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Rotation- the spinning of Earth on its axis
Revolution-the movement of one object around another


the days when the sun is farthest north of south of the equator


the days when neither hemisphere is tilted toward or away from the sun


a push or pull

Mass vs Weight

Mass : amount of matter in an object
Weight: the force of gravity on an object


Inertia the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion

Scientific method

approach to investigation combiningthinking and doing thatis theory and experiment also known as scientific method. the process combining theoretical reasoning experimental testing.


Umbra When the moon is in the Earth's ____, you see a total lunar eclipse.
penumbra shadow when a full lunar eclipse occurs


geocentric describes the concept of an Earth-centered universe


heliocentric describes the view that the sun is at the center of the solar system

Astronomical unit (AU)

astronomical unit (AU) average distance from he Earth to the sun; 1.5 × 10⁸, or million kilometers


ellipse an oval

perihelion, aphelion

perihelion the point in the orbit of a planet where it is closest to the sunaphelion the place in the orbit of a planet where the planet is farthest from the sun


precession a slow motion of Earth's axis that traces out a cone over a period of 26,000 years

Perigge, apogee

perigee the point at which the moon is closest to the Earth
apogee the point where the moon is farthest from Earth


solar eclipse an eclipse of the sun; a solar eclipse occurs when the moon moves in a line directly between Earth and the sun, casting a shadow on earth
lunar eclipse an eclipse of the moon; occurs when the moon passes through Earth's shadow

Kelpers Laws

Kepler law #1 all planets orbit sun in ellipse
Kepler law #2 when a planet is closer to the sun in its orbit, it moves faster
Kepler law #3 T²=D³ (the time of a planets orbital period ² is proportional to the average distance³

Galileo Onservations

Galileo Galilei greatest scientist of Italian Renaissance
Galileo Galilei discovered 4 large satellites of Jupiter
Galileo Galilei discovered planets Earth-like
Galileo Galilei discovered Venus had phases like moon
Galileo Galilei discovered Sun had dark regions (sunspots)

Newstons Laws

Sir Isaac Newton formulated law of universal gravitation
Sir Isaac Newton every body in universe attracts to other bodies with a force that is directly proportional to their mass and inversely proportional to the ² of the distance between centers of mass
Law of universal gravitation

Synodic Month, Day

synodic month new moon --> new moon is called

sidereal day, month, year

sidereal month earth, moon, and star are all aligned


Electron Negatively charged particle found OUTSIDE the nucleus.


Proton Positively charged particle found INSIDE the nucleus.


Isotope Any of two or more forms of the same element whose atoms all have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.


Refraction The bending of light when it passes from one transparent medium to another. Different colors of light ____ by different amounts.


Spectroscopy The study of spectra

Velocity, Speed

Velocity The speed (and direction) of propagation of a wave disturbance through a medium


Wavelength Distance between two identical points on successive waves. Different ____ refer to different colors.

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