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radical (a)

surprisingly big, or dramatic

legislation (n.u)

the process of making and passing laws

Mechanisation (n.u)

replacing older ways of doing things with machines
-> increasing mechanisation of agriculture

processed food

food that has been highly cooked and packaged

breed (v)

to choose carefully which animals or plants to allow to reproduce, in order to produce a better version.

genetically modified (a)

-> genetically modified foods

resistant to (a)

not damaged or affected by something

assert (v)

say strongly

de-skill (v)

to reduce the skill level required for a job

indicate (v)

to use information or evidence to lead to a conclusion

offset (v)

one action balances another so there is no change in the result

in the wake of sb/sth (idm)

coming after or following sb/sth
-> There has been demonstrations on the street in the wake of the recent bomb attack.

tedious (adj) (acadamic)

-> tedious work

asset (n.c)

a person or thing that is valuable or useful to sb/sth
-> a valuable asset

degradation (n.u)

the process of causing the quality of sth to become worse
-> environmental degradation

degrade (v)




beleaguered (a)

experiencing a lot of critisism and difficulties

stagnate (v)

to stop developing or making progress

ubiquity (n)

everywhere at the same time
-> The ubiquity of the mass media

taciturn (a)

tending not to say very much in away that seem unfriendly

dexterity (n.u)

skill in using your hands or your mind

nomadic (a)


unprecedented (a)

that have never happen, being known before

contingent (a)


adept (a)

good at doing sth that is quite difficult

blur (v) (rr)

to become less clear and sharp

audacious (a)

=bold, daring

collision (n.c.u) (with sb/sth), (between A and B)


collide (v) (with sb/sth)


equivalent (a)

= the same as
-> equal in value, amount, meaning and important

eruption (n.c.u)


crater (n.c)

the large round hole caused by an explosion

facilitate (v) (formal)

to make an action or process possible or easier.
-> Technology has been facilitating communication in terms of telecommunications and transport.

telecommunications (plural)

the technology of sending signals, images and messages over long distances by radio, telephone, television, satellite, etc
-> technological development in telecommunications
-> the telecommunications industry

gadget (n.c)

a small tool or device that does sth useful, such as mobile phones,
-> numerous useful gadgets

genetic engineering (n)

the technology of preparing recombinant DNA in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and splicing together fragments from more than one organism

nuclear engineering


breakthrough (n.c)

a sudden success

molecular biology

the things which form the structure of living matter


(biology) the field of science concerned with processes of communication and control (especially the comparison of these processes in biological and artificial systems)


modern inventions

an experiment

a scientific test

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