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people who temporarily share the same physical space but do not see themselves as belonging together
Marx's term for the experience of being cut off from the product of one's labor, which results in a sense of powerlessness and normalessness
formal organizations with a hierarchy of authority; a clear division of labor; impersonality of positions; and emphasis on written rules, communications, and records
within a larger group, a cluster of people who choose to interact with one another; an internal faction
an individual who increases harmony and minimizes conflict in a group; also known as a socioemotional leader
a process in which a goal is displaced by another, such as when an organization adopts new goals
the ways in which individuals affect groups and the ways in which groups influence individuals
Irving Janis' term for a narrowing of thought by a group of people, leading to the perception that there is only one correct answer; in groupthink, the suggestion of alternatives becomes a sign of disloyalty
an individual who tries to keep the group moving toward its goal; also known as a task-oriented leader
the iron law of oligarchy
Robert Michels' term for the tendency of formal organizations to be dominated by a small, self-perpetuating elite
a group characterized by intimate, long-term, face-to-face association and cooperation
the rationalization of society
the increasing influence of bureaucracies in society, which makes the bottom line of results dominant in social life
Herbert Hyman's term for a group whose standards we consider as we evaluate ourselves
compared with a primary group, a larger, relatively temporary, more anonymous, formal, and impersonal group based on some interest or activity
a group made up of volunteers who organize on the basis of some mutual interest; the girl scouts, baptists, and alcoholics anonymous are examples
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