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people who temporarily share the same physical space but do not see themselves as belonging together


Marx's term for the experience of being cut off from the product of one's labor, which results in a sense of powerlessness and normalessness

authoritarian leader

a leader who leads by giving orders


formal organizations with a hierarchy of authority; a clear division of labor; impersonality of positions; and emphasis on written rules, communications, and records


people who have similar characteristics


within a larger group, a cluster of people who choose to interact with one another; an internal faction


the alignment of some group members against others

corporate culture

the orientations that characterize corporate work settings

democratic leader

a leader who leads by trying to reach a consensus


the smallest possible group, consisting of two persons

electronic community

people who more or less regularly interact with one another on the internet

expressive leader

an individual who increases harmony and minimizes conflict in a group; also known as a socioemotional leader

goal displacement

a process in which a goal is displaced by another, such as when an organization adopts new goals


people who think of themselves as belonging together and who interact with one another

group dynamics

the ways in which individuals affect groups and the ways in which groups influence individuals


Irving Janis' term for a narrowing of thought by a group of people, leading to the perception that there is only one correct answer; in groupthink, the suggestion of alternatives becomes a sign of disloyalty


groups toward which one feels loyalty

instrumental leader

an individual who tries to keep the group moving toward its goal; also known as a task-oriented leader

the iron law of oligarchy

Robert Michels' term for the tendency of formal organizations to be dominated by a small, self-perpetuating elite

laissez-fair leader

an individual who leads by being highly permissive


someone who influences the behavior, opinions, or attitudes of other people

leadership style

ways in which people express their leadership


the process of consciously using or cultivating networks for some gain


groups toward which one feels antagonism

primary group

a group characterized by intimate, long-term, face-to-face association and cooperation

the rationalization of society

the increasing influence of bureaucracies in society, which makes the bottom line of results dominant in social life

reference group

Herbert Hyman's term for a group whose standards we consider as we evaluate ourselves

secondary group

compared with a primary group, a larger, relatively temporary, more anonymous, formal, and impersonal group based on some interest or activity

small group

a group made up of volunteers who organize on the basis of some mutual interest; the girl scouts, baptists, and alcoholics anonymous are examples

voluntary association

a group made up of people who voluntarily organize on the basis of some mutual interest; also known as voluntary memberships

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