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First to observe microorganisms using a simle microscope. Observed a variety of specimens and described them by calling them animacules
Ended the debate with his experiments. Demonstrated that microorganisms are everywhere.
-Created ANthrax VAccine
Beneficial Activites by microbes
Health- Helps our digestive system
Use of microorganisms metabolism to remove pollutants. Using organisms to clean up oil spills. Removes polluntants from soil and water.
Involves use of living organisms and bioprocessing in engineering technology.
Brewing, baking, cheesemaking
Limits that occure with Compound microscopes
Wave length of visable light. Limits size of object.
Objects cannot be seen if smaller than 1/2 wave length
Types of microscopes
Brightfield - used to observe morphology of bacteria
Darkfield - unstained. Used for observing spirchetes
Phase-contrast - unstained living microrganisms
Flourescence - Used to dectect microbes in cells.
Transmission -Specimen viewed on screen
Scanning - Examining surface features of cells and viruses
How to prepare specimens
1. Make smear (air dry)
2.Heat fix (attatch bacteria to slide)
3.Stain (Basic or Acidic)
10xs smaller Bacteria/Archae. Single celled organism that neither has a distinct nucleus with membrane or other secial organelle. Always has chromosomes
Has multicellular with membrance bound nuclei. Very complex structure compared to Prokaryotic cells
Has cell wall. SImilar to gram positive
-M. Lepral causes leprosy
Fungi - mold yeasts
Monera - prokaryotes, bacteria
Protists - slime molds
Chemohetertroph-HUmans, glucose, acetate
Phototrophs: Bacteria use inorganic compound
-Co2 uses light as energy
-Cheniautrophs: Uses carbon dioxide
-Only in ocean Bacteria
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