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30 terms

sociology ch. 5

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aggregate
people who temporarily share the same physical space but do not see themselves as belonging together
alienation
Marx's term for the experience of being cut off from the product of one's labor, which results in a sense of powerlessness and normalessness
authoritarian leader
a leader who leads by giving orders
bureaucracies
formal organizations with a hierarchy of authority; a clear division of labor; impersonality of positions; and emphasis on written rules, communications, and records
category
people who have similar characteristics
clique
within a larger group, a cluster of people who choose to interact with one another; an internal faction
coalition
the alignment of some group members against others
corporate culture
the orientations that characterize corporate work settings
democratic leader
a leader who leads by trying to reach a consensus
dyad
the smallest possible group, consisting of two persons
electronic community
people who more or less regularly interact with one another on the internet
expressive leader
an individual who increases harmony and minimizes conflict in a group; also known as a socioemotional leader
goal displacement
a process in which a goal is displaced by another, such as when an organization adopts new goals
group
people who think of themselves as belonging together and who interact with one another
group dynamics
the ways in which individuals affect groups and the ways in which groups influence individuals
groupthink
Irving Janis' term for a narrowing of thought by a group of people, leading to the perception that there is only one correct answer; in groupthink, the suggestion of alternatives becomes a sign of disloyalty
in-groups
groups toward which one feels loyalty
instrumental leader
an individual who tries to keep the group moving toward its goal; also known as a task-oriented leader
the iron law of oligarchy
Robert Michels' term for the tendency of formal organizations to be dominated by a small, self-perpetuating elite
laissez-fair leader
an individual who leads by being highly permissive
leader
someone who influences the behavior, opinions, or attitudes of other people
leadership style
ways in which people express their leadership
networking
the process of consciously using or cultivating networks for some gain
out-groups
groups toward which one feels antagonism
primary group
a group characterized by intimate, long-term, face-to-face association and cooperation
the rationalization of society
the increasing influence of bureaucracies in society, which makes the bottom line of results dominant in social life
reference group
Herbert Hyman's term for a group whose standards we consider as we evaluate ourselves
secondary group
compared with a primary group, a larger, relatively temporary, more anonymous, formal, and impersonal group based on some interest or activity
small group
a group made up of volunteers who organize on the basis of some mutual interest; the girl scouts, baptists, and alcoholics anonymous are examples
voluntary association
a group made up of people who voluntarily organize on the basis of some mutual interest; also known as voluntary memberships