemic circuit: capillaries of the body; aorta; right ventricle; aortic seminal valve
right ventricle
after blood flows through the right atrium of the heart, its next major destination is the ______
closing of the heart valve
heart sounds result from
pulmonary vein
which of the following blood vessels transports oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart: carotid artery; pulmonary vein; iliac vein
deoxygenated, pulmonary trunk
blood pumped from the right ventricle is _______ and enters the _______
endocardium, myocardium, epicardium
describe the composition of the heart wall, from inside to outside....
left atrium; left ventricle
the bicuspid valve differs from the tricuspid valve in that the bicuspid valve regulates the flow of blood from the _____ to ______
protein molecules
as blood flows through a capillary, fluid moves from the blood into the extracellular fluid surrounding the cells. Which of the following does not move with this fluid into the extracellular fluid: water, nutrients, oxygen, raw material used by the cells, protein molecules
angiogram
an xray picture of the blood vessels
B) In order to maintain homeostasis, arterial blood pressure is allowed to fluctuate so that the oxygen/nutrient demands of various tissues are met
which of the following is NOT true regarding the regulation of blood flow:
A) Baroreceptors are important in the regulation of blood pressure
B) In order to maintain homeostasis, arterial blood pressure is allowed to fluctuate so that the oxygen/nutrient demands of various tissues are met
C) Blood flow to localized areas is adjusted to meet these requirements of that particular tissue
A) Lymph flows from lymph to lymph capillaries to larger lymphatic vessels to the heart and lungs
which of the following is NOT true regarding the lymphatic system?
A) Lymph flows from lymph to lymph capillaries to larger lymphatic vessels to the heart and lungs
B) The lymphatic system removes microorganisms from the body fluid
C) Lymphatic capillaries absorb liquid droplets from interstitial fluid
pulmonary capillaries
blood becomes oxygenated in the
atrioventricular valves
which of the following is not part of the cardiac conduction system: atrioventricular valves, sinoatrial node, specialized cardiac muscle cells
capillary
which of the following blood vessels has the thinnest wall?
capillary, arteriole, venule, artery, vein
erythrocytes
which cell is NOT the same type as the others: erythrocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes
erythrocytes
which of the following is NOT involved with the defense response: erythrocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes
platelets
which cell produces the fibrin used in blood clots
iron
hemoglobin contains which element
bone marrow
in adult humans, red blood cells originate in the ______
erythrocytes
in humans which cells does NOT have a nucleus when mature?: erythrocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes
erythropoietin
________ stimulates the red bone marrow to generate the red blood cells
kidneys
when the oxygen level in tissues is low, which of the following secretes enzymes that trigger the production of erythropoietin, causing an increase in red blood cell production?: lungs, kidneys, liver, spleen
B) During fetal development, the circulatory system develops from the lymphatic system
which of the following is NOT true regarding the circulatory system?
A) This system ensures that waster products are removed from all tissues of the body
B) During fetal development, the circulatory system develops from the lymphatic system
C) The circulatory system has an important role in the exchange of gases in the lungs
water
approximately 90% of blood plasma is made up of _____
hemoglobin
which of the following is NOT a component of blood plasma: nutrients, waste products, hemoglobin, water, proteins
produce antibodies
which of the following is not a characteristic of red blood cells?
produce antibodies, flexible, contain hemoglobin, transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
defend the body from disease
white blood cells differ from red blood cells in that white blood cells....
red blood cells
a scientist is interested in doing a research project on hemoglobin. from which of the following could he extract the hemoglobin for his study?: globulins; red blood cells; clotting proteins
hemoglobin
this is composed of four polypeptide chains, each with a heme group; it bonds to oxygen; iron is an important part of its structure; and is approximately 300 million molecules of this fill a red blood cell
deoxyhemoglobin
this type of hemoglobin would be found in blood flowing from an abdominal organ of the body
A) They carry oxygen from the cells to the lungs
which of the following is NOT true regarding red blood cells?
A) They carry oxygen from the cells to the lungs
B) Aged red blood cells are removed from circulation by cells of the liver and spleen
C) They live approximately 120 days
D) They do not contain mitochondria
E) They produce ATP by anaerobic metabolism
red bone marrow
regarding the recycling of hemoglobin, the iron atoms are returned to the ________
C) polycythemia vera
which of the following would a high hematocrit indicate?
A) inadequate red blood cell production
B) excessive production of platelets
C) polycythemia vera
erythropoietin
blood doping, practiced by some athletes to improve their performance, involves the abuse of drugs that resemble
red bone marrow
red blood cells and white blood cells are both produced in _______
spleen
dead and injured white blood cells are removed from circulation by the _______
white blood cells
what component in blood increases in number in response to the presence of an infection agent?
lymphocytes
B and T are best associated with....
large parasite
eosinophils are especially important in defending the human body from infection by _____
neutrophils
what type of white blood cell is capable of phagocytosis?
neutrophil
which of the following is classified as granulocyte? stem cell, monocyte, neutrophil, red blood cell
thrombopoietin
which hormone regulates the production of platelets?
C) vascular spasm
which of the following occurs first in the process of hemostasis?
A) formation of a platelet plug
B) production of fibrin
C) vascular spasm
globulin
which of the following is NOT directly involved in the process of blood clotting: clotting factor VIII, globulins, calcium ions, fibrin
clotting factors
prothrombin activator, thrombin, and fibrinogen are classified as ___________ factors
Rh
if an individual is O+, which antigens are on the surface of his red blood cells
B and O
what blood type can a person with type B safely recieve in a blood transfusion?
AB
Results of an ABO blood typing indicate agglutination reactions when anti-A and anti-B are added to the blood sample. the blood type of the individual would therefore be _____
mom is RH-; fetus is Rh+
hemolytic disease of the newborn could result from: mom is Rh __(+/-)___; fetus is Rh __(+/-)__
hematocrit
if a person were to stay at high altitudes for a long periods of time, his _______ would increase in order to compensate for the decrease in amount of oxygen in the air he is breathing
arterial
as an individual ages, the systolic blood pressure increases slightly, due to less elasticity in the ____ walls
lumen
the _______ of capillaries is so small that red blood cells must travel through these blood vessels in single file or sometimes actually squeeze through
systole
the cardiac cycle consists of a period of heart contraction called ______ and a period of heart relaxation called diastole