Terms in this set (97)
T/F: The frontal lobes (prefrontal cortex) are the last part of the brain to develop.
T/F: It is most likely that the abuser in child abuse cases is a relative of the victim.
T/F: Late-maturing girls tend to have a worse body image than their early-maturing peers do.
T/F: Menarche does not usually occur until a girl weighs 100 pounds.
T/F: Emotional control is fully developed by adolescence.
T/F: The prefrontal cortex is where planning ahead and emotional regulation occur.
T/F: Most teens are satisfied with their physical appearance.
T/F: Secondary sex characteristics signify masculinity and femininity.
T/F: The major events of growth and sexual maturation associated with puberty typically are completed a year or two after puberty begins.
T/F: The average age of menarche for girls of normal weight is 15 years 6 months.
T/F: Many adolescents enjoy intense sensory experiences due to the difference in maturation rate between the limbic system and the prefrontal cortex.
T/F: According to research women who were abused have temporary but not life-long alteration of their cortisol responses.
T/F: Brain immaturity is the origin of every "troublesome adolescent behavior."
T/F: It appears that the timing of menarche is related to the accumulation of a certain amount of body fat, which is why heavy girls generally menstruate earlier than other girls do.
T/F: During the past several decades, the so-called "double standard"—that boys are expected to be sexually active while girls are not—has narrowed in every ethnic group.
Peak fertility occurs _____ years after activated gonads produce mature ova and sperm.
In the twenty-first century, early puberty positively correlates with _____.
A. girls choosing to date younger boys
B. girls entering into early, nurturing relationships
C. aggression and antisocial behavior in boys
D. boys becoming leaders in their schools
Jill learned in health class that _____ is a hormone that is necessary for puberty.
The sequence of puberty hormone production that originates in the brain and ends with glands located atop the kidneys is known by the acronym _____.
A. HAG pathway
B. HAP pathway
C. HPG axis
D. HPA axis
A female just gave birth to a baby who is preterm and low-birthweight. In addition, the female experienced high blood pressure throughout her pregnancy. This female is most likely _____ years old.
Family conflict and stress _____.
A. may contribute to an early onset of puberty
B. may contribute to a late onset of puberty
C. typically increases after the onset of puberty
D. typically decreases after the onset of puberty
During adolescence, the _____ matures before the _____ in the brain.
A. prefrontal cortex; limbic system
B. limbic system; prefrontal cortex
C. prefrontal cortex; amygdala
D. cerebellum; amygdala
What article of clothing is Xavier most likely to outgrow first when he experiences the adolescent growth spurt?
Changes in primary sex characteristics include _____.
A. growth of pubic hair and underarm hair
B. rapid increase in height
C. growth of the uterus or the testes
D. deeper voices
The first hormones to begin the process of puberty are triggered in the child's _____.
B. penis or uterus
C. adrenal glands
Nancy, age 12, has just experienced a sudden growth spurt. According to the usual sequence of puberty, soon she will notice _____.
A. initial pubic hair growth
B. breast development
C. her hips growing wider
D. an increase in her shoe size
Which pair of nutrients is MOST likely to be lacking in the adolescent diet?
A. magnesium and B vitamins
B. iron and calcium
C. sodium and potassium
D. vitamins A and C
Josefina is obsessed with her weight. She sometimes eats a whole package of Oreos at once and then makes herself vomit. Josefina is of normal weight, but she constantly has heartburn. She MOST likely suffers from _____.
A. anorexia nervosa
B. degenerative organ disease
D. bulimia nervosa
Bill, age 11, noticed that he has some pubic hair. According to the usual sequence of puberty, his next pubertal event will probably be _____.
A. beard development
B. penis growth
D. voice change
_____ are the sex hormones secreted in greater amounts by males than females.
T/F: Most American high-school students eat the recommended amount of vegetables daily.
T/F: Abnormalities in the HPA axis have been associated with many different types of psychopathology.
T/F: During adolescence, the heart doubles in size, the pulse rate decreases, and blood pressure increases.
T/F: Both boys and girls produce androgens and estrogens.
T/F: In adolescence, growth proceeds in a proximodistal pattern.
Precocious puberty is sexual development before the age of 6.
T/F: Deepening of the voice is among the last signs of pubertal changes in males.
T/F: Stress in an adolescent's family decreases the hormones of puberty.
What substance(s) cause(s) the ovaries and testes to greatly increase their production of estradiol and testosterone?
A. human growth hormones
B. follicle-stimulating hormones
C. gonadotropin-releasing hormone
One of the first signs of the growth spurt is _________.
A. lengthening of the torso
B. increased muscle mass
C. growth of arms and legs
D. growth of fingers and toes
The period when children's bodies become adult in terms of size, shape, and sexuality is called ________.
C. the growth spurt
D. secondary sex development
Many adolescents think carefully and answer correctly when responding to paper-and-pencil questions about hypothetical risk-taking situations, yet in the real world they engage in risky behavior. This is due in part to their _____.
C. formal operational thinking
D. intuitive thinking
During puberty, the growth spurt sequence typically occurs in this order.
A. weight, height, muscles
B. weight, muscles, height
C. height, weight, muscles
D. muscles, height, weight
Later high school start times have been associated with all of the following EXCEPT __________.
A. less adolescent depression
B. higher grades
C. less student absenteeism
D. decreased college attendance
The more successful therapy for eating disorders during adolescence appears to be ___________.
A. individual therapy
B. family-based therapy
C. behavioral modification
D. systematic desnsitization
Which gland(s) receive(s) signals directly from the hypothalamus?
Unhappiness with one's physical appearance is a _________ phenomenon.
In adolescent brain development, myelination and maturation occur in sequence, proceeding from the __________.
A. cortex to the inner brain and from front to back
B. cortex to the inner brain and from back to front
C. inner brain to the cortex and from front to back
D. inner brain to the cortex and from back to front
The first hormones to begin the process of puberty are triggered in the child's __________.
B. penis or uterus
C. adrenal glands
William was an early-maturing boy in the 1930s. William would have been predicated to __________.
A. be aggressive as an adolescent
B. be a school leader as an adolescent
C. use alcohol as an adolescent
D. have an older romantic relationship partner
Ellie is 10 years old and well into puberty. She will probably experience ___________.
A. welcome attention from boys her age
B. pride that she is ahead of her friends
C. teasing from boys her age
D. a better body image than her peers
T/F: In the United States, 50 percent of adolescent mothers are unwed.
T/F: Boys may experience some breast swelling during puberty.
T/F: It is typical for children to begin seeing pubertal changes in their bodies between ages 8 and 14.
T/F: In the United States, STIs are over-represented among 15- to 25-year-olds even though this age group is under-represented among all the sexually active adults.
T/F: Studies suggest that genes influence the timing of puberty.
Latisha experienced menarche when she was 8 years old. She experienced ___________.
A. precocious puberty
B. abnormal hormonal fluctuations
C. preterm menarche
D. excessively high levels of androgens
According to research, which of the following strategies could be implemented in order to encourage adolescents to make better food choices?
A. increase prices of healthy foods
B. provide healthier selections in school vending machines
C. increase parental monitoring of food choices
D. put unhealthy foods in closer proximity to where students hang out
Bulimia nervosa is clinically present in ________ percent of young women in the United States.
A. 1 to 3
B. 5 to 7
C. 8 to 10
D. 11 to 13
Young people who are sexually exploited/abused _________.
A. usually forget about the abuse
B. tend to devalue themselves throughout life
C. do not usually know their abuser
D. are not likely to be aggressive
A young boy experienced ongoing sexual abuse until he was 15. Now that he is a grown man, it is likely that he ___________.
A. has forgotten the experiences over time
B. suffers from biological harm resulting from the abuse
C. is depressed and has difficulty with sex or other psychosocial problems
D. has outgrown the biological and psychological effects of the abuse
The average age of the onset of puberty has changed over time. Which of the following individuals is most likely to have started puberty at the latest age.
A. Louis, born in 1910
B. Allen, born in 1950
C. Rita, born in 1975
D. Ted, born in 1990
In 2011, only _________ percent of adolescents consumed the recommended three or more servings of vegetables daily.
One reason adolescents' nutritional habits may be poor is ________.
A. lack of media attention to the importance of good nutrition
B. misunderstanding about what is and is not healthy food
C. altered taste buds due to hormonal surges
D. anxiety about their body image
For girls, the usual sequence of physical changes in puberty is ____________.
A. menarche, the growth spurt, and the beginning of breast development
B. nipple growth, the growth spurt, and menarche
C. the growth spurt, menarche, and the beginning of breast development
D. the growth spurt, the beginning of breast development, and menarche
Xavier, 16, invites a group of his high school friends to swim in a neighbor's pool late at night while that neighbor is away. They climb the fence and jump in, playing wildly and loudly in the water. Just a few minutes later, the police arrive. How does adolescent brain development help explain Xavier's poor decision making?
A. His limbic system is underdeveloped.
B. His prefrontal cortex is underdeveloped.
C. His amygdala is underdeveloped.
D. The regions regulating his emotions are underdeveloped.
Evolutionary theory suggests that the relationship between childhood stress and onset of puberty exists to ____________.
A. delay childbearing in strife-filled environments
B. encourage stressed youth to take more risks
C. ensure that reproduction occurs early in stress-filled environments
D. ease the transition to adulthood for individuals who need to grow up fast
Research indicates that female children who experienced a great deal of _________ while very young also experienced early puberty.
At adolescence, the pituitary activates the _________, which are the ovaries in females and testicles in males.
B. pituitary glands
C. adrenal glands
D. sex glands
Which individual would be at the greatest risk for diet deficiencies?
A. Sam, who was born in 1950 and is 10 years old
B. Greg, who was born in 1960 and is 18 years old
C. Tim, who was born in 1990 and is 10 years old
D. George, who was born in 1990 and is 18 years old
T/F: The changes of puberty are initiated by a part of the brain called the hypothalamus.
T/F: Anita is within the normal range for weight, but she uses laxatives in order to control her severe overconsumption of calories. Anita suffers from anorexia.
T/F: Learning something new is difficult for adolescents because of the continued synaptic pruning occurring within their brains.
T/F: Some of the problems associated with teenage pregnancy, including malnourishment and postponed prenatal care, depend mostly on the SES of the expectant mother.
A school schedule that begins at _____ and ends at _____ would be the best fit for adolescent sleep patterns.
A. 8:00 a.m.; 3:10 p.m.
B. 6:00 a.m.; 1:10 p.m.
C. 7:00 a.m.; 2:10 p.m.
D. 9:00 a.m.; 4:10 p.m
Sharon is concerned about deficiencies in her daughter Alana's diet. If Alana is a typical teen, Sharon should feed her _____.
A. potatoes to increase her starch
B. carrots to increase her vitamin A
C. orange juice to increase her vitamin C
D. spinach to increase her iron
For girls, menarche is _____.
A. the beginning of growth of the uterus
B. the first ovulation of a mature egg
C. a girl's first menstrual period
D. the first year of menstruation
Statistically, which student is MOST likely to fall asleep during class?
A. Ariel, age 5
B. Wilhelm, age 8
C. Allen, age 11
D. Rose, age 14
Research indicates that a majority of adolescent girls in the United States are trying to _____.
A. gain weight
B. lose weight
C. lift weights
D. not focus on their appearance
Holly, age 13, notices that her hips are widening and her breasts are developing. Holly is noticing changes in her _____ sex characteristics.
Statistically, which person is MOST likely to have the greatest health problems due to iron deficiency?
A. 16-year-old Marilyn, who is menstruating
B. 12-year-old Monica, who has not yet experienced menarche
C. 15-year-old Nathan, who exercises very little
D. 25-year-old Ben, who has three children
A study of adult women in the United States found that those who voluntarily had sex before the age of 16 were _____.
A. likely to have a successful marriage as an adult
B. likely to use birth control
C. not likely to use birth control
D. likely to get a divorce as an adult
T/F: Primary sex characteristics include pubic hair and nipple changes.
Statistically, which adolescent is MOST apt to experience menarche first?
A. Michelle, who is European American
B. Cecilia, who is Hispanic American
C. Rebecca, who is African American
D. Maria, who is Chinese American
Once the primary sexual organs begin to function, adolescents are biologically capable of _____.
B. weight loss
C. giving blood
D. sleeping fewer hours
Lea, age 16, is travelling with her family to Spain. In preparation for the trip, Lea and her parents take Spanish language classes. Lea learns the language more quickly than her parents, most likely because of her _____.
A. greater interest in the culture
B. still-developing brain
C. stronger levels of self-control
D. greater cognitive rigidity
Which statement about the correlation between body fat and onset of puberty among females is correct?
A. There is no correlation between body fat and the onset of puberty among females.
B. There is a positive correlation between body fat and onset of puberty among females.
C. There is a negative correlation between body fat and the onset of puberty among females.
D. There is a correlation between body fat and the onset of puberty only among female adolescents who are Native American.
A determining factor in whether an adolescent experiences early and late pubertal maturation is when their _____ through puberty.
A. friends go
B. siblings go
C. grandparents went
D. parents went
Garry is taking a weight-lifting class in high school. The weights he lifts should _____.
A. match his projected size for next year
B. cause him maximum exertion
C. match his size from the previous year
D. be doubled each week
T/F: During their growth spurt, females gain more fat than males do.
T/F: One reason for nutritional deficiencies during adolescence is preoccupation with body image.
Jose enjoys sports, especially running. As an adolescent, he has the potential to become a star athlete. Which pair of influences will be MOST beneficial to him in reaching his full potential?
A. the development of his prefrontal cortex and the support of his peers
B. the encouragement of his family and the myelination of his sensory cortex
C. the development of his limbic system and the influence of male hormones
D. changes in myelination in his brain and the guidance of an experienced coach
The day-night cycle that occurs approximately every 24 hours is the ___________.
B. night-day cycle
C. sleep cycle
D. circadian rhythm
For boys, the first ejaculation generally occurs _________.
A. when facial hair first appears
B. after the peak growth spurt
C. following growth of the penis
D. when the final pubic hair pattern is established
Data indicates a marked decline in __________ rates in most countries for the past few decades.
A. teenage pregnancy
B. teen birth
C. romantic relationship
D. contraception use
The recommended daily dose of calcium is _________ milligrams; most teens consume less than _________ milligrams per day.
A. 1,000; 300
B. 1,000; 500
C. 1,300; 800
D. 1,300; 500
For both girls and boys, puberty typically begins as young as _________ years of age or as late as __________ years of age.
A. 5; 18
B. 7; 16
C. 8; 14
D. 10; 13