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228 terms

mid term Health and Wellness

Ch. 1-9
STUDY
PLAY
valid
based on evidence or supported by scientifically accurate data.
testimony
a firsthand declaration of fact.
credentials
titles, education, or training that verify a persons intellectual or professional ability.
infectious diseases
diseases that are caused by organisms that can spread through water, food, air, or human contact.
diabetes
disease in which the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, a hormone needed to properly convert sugar to energy.
osteoporosis
a condition in which the bones lose their density and strength.
homeostasis
a condition of the body's internal harmony as regulated by interaction or many body systems.
optimal health
the condition in which a person is the healthiest that he or she can possible be.
social support network
people who are willing and able to provide emotional and physical resources to help you in the time of need.
chronic diseases
diseases that last for a long time with little change.
life expectancy
a measure of how long a person has left to live based on data related to current causes of death.
longevity
the length of a persons life.
metabolic rate
the rate at which your body uses food and oxygen to carry out various body processes.
genes
the small units of hereditary material found inside the nucleus of a cell.
risk factors
identifiable conditions or behaviors that increases one's risk of getting ill or injured.
health literacy
the ability to obtain, interpret, understand, and apply basic health information and services.
critical thinking
evaluating the worth, accuracy, or authenticity of issues and information leading to a level of conclusion that can direct thoughts or actions.
deductive reasoning
reasoning that begins with the general and ends with the specific arguments are based on laws, rules, and established principles, and conclusions are based on two or more premises.
inductive reasoning
reasoning that moves from the specific to the general; reasoning in which arguments are based on experience or observations rather than on laws or proven facts.
mind mapping
technique that enables you to organize and illustrate your thoughts using both sides of your brain.
opinion
A belief based on what seems to be true rather than on tested knowledge.
feedback
a way to check it you understand what someone has said (a common method is to restate in your own words what you heard and ask the speaker if this is what he or she meant.)
health risk appraisal
a computerized assessment of an individuals health age in relation to his or her actual age.
surgeon general
Highest ranking medical officer in the United States.
public health
sum of federal, state, and local health agencies and organizations working together to promote health and prevent disease for the community as a whole.
social support
real or perceived emotion and physical support received by family., friends, neighbors, and coworkers.
ecosystem
a complex collection of living things that share a specific environment.
wellness
behaviors and habits that have a positive influence on health.
social psychology
the study of how people's thoughts, emotions, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others.
health promotion
policies and activities designed to encourage wellness.
wellness motives
the sum of knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes.
stress
the physical and emotional states experienced as a result of changes and challenges in our lives.
stressors
situations that trigger physical and emotional reactions in our bodies.
distress
a negative form of stress that occurs in reaction to something we perceive as bad
eustress
a form of stress that occurs in reaction to something we perceive as good but exciting
general adaption syndrome (GAS)
the body's physiological response to continuous stress; it includes three phases: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.
fight or flight response
the response of the nervous and endocrine systems to supply the body with energy to fight back or escape from a stressor.
job stress
the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when the job does not match the capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker.
post traumatic stress disorder
a mental disturbance that results from experiencing or witnessing a traumatic event that is replayed over and over in the mind after the event is over.
homeostasis
the state of the body during relaxation when the body is functioning normally in a stable, balances state.
stress response
the physical reactions that occur in the body when a stressor is experienced
autonomic nervous system
the division of the nervous system that controls basic body processes that are largely involentary such as breathing, heart beat, blood pressure, and digestion.
sympathetic nervous system
the branch of the autonomic nervous system that responds to a stressor by accelerating body processes
parasympathetic
the branch of the autonomic nervous system that slows down body processes and returns the body to homeostasis after a stressful situation has passed
endocrine system
a system of glands, tissues, and cells that produce hormones to help regulate bodily processes.
hormones
chemical messengers produced by he endocrine system to help regulate bodily processes
cortisol
a significant hormone produced by the adrenal glands and involved in a number of body functions such as regulation of sugar, metabolism, and blood pressure.
psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)
the study of the interrelationships among the emotions, brain, nervous system and immune system
stress hardiness
resilience when confronted with stressors, as identified by the characteristics of challenge, control, and commitment
mentally healthy
refers to a person who has the ability to perceive reality in terms of facts and can respond appropriately to a person who is in touch with his or her entire range of feelings and can express those feelings in an appropriate way
resiliency
the ability to bounce back after experiencing distressing or traumatic events
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
a well known representation of human needs progressing from most to least urgent; these include physical needs, safety and security, love and belonging, self-esteem, and self-actualization
self-actualization
the highest level in Maslow's hierarchy of needs, representing an optimal level of mental and emotional function
identity
the recognition and expression of your uniqueness as a person, including your attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors.
defense mechanisms
mental strategies and behaviors used to protect ourselves from situations that cause conflict or anxiety
neuron
a specialized body cell that is the basic unit of nerve tissue
neurotransmitters
chemical substances that enable transmission of information among neurons
receptors
nerve endings that receive stimuli, as from the sense organs
outpatient
refers to treatment given to a patient during periodic visits to a health care facility or physicians office
inpatient
refers to treatment given to a patient who has been admitted to a patient who has been admitted to a health care facility
phobias
overwhelming, illegal fears of an event or object
cognitive-behavioral therapy
used by a trained mental health professional to help a patient alter his or her response to a stimulus
obsessions
unwanted and distressing thoughts or impulses that occur repeatedly.
compulsions
repetitive behaviors that are performed in response to obsessive thoughts
manic
referring to mania, excessive mental and physical energy often associated with mood disorders
schizophrenia
a brain disease that is perhaps the most severe of the mental illnesses
psychotic
referring to a mental disorder in which the patient loses touch with reality by way of hallucinations, paranoid behavior, and fantasy thoughts.
stigma
a belief that most people will devalue and discriminate against individuals who have a mental illness or seek treatment
psychotherapists
mental health professionals who are trained to treat mental disorders using psychological counseling techniques
psychiatrists
medical doctors who specializes in treating mental illness
suicide
a deliberate, intentional, self-inflicted act that results in one's own death
attempted suicide
deliberate, intentional, self-inflicted act that intended to cause death
complete suicide
a term used to describe a suicide attempt that results in death
conflict
a struggle caused by incompatible or opposing interests, values, needs, or desires
intrapersonal conflict
confusion or struggle within yourself
interpersonal conflict
disagreement or argument between persons or groups
deterrence
the use of threats by one party to intimidate another party from exercising a particular behavior
coercion
the use of physical or psychological threat or force to obtain a desired outcome
bullying
the use of threats or force by one person or group to intimidate another person or group
cyberbullying
the use of electronic information and communication technologies, such as internet or text messaging, to harass and intimidate
tolerance
respect for people whose beliefs and practices differ from yours
conflict resolution
a structured problem solving process that uses reflective awareness, communication skills, and decision-making skills to prevent, manage, and peacefully resolve conflicts.
negotiation
a process in which two disputing parties work out their own problems by talking through them without the assistance of an outside party
mediation
a process in which two disputing parties work out their problems by talking through them with an outside person who facilitates the discussion
compromise
a conflict resolution in which both parties give up something
boundaries
imaginary lines that indicate a limit beyond which you will not go
respect
family members do not belittle or demean each other
trust
family members do not intentionally hurt each other
honesty
family members tell you the truth
authenticity
family members are real and genuine
love
family members are able to express their positive feelings for each other physically and verbally
acceptance
family members allow the other family members to be themselves
commitment
family members are committed to the well-being of all the family members and work to ensure the best possible outcomes for each other
communication
family members learn and use good communication skills, not just by talking but also by listening and reading body language
problem solving
family members make the effort to acquire or develop good skills in problem solving
conflict resolution
when conflicts occur between or among family members, they have the necessary skills to work through the conflict and each a solution that is mutually acceptable to everyone involved
traditional family
a family that consists of two parents and their biological or adopted children
extended family
sharing a home with numerous relatives
blended family
a family created when one or both of the partners who remarry bring children from a previous marriage into the new family unit
step siblings
brother and or sisters who joined your family when one or both of your parents remarry.
family household
a householder and persons who live in the same household who are related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption.
personal identity
a unified sense of self, expressing attitudes, beliefs, and actions that are uniquely characteristic of you
dysfunctional family
a family in which family interactions negatively affect the physical, emotional, and social development and well-being of the individuals in the family
social support
aid and assistance exchanged through social relationships
social network
a person-centered web of social relationships
reciprocity
the "give and take" of a relationship; the evenness of exchange between the people involved.
self-disclosure
revealing personal information to others
reflective awareness
the ability to identify to yourself what you are thinking or feeling at any given moment in time
love
a feeling of strong affection and devotion, characterized by unselfish and loyal concern for the well-being of another
romantic love
a type of love that includes an attraction to another person based on affection and sexual interest
passion
a strong liking for, desire for, or romantic attraction to another person
intimacy
a close personal knowledge of another person, characterized by feelings of warmth and closeness
dating
going out with another person in whom you have a romantic interest
toxic relationship
romantic involvement that results in negative consequences for one or both partners
addictive relationship
relationship in which one of the partners uses power and control over the other in order to get what he or she wants
intimate partner violence
abuse that occurs between two people in a close relationship
hypothalamus
an area in the center of the brain that exerts nervous system control over the pituitary gland and the rest of the endocrine system
pituitary gland
pea-sized gland in the center of the brain that regulates most of the endocrine glands in the body
melatonin
a hormone produced by the pineal gland to help regulate sleep cycles
serotonin
a hormone produced by the pineal gland to help regulate nerve impulses
thyroid gland
gland that produces hormones that influence growth and development by regulating metabolism
parathyroid glands
four very small glands located on the thyroid gland that help regulate calcium
thymus
endocrine gland that helps with the development of a child's immune system
adrenal glands
set of glands on top of each kidney that produce two types of hormones that regulate the stress response and sexual development
androgens
male sex hormones produced in the adrenal cortex
insulin and glucogen
two hormones produced in the pancreas that regulate the level of blood sugar
testes
male sex glands that are located in the scrotum and are responsible for male sexual development and sperm production
testosterone
the male hormone that is produced in the testes
estrogen
the female hormone produced by the ovaries to repair the uterine lining after menstruation and enhance feminine characteristics
progesterone
the female hormone responsible for developing the uterine lining during pregnancy
genitalia
the external reproductive sex organs
glans
the rounded head of the penis
circumcision
surgical removal of the foreskin
urethra
passageway from the bladder to the outside of the body
epididymis
structure adjacent to the testes where sperm are stored
ductus deferens
duct that transports sperm from the epididymis to the penis
seminal vesicles
structures that produce a component of semen that nourishes and protects sperm
prostate gland
accessory structures of the male reproductive system that supports movements of sperm
bulbourethral gland
small gland near the base of the urethra that produces a fluid that conditions the urethra for the movement of sperm
meiosis
the process of reducing chromosome numbers in reproductive cells to one-half the original number
mitosis
the process of duplicating living cells
semen
a translucent solution containing sperm and nourishing fluids from the seminal vesicles and the prostate
labia
folds of skin at the entrance of the vagina
clitoris
a small mass of erectile tissue above the vagina which, when stimulated, is the source of sexual pleasure for women
vagina
a muscular, flexible passageway between the labia and the uterus
cervix
opening to the uterus
uterus
a pear-shaped, muscular organ that provides the proper environment where the fertilized ovum develops into a fetus and assists with with childbirth
endometrium
the innermost lining of the uterus where a fertilized ovum becomes implanted and nourished during pregnancy
ovum
the female reproductive cell
ovulation
the release of an ovum from one of the ovaries
uterine tubes
passageways that transport the ova from the ovaries to the uterus
ovary
structure responsible for producing reproductive cells and female sex hormones
menstruation
a cyclical shedding of the uterine lining in response to changes in hormone levels
menopause
a time period in a woman's life when she no longer experiences a menstrual cycle
blastocyst
a mass of cells that implants in the uterus after fertilization of the ovum
corpus luteum
structure formed in the ovary where the ovum was released(produces progesterone)
placenta
an organ that forms in the uterus to control the movement and exchange of nutrients and wastes between the fetus and the mother
prenatal care
all the things done to safeguard the health of the mother and fetus throughout pregnancy
birth control
any behavior or method designed to prevent conception or childbirth
contraception
a method of preventing the union of sperm and ovum following an act of sexual intercourse
basal body temperature
the temperature of the body at complete rest
failure rate
the number of pregnancies per 100 women using a particular birth control method during a one year period
spermicide
a chemical that is harmful to sperm
laproscope
a slender tube containing a small camera and or a surgical instrument that can be inserted into the abdomen
sexual identity
the inner sense that individuals have about their own sexual identity
pheromones
substances produced by animals that serve to attract a partner for reproductive purposes
myotonia
involuntary muscle tension that occurs in males and females in response to sexual tension of the plateau phase
orgasm
a burst of nervous stimulation and muscular contractions that follows the sexual tension of the plateau phase
sexual orientation
a lasting emotional, romantic, or sexual attraction for another person
heterosexual
sexual attraction for someone of the opposite gender
homosexual
sexual attraction for someone of the same gender
bisexual
sexual attraction for both genders
type 2 diabetes
a condition in which the body cannot transport enough glucose(sugar) to the cells to be converted into energy
neurotransmitters
chemicals produced in the brain that allow transmission of impulses between nerve cells
skill-related fitness
the type of fitness required for participating in sports or other skill related activities; includes such components as power, agility, coordination, speed, balance, and reaction time.
health-related fitness
exercise activities that are specifically designated to provide health benefits to the participant
cardiorespiratory fitness
the ability of the respiratory and circulatory systems to deliver enough oxygen to sustain moderate levels of activity for long periods of time
aerobic activities
activities that require a continual supply of oxygen during the activity
anaerobic activities
activities that require short bursts of energy that cannot be sustained for long periods of time because the body cannot supply enough oxygen to keep up with the demand
aerobic capacity
the maximum amount of oxygen that can be delivered to and used by the cells of the body during vigorous workouts
target heart rate range
the percentage of the predicted maximum heart rate that must be reached to obtain improvements in aerobic capacity
muscular strength
the amount of force a muscle is capable of exerting against a resistance with a single maximum effort
isotonic exercises
exercises where the muscles move heavy weight through their range of motion
concentric muscles
muscles shortens as a result of moving a resistance
eccentric
a muscle lengthens in response to the release of weight held by a concentric contraction
isometric
muscle contraction without movement through a range of motion
muscular endurance
the ability of a muscle to contract repeatedly without becoming fatigued
flexibility
the ability to easily move the joints of the body through a full range of motion
tendons
dense connective tissues that attach muscle to bone
dynamic stretching
slow and controlled movement through a range a range of motion
static stretching
stretching a muscle to the end of of range of motion and holding that position for an extended period of time
body composition
the relationship between fat-free mass (muscle,bone, and water) and fat tissue within the body
android fat
fat that has accumulated in the region of the trunk
gynoid fat
fat that tends to accumulate in the hips and thighs
hypokenetic diseases
diseases that are associated with prolonged periods of inactivity
hyponarermia
a result of a chemical imbalance of too much water and not enough electrolytes in the body
ergogenic acids
nutritional or pharmacological agents used by exercises to help provide fuel and or to gain a performance advantage
cross training
participating in two or more different physical activities to achieve cardiorespiratory fitness
alimentary canal
the tubular passage from the mouth to the rectum that functions in digestion, the absorption of water, and elimination of waste
carbohydrates
food substances that provide energy for the body
basal metabolism
the amount of energy needed to maintain body functions at rest
calorie
a measure of the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water one degree of Celsius; scientists burn foods to measure the number of calories they contain.
monosaccharides
the simplest form of sugar that can be immediately absorbed into the blood stream
disaccharides
double sugar molecules that must be broken down to monosaccharides during digestion
polysaccharides
also known as "complex carbohydrate" because they are compounds of many monosaccharides
protein
nutrient used by the body to build and repair tissue and to manufacture enzymes
amino acids
organic compounds that are the building blocks of protein
essential amino acids
the amino acids humans must get in their diet and that cannot be manufactured by the body
complete protein
protein source containing all nine essential amino acids
incomplete protein
protein sources that do not contain all nine amino acids
ketosis
buildup of ketone bodies potentially poisonous by-products of fat metabolism
lipids
fatty compounds in foods that provide energy and transport certain vitamins
saturated fats
fats from animal sources that are firm at room temperature
monosaturated fats
types of oils containing foods that contribute very little to the development of heart disease
polysaturated fats
fats that come from plant sources that are better for heart health than saturated fats
cholesterol
a waxy, fat-like substance in the body an excess of which may contribute to heart disease
unsaturated fats
fats that come from vegetable oil sources
hydrogenation
the addition of hydrogen molecules to liquid fats to make them firm at room temperature
trans fats
liquid fats that have been intentionally enhanced with hydrogen to make them firm at room temperature or more suitable for frying
essential fatty acids (EFA's)
fats needed by the body that must be consumed in the diet because the human body cannot manufacture them
Reference Daily Intakes (RDI's)
the levels of a vitamin or mineral recommended to be included in the diet each day
Daily Reference Values (DRV's)
reference values of eight selected nutrients for a 2,000 calorie diet; the basis of nutrition labels
megadoses
doses that are much larger than what is recommended, approximately 5 to 10 times RDI
milligram
a unit of metric weight that is one-thousandth of a gram; 100 milligrams is equal to 0.0035 ounces- about the same weight as a pinch of salt
antioxidant
compound that interferes with the damaging effects of certain compounds in the body;may help lower LDL in the blood and prevent certain cancers
osteoporosis
a condition where the bones get weak and brittle because of lack calcium
nutrient density
how many nutritional elements are presenting in a given amount of food
vegetarian
the practice of consuming foods only from plant sources, except eggs pr dairy products in some instances