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25 terms

Astronomy Midterm

STUDY
PLAY
True or False: Parallax is the apparent change in location of an object due to the motion of the observer
TRUE
The Almagest is:
a collection of the science and mathematics of the Greeks
A(n) _________ is a circle whose center is located in the center of another circle.
epicycle
Ptolemy's model of the Universe
contained epicycles
____ introduced the concept of the eccentrics and epicycle to planetary motion about Earth, created a star catalog, and is generally credited with the development of trigonometry.
Hipparchus
Which of the following people did not accept a heliocentric model of the universe?
Tycho
The book "De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium"
first described the Copernican theory.
The Ptolemaic model of the universe was heliocentric.
FALSE
The Copernican system was no more accurate than the Ptolemaic system in predicting the positions of the planets because
the Copernican system included uniform circular motion.
Brahe's universe was the same as the Copernican universe except that
Earth did not move
Tycho Brahe's greatest contribution to astronomy was
his years of careful observations of the planets.
A ____ is a commonly accepted set of scientific ideas and assumptions.
paradigm
Galileo's observations of the gibbous phase of Venus proved
that Venus orbits the sun.
Galileo's telescopic discoveries of mountains on the moon and spots on the sun were controversial because they suggested that the sun and moon
are not perfect.
Galileo's telescopic discovery of moons orbiting Jupiter was important because it showed that
The universe could contain centers of motion other than Earth.
And Earth might move along an orbit and not leave the moon behind.
A ____ is a system of rules and principles that can be applied to a wide variety of circumstances but may not be universally accepted.
theory
Which of the following was not based on uniform circular motion?
Rudolphine Tables
Halley's Comet has an orbital period of 76 years. What is the average distance of Halley's Comet from the sun?
18 AU
In pre-Copernican astronomy, it was almost universally believed that
the Earth was at the center of the universe.
An apparent westward motion of a planet in the sky compared to the background stars (as viewed from the Earth) when observed on successive nights is referred to as
retrograde motion
Galileo wrote the Almagest.
FALSE
The purpose of using epicycles and deferents to explain the motion of the planets in the night sky was to account for
retrograde motion.
Which of the following objects cannot transit (i.e. pass in front of) the Sun as seen from Jupiter?
Saturn
he greatest inaccuracy in Copernicus' model of the solar system was that the planets
traveled in circular orbits with uniform motion.
Which of the following planets can be seen as a crescent phase from Earth?
Mercury and Venus