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43 terms

microbiology

STUDY
PLAY
Antonvon Leuwenhook
First to observe microorganisms using a simle microscope. Observed a variety of specimens and described them by calling them animacules
Pasteur
Ended the debate with his experiments. Demonstrated that microorganisms are everywhere.
-Fermentation, Pasterization
-Created ANthrax VAccine
Koch
Proved microorganisms caused dusease. Introduced Kochs postules
Jenner
Developed the practice of infecting people with the viruse of the mild disease cowpox
Ehrlich
Dreamed of magic bullet that could hunt and destroy a pathogen without hurting the host
Fleming
Discovered Penicillin by accident
Spontaneous Generation
A belief that some form of life can arise from nonliving matter.
Biogenesis
Life could only be created by pre-exsisting life
Germ Theory
Theory that all contagious disease are caused by microorganisms
Attenuatiton
Weaking in force or intensity
Chemotherapy
Treatment of disease, cancer by use of chemical drugs
Mycology
Study of Fungi
Virology
Study of viruses
Parasitology
Study of parastic organisms
Immunology
Study of immunity
Beneficial Activites by microbes
Medicine-Antibiotics
Biotechnology
Ecology
Food-
Health- Helps our digestive system
Bioremediation
Use of microorganisms metabolism to remove pollutants. Using organisms to clean up oil spills. Removes polluntants from soil and water.
Biotechnology
Involves use of living organisms and bioprocessing in engineering technology.

Brewing, baking, cheesemaking
Limits that occure with Compound microscopes
Wave length of visable light. Limits size of object.
Objects cannot be seen if smaller than 1/2 wave length
Types of microscopes
Brightfield - used to observe morphology of bacteria
Darkfield - unstained. Used for observing spirchetes
Phase-contrast - unstained living microrganisms
Flourescence - Used to dectect microbes in cells.
Transmission -Specimen viewed on screen
Scanning - Examining surface features of cells and viruses
How to prepare specimens
1. Make smear (air dry)
2.Heat fix (attatch bacteria to slide)
3.Stain (Basic or Acidic)
Simple Stain
Decets presence of bacteria and morphology (shape and size)
Differential stain
Gram stain to differentiate bacteria into gram+ gram-. Acid fast (TB test)
Special Stain
Used to distinguised parts of the cell. Capsule, endospore, flagella
Define Procaryote
10xs smaller Bacteria/Archae. Single celled organism that neither has a distinct nucleus with membrane or other secial organelle. Always has chromosomes
Define Eukaryotic
Has multicellular with membrance bound nuclei. Very complex structure compared to Prokaryotic cells
Positive cell walls
Consists of several layers of peptidoglycan which form thick ridgid structure
Negative cell wall
Thinner more complex and more easily brokendown mechanically
Atypical Cell wall
Mycoplasma
Myobacteria
Mycoplasm
Tiny bacteria. No cell wall. Hve sterols
Mycobacteria
Has cell wall. SImilar to gram positive
-Mycobacterium. Tuberculosis
-M. Lepral causes leprosy
Bacterial Reproduction
By Binary Fission
Classification
Plants
Animals
Fungi - mold yeasts
Monera - prokaryotes, bacteria
Protists - slime molds
Tax Hierarchy
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
Prion
Abnormal protein particle. Cases Cj disease
Viroid
Infectious entity affecting plants. Smaller than virus. Hep D?
Viruses
Nonliving cell. Must have host.DNA OR RNA not both
Latent virus
Herpes simplex virus is an example.
Ability to stay dorment within a cell
Nutrional requirments
Chemohetertroph-HUmans, glucose, acetate
Phototrophs: Bacteria use inorganic compound
-Co2 uses light as energy
-Cheniautrophs: Uses carbon dioxide
-Hydrogen sulfate
-Only in ocean Bacteria
Rod Shape
Bacillus
Large Rod
Links
Spherical
Coccus
Cluster
Sphiral
Loose
single
Coccobacillus
Very short rod. Always single