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1,491 terms

Grammar & Composition

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Noun
A word or word group that is used to name a person, a place, a thing, or an idea.
Compound Noun
Made up of two or more words used together as a single noun. like a derivitave. It is two words put together to make one word. E.g. toothpaste, seafood, onlooker.
Common Noun
Names any one of a group of persons, places, things, or ideas; They are not the names of a single person, place or thing. This type of noun begins with a lowercase letter unless it is at the beginning of a sentence. For example: People like; man, girl, boy, Animals like; fish, ant, snake, Places like; school, city, building, or Ideas like; love, hate, pride.
Proper Noun
names a particular person, place, thing, or idea. They are words which name specific people, organisations or places. They always start with a capital letter. E.g. the Civil War, Monday, or Potter.
Concrete Noun
Names of an object that can be perceived by one or more of the senses. names things that we experience through our senses, sight, hearing, smell, touch or taste. Most nouns are are these types of nouns. E.g. Cats, dogs, tables, chairs, buses, and teachers are all concrete nouns. The opposite of this type of noun is an abstract noun.
Abstract Noun
Names an idea, a feeling, a quality, or a characteristic. you cannot sense, it is the name we give to an emotion, ideal or idea. They have no physical existence, you can't see, hear, touch, smell or taste them. The opposite of this type of noun is a concrete noun. E.g. adoration, dexterity, sadness, wit.
Collective Noun
A word that names a group. Is a noun that is singular in form but refers to a group of people or things. E.g. Tables, chairs, cupboards etc. are grouped under the collective noun furniture. Could be a Groups of people - army, audience, band, or a Groups of things - bunch, bundle, clump., noun that represents a group of persons animals or things family flock furniture ect, names a group of people, places, or things.
Pronoun
A word used in place of one or more nouns or pronouns.
Antecedent
The word that a pronoun stands for.
Personal Pronoun
Refers to the one speaking (first person), the one spoken to (second person), or the one spoken about (third person).
Reflexive Pronoun
Refers to the subject and functions as a complement or an object of a preposition.
Intensive Pronoun
Emphasizes a noun or another pronoun.
Demonstrative Pronoun
Points out a person, a place, a thing, or an idea (this, that, these, & those).
Relative Pronoun
Introduces a subordinate clause (who, whom, whose, which, & that).
Indefinite Pronoun
Refers to a person, a place, a thing, or an idea that may or may not be specifically named.
Interrogative Pronoun
Introduces a question.
Adjective
A word used to modify a noun or a pronoun.
Articles
The most frequently used adjectives (a, an, & the).
Demonstrative Adjective
Modifies adjectives (this, that, these, & those).
Proper Adjective
Formed from a proper noun.
Verb
A word expresses action or a state of being.
Helping Verb
Helps the main verb express action or a state of being.
Main Verb
Expresses the action or state of being.
Auxiliary Verb
One helping verb.
Verb Phrase
A main verb and at least one helping verb.
Action Verb
A verb that expresses either physical or mental activity.
Linking Verb
Connects the subject to a word or word group.
Transitive Verb
Expresses action directed toward a person place thing or idea.
Object
Words that receive the action of transitive verbs.
Intransitive Verb
Expresses action (or tells something about the subject) without the action passing to a receiver.
Adverb
A word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
Preposition
A word that shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun to another word.
Object of the Preposition
The noun or pronoun that completes a prepositional phrase.
Compound Preposition
Preposition that consists of more than one word.
Prepositional Phrase
All together, the proposition, the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of the object. , preposition + noun or pronoun, A group of words made up of a preposition, its object, and any of the object's modifiers. PP-O-M
Conjunction
A word used to join words or groups of words.
Coordinating Conjunction
Joins words or groups of words that are used in the same way.
Correlative Conjunction
pairs of conjunctions that connect words or groups of words.
Interjection
Word used to express emotion.
Subject
The noun, pronoun, or main phrase that precedes/governs the main verb.
Predicate
The verb that expresses the action being performed by the subject; what the noun in the sentence modifies.
Noun
A word that can function as the subject of a sentence. Refers to people, places, things, states, or qualities.
Verb
A word that expresses action, state, or a relation between two things. Function as the main elements of sentences.
Adjective
Modifies a noun; a describing word.
Adverb
Modifies a verb or an adjective.
Pronoun
Replaces a noun or a noun phrase with a very general reference.
Preposition
Links a noun, pronoun, or gerund to other words (direction, time, place, etc.)
Article
A word that is linked to a noun and identifies it as such.
Conjunction
Connects words, phrases, clauses, and sentences (FANBOYS).
Appositive
Follows a noun to add more detail.
Restrictive appositive
An appositive that cannot be omitted from a sentence without affecting the meaning.
Nonrestrictive appositive
An appositive that is not essential for the sentence to make sense.
Prepositional phrase
A phrase consisting of a preposition, its object (usually a noun or a pronoun), and any modifiers of the object. All together, the proposition, the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of the object. , preposition + noun or pronoun, A group of words made up of a preposition, its object, and any of the object's modifiers. PP-O-M
Compound subject
Consists of two or more subjects joined by a conjunction and having the same verb., two or more subjects joined together usually by "and" or "or" that share a common verb, consists of two or more subjects that are joined by a coordinating or correlative conjunction and that have the same predicate/verb
Use of a semicolon
Used to indicate a major division in a sentence where a more distinct separation is felt between clauses or items on a list than is indicated by a comma.
Expletive
A swear word OR a word considered as regularly filling the syntactic position of another., a word or phrase conveying no independent meaning but added to fill out a sentence or metrical line
Infinitive
The most basic form of a verb; does not specify the subject., the uninflected form of the verb, to + verb, a verb that functions as a noun or adjective; the word TO precedes the verb in an infinitive; example: Someday, I would like TO WRITE beautiful poetry.
Infinitive phrase
A clause containing an infinitive as its main or only verb form., phrase that includes the infinitive, it's objects, and the objects modifiers, consists of an infinitive and its related words, such as modifiers and complements
Participle
An adjective that refers to participation in the action or state of the verb; a verbal form used as an adjective. The past form ends in "-ed" and the present form ends in "-ing.", Verb that can be used as a adjective. Present ends in -ing-----*Past ends in ed.-d,-t,-en,-n (The TERRIFYING movie was rated "R", a verb form that is used with auxiliary verbs to indicate certain tenses, a type of verb that acts as an adjective
Diction
The style of speaking or writing as dependent upon choice of words., the articulation of speech regarded from the point of view of its intelligibility to the audience, clearness of speech
Tone
A particular style or manner, as of writing or speech; mood., the quality of something (an act or a piece of writing) that reveals the attitudes and presuppositions of the author, the general atmosphere of a place or situation and the effect that it has on people
Intensifier
A word (especially an adverb) that indicates and usually increases the degree of emphasis or force to be given to the element it modifies., a class of words, generally adverbs, used to modify gradable adjectives, adverbs, verbs, or -ed participles, e.g. very, completely, quite.
Parallel structure
Using three or more alike elements, separated with commas, in a sentence., structure in which similar forms of nouns, verbs, phrases, or thoughts. Maintains balance. e.g. "Lilly likes reading, writing, and skiing" instead of "Lilly likes to read, write, and go skiing"
Conjunctive adverb
An adverb that indicates the relationship in meaning between two independent clauses., A type of adverb that creates logical connections between independent clauses which is introduced by a semi colon; and followed by a comma ,. List of them include: Therefore, However, Instead, Rather, Meanwhile, Consequently. Ie... xxxxx; meanwhile, he narrated a film.
Introductory clause
A dependent clause that introduces an independent clause., main clause + subordinating conjunction
Subordination
Words, phrases, or clauses that make one element of a sentence dependent on another., the dependence of one syntactical element on another in a sentence
Compound predicate
Tells two or more things about the same subject without repeating the subject., two or more predicates with the same subject; usually joined by AND or OR; example: We WILL FIND the card catelog or WILL ASK the librarian for help.
Dependent clause
A group of words with a subject and a verb, but one that cannot stand alone as a sentence., a clause in a complex sentence that cannot stand alone as a complete sentence and that functions within the sentence as a noun or adjective or adverb, A fragment
Independent clause
A group of words consisting of a subject and a predicate that can stand alone., has a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought
Gerund
The "-ing" form of a verb when functioning as a noun., a form regularly derived from a verb and functioning as a noun
Antecedent
A word, phrase, or clause that is replaced by a pronoun or other substitute later in the same (or a subsequent) sentence., the word, phrase, or clause to which a pronoun refers, someone or something that went before; something that provides a model for something that came after it
Nouns and Pronouns
words that name., A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea. Functions as a subject, direct objects, indirect objects, subject complements, object complements, adjectiveds or an adverbs. Ex: Late last year our NEIGHBORS bought a GOAT. A pronoun can replace a noun or another pronoun. Use pronouns like "he", "which", "none", and "you" to make sentneces less cumbersome and less reptitive. Ex: YOU are surely the strangest child I have ever met.
Verbs
words that show an action or state of being.
Prepositions and conjuctions
words that connect.
Adjectives and adverbs
words that describe or modify., Adjectives describe things (nouns and pronouns) and adverbs describe action (verbs).
Interjections
words that show emotion.
Noun
a word which names a person, place, object, idea, or quality., a word that can serve as the subject or object of a verb
Proper Nouns
name particular people, places, objects, or ideas. They ALWAYS begin with a capital letter!!, Has 2 distinctive features; 1) It will name a specific item. 2) It will start with a capitol letter, no matter where it is in the sentence.
Common Nouns
name any person, place, object, or idea., names any one of a group of persons, places, things, or ideas
Concrete Nouns
name a person, place, or object that can be sensed through toughing, smelling, tasting, seeing, or hearing., Words for things which are visible and tangible e.g. 'potato', 'house', 'fox', Cookie, pen, pineapples, eyelashes.
Abstract Nouns
name a quality, a condition, or an idea. refer to intangible, nonphysical entities. They cannot be sensed through hearing, seeing, tasting, smelling, or touching. Represents a feeling and is intangible., Names we have for ideas, emotions, qualities, processes, occasions and times. Invisible and tangible. e.g. 'joy', 'gentleness', 'wedding',
Collective Nouns
(nouns of multitude) name a group of persons, places, or objects gathered together into a unit.
Nouns of Multitude
another name for Collective Nouns
Number of Collective Nouns
singular in the number if the group is considered a single unit.
Compound Nouns
made up of two or more words. Some are written as seperate words, some are hyphenated, and some are written as one word., consists of two or more words used together as a single noun that can be separate words, one word, or a hyphenated word.
Gender of Nouns
masculine, Feminine, Neuter, and Common
Masculine Gender Nouns
denotes nouns of the male sex., All nouns naming individual male persons., Refers to persons or animals that are male. (He, him, his)
Feminine Gender Nouns
denotes nouns of the female sex., includes most words that refer to females. Examples: actress, she, miss
Neuter Gender Nouns
denotes nouns with no sex., refers to things, places, ideas, or qualities that are neither male nor female
Common Gender Nouns
denotes nouns of either maile or female sex.
Noun Number
Singular or Plural
Singular Noun
refers to one person, place, object, or idea., shows ownership by one person or thing
Plural Nouns
refers to more than one person, place, object, or idea.
nominative, objective, and possessive.
3 Types of Cases of the noun
Nominative Case of the Noun
subject, predicate noun, noun of direct address., noun in apposition.
Objective Case of the Noun
direct object, indirect object, object of the preposition.
Nominative or Objective Case of the Noun
noun in apposition.
Possessive Case of the Noun
adjective.
Simple Subjects
tells who or what is doing the verb., The simple subject of a sentence is the noun or pronoun that names the person, place, or thing the sentence is about:
-The small dog with the red collar is mine., tells who or what is doing the verb.
Compund Subjects
consist of two or more words joined by a coordinating conjunction or correlative conjunction., usually plural.
may be singular if referring to one unit
-"Ham and eggs is.."
Understood Subjects
occur in imperative sentences, and (you) is the implied subject.
Predicate Noun
the who or What... follows a linking verb. Identifies or renames the subject. It is in the predicate part of the sentence and completes the meaning of the verb. It renames, or defines, the subject., a noun that follows a linking verb. It defines the subject by telling what it is.
Predicate Nominative
another name for predicate noun.
How do you find the Predicate Noun?
take the subject and the verb and ask who or what. The answer to the who or what is the predicate noun if its verb is a linking verb.
Predicate Adjective
an adjective that follows a linking verb and describes the subject., an adjective that follows a linking verb and describes the subject of a sentence; includes forms of taste, look, feel, smell, appear, seem, and become; example: I look TIRED, but I feel FINE.
Noun of Direct Address
a noun used to speak directly to some person or object. ALWAYS separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma or commas. Often found in imperative sentences where the subject (you) is understood., the name of the person (normally) who is being directly spoken to ex. Mary, do you..., person being spoken to in a sentence
Charlie, don't bite my finger. (Charlie = NDA)
Direct Object
a noun which receives the action of the verb. It must complete the meaning of the verb by receiving the action of the verb or by naming the result of the action. **MUST follow an action verb unless the sentence is inverted., the object that receives the direct action of the verb, a word or group of words that name the receiver of the action. Ex. New Yorkers take the subway. (Subway is the direct object), receives the action of a verb. It answers the question whom? or what? after an action verb
Indirect Object
a noun that tells to whom or for whom or to what or for what an action is done. It receives the direct object. It comes between the verb and the direct object. It receives the DO and can ONLY appear in the combination with a DO., a word or group of words that tell "For whom am I doing this wonderful thing." It is located between the action verb and the direct object. Ex. Harriet gave her mother a bracelet for her birthday. (Mother is the indirect object.), Comes before the direct object. Tells to whom, for whom the action of the verb is done. (Claire threw JOSEPH the ball)
To or For
If the words to or for actually appear before the noun, that noun cannot be an indirect object. In this case the noun is the object of the preposition. "I mailed to you a copy of the letter.", acknowledge, What 2 prepositions (in English) go before the noun in an indirect object?
Object of the Preposition
a noun that relates to another word in the sentence through a preposition., Before setting the table, you should wash your hands. What does the Gerund act as in this sentence
Prepositional Phrase
the preposition, its object, and its modifiers
Adverbial phrase
if the prepositional phrase answers when, where, why, to what extent, or under what conditions., A phrase that functions as an adverb, a linguistic term for a group of two or more words operating adverbially, when viewed in terms of their syntactic function; a phrase that collectively modifies a verb, adjective, another adverb, or a prepositional phrase; a group of words that act like an adverb; is a group of words telling us where, when, how or with whom an action is done
Adjective Phrase
if the prepositional phrase answers which one, what kind, or how many, and it modifies a noun or pronoun., a prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or a pronoun (begins with a preposition)

ex. No one in our class has seen the movie yet.
A - in our class
Introductory Prepositional Phrase
ALWAYS modifies the verb!!, Throughout the house, an eerie light shone., one or more prepositional phrases at the beginning of a sentence. *things you can do to a box in terms of location
Steps to find out what the prepositional phrase modifies
1. Locate the preposition 2. Look at the word to the immediate left. 3. What does the prepositional phrase tell about (modify) that word? 4. What question does it answer? ADJ-Noun/ADV-Verb 5. Is it modifying a noun or a verb? 6. If the prepositional phrase does not tell about the word to its left, then look at the verb. **It is always possible to insert the preposition "to" or "for" before the IO without changing the sense of the sentence.
Noun in Apposition
a noun that renames, identifies, or explains the noun it follows. It is set off by commas when it renames a proper noun. Assumes or takes the case of the noun it renames., A noun in apposition is a mini definition - added information in the sentence sometimes set off by commas - 2 kinds of appositions: restricitve (needed; no commas) and nonrestrictive (not really needed; has commas)
Close Apposition
when a noun in apposition is closely related to the word it follows. It is not set off by commas.
Appositive Phrase
a noun in apposition along with its modifiers.
Possesive Case Noun
shows ownership of another noun. MUST have an apostrophe. It is diagramed as an adjective.
Parse
to describe a word by stating its part of speech, form, and syntactical relationship in a sentence. To examine closely or subject to detailed analysis, especially by breaking up into components., analyze syntactically by assigning a constituent structure to (a sentence), to separate (a sentence) into parts and describe the funciton of each
Parsing a Noun
Part of speech,
Kind,
Class,
Number,
Gender,
Use,
Case,
common noun
person, place, thing, feeling, idea
proper noun
specific person, place, thing
pronoun
word that takes the place of a noun
action verb
shows physical or mental action
linking verb
1. shows state-of-being
2. does NOT show action
3. links the subject to a noun or ADJECTIVE
predicate
what the subject is doing; always a verb
subject
who or what is doing the action in a sentence; always a noun
sentence
a group of words that express a complete thought; must have a subject and predicate
compound sentence
a sentence that properly combines two sentences into one
compound predicate
two or more predicates for the subject
compound subject
two or more subjects doing the same predicate
run-on sentence
two sentences improperly combined into one sentence
command
sentence that does not need a subject because the subject is understood to be you - the person being commanded
conjunction
words that connect clauses, phrases, or words (FANBOYS)
adjective
describes nouns
adverb
describes a verb, adjective, or adverb
verb phrase
helping verb + main verb
prepositional phrase
preposition + noun or pronoun
preposition
links a noun or pronoun to the rest of a sentence
object of the preposition
the noun or pronoun at the end of a prepositional phrase
suffix
word part added to the end of a word
prefix
word part added to the beginning of a word
plural
more than one
What does a subject answer and what part of speech can it be?
Who or what? noun, pronoun, proper noun
What question does the predicate answer and what part of speech can it be?
What happened to the subject? verb
What questions do adverbs ask?
How, when, where, to what extent
What questions do adjectives ask?
What kind? Which one? How many?
nouns
Name people, places, things, ideas.
verbs
Show action
pronouns
Replace nouns
adjectives
Describe, modify, or limit nouns
adverbs
Describe, limit or modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs.
conjunctions
Connect words, phrases, sentences, ideas
prepositions
Show manner, place, time, condition. Usually in phrases followed by noun or pronoun.
interjections
Show emotion, mild or strong
verbs
Show state of being or condition
verbs
Link subjects to complements
a noun
In this sentence, which part of speech is the word "light"? The light is on.
a verb
In this sentence, which part of speech is the word "light"? We light the fire with a match.
an adjective
In this sentence, which part of speech is the word "light"? This book is light, not heavy.
an adverb
In this sentence, which part of speech is the word "light"? The light pink color looks nice on you.
an interjection
In this sentence, which part of speech is the word "well"? Well, I don't know the answer.
a preposition
In this sentence, which part of speech is the word "at"? Class starts at 8:00.
a conjunction
In this sentence, which part of speech is the word "when"? When you graduate, you will get a job.
Part of speech is determined by
how a word is used in a sentence. A word can be more than one part of speech.
How many basic parts of speech are there?
8
Active Voice
the subject performs action in the sentence or is the thing described by a predicate adjective. Ex. John carried the papers to the desk or John is a thoughtful boy.
join 2 independent clauses
I ran up the hill, but he fell down it.
separate adjectives
It was a difficult, stubborn animal.
parenthetical elements
The boy, as slow as ever, marched into class.
contrasted elements
Playing soccer, not volleyball, requires a lot of running.
explanatory words
We worked, standing in the hot field, all day.
appositives
George, my cousin, jumped through a hoop.
series
I like chicken, beef, and bacon.
introductory phrase
Before the bell rings, students drink from the water fountain.
introductory clause
After the team won the championship, they celebrated at Pizza Hut.
nonrestrictive phrase
The students, trying to pass the test, studied long into the night.
nonrestrictive clauses
The gym, which was made in 2002, is now the center of the athletic complex.
set off dates
January 1, 1900, is when Excel begins to calculate dates.
addresses
The house was located on 342 Ameswood St., Kaneohe, Hawaii 96796.
dialogue
Bob said, "Hi."
interjection
Wow, that was amazing.
Adjective phrase
a prepositional phrase used as an adjective
Adverb phrase
a prepositional phrase used as an adverb
Appositive phrase
a noun that renames or clarifies another noun
Participial phrase
an -ing or -ed verb form used as an adjective
Gerund phrase
an -ing verb form used as a noun
Infinitive phrase
to+verb used as an adjective, adverb, or noun
Absolute phrase
a noun+participle combination grammatically isolated from the sentence
Adverb clause
dependent clause used as an adverb *begins with a subordinating conjunction
Adjective clause
dependent clause used as an adjective *begins with relative pronouns or where or when
Noun clauses
dependent clause used as a noun *begins with relative pronouns or when, where, whether, why, how
Relative Pronouns
who, whom, whose, which, that
Subordinating conjunctions
although, as, as if, after, because, before, even though, if, since, so that, though, unless, when, whenever, while
interruptions
He looked, well, a little dazed.
numbers
65,000,390
titles
George, Sr., was 16 when he finished college.
initials
Bush, George W., was the President of the United States.
emphasis
"It may be those who do most, dream most." - Stephen Leacock
clarity
What he does, does make a difference.
intransitive
verb that does not transfer the action of the subject to a word in the predicate
transitive
verb that transfers the action of the subject to a word in the predicate
action
verb that shows action
grammar
a way of thinking about language
four levels of traditional grammar
parts of speech, parts of a sentence, phrases, clauses
parts of speech
the eight kinds of words in English
noun
the name of a person, place or thing
pronoun
a word that takes the place of a noun
subject pronouns (definition)
pronouns used for subjects
subject pronouns (list)
I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they
object pronouns (definition)
pronouns used for objects
object pronouns (list)
me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them
adjective
a word that modifies a noun or pronoun
the 3 articles
a, an, the
definite article
the adjective "the"
indefinite article
the adjectives "a" or "an"
three degrees of adjectives
positive, comparative, superlative
verb
a word that shows action, being or links a subject to a subject compliment
conjunction
a word that joins two words or two groups of words
coordinating conjunctions
for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so
subordinating conjunctions
if, as, since, when, because
correlative conjunctions
either and or, neither and nor, not only and but also
preposition
shows the relationship between its object and another word in the sentence
interjection
shows emotion but has no grammatical function
Noun
A noun is a person, place, thing or idea. Ex. house, bone, grass
Singular
grammatical number category referring to a single item or unit. Ex. person, dog, bone
Plural
grammatical number category referring to two or more items or units. Ex. people, dogs, bones
Common
A type of noun that is not specific; not a name. Ex. dog, dogs, people
Proper
A type of noun that is specific; a name. Must be capitalized. Ex. Charlie, Chicago, California
Collective
A type of noun that describes a group of nouns as a singular unit. Ex. gaggle of geese, murder of crows
Apostrophe
A punctuation mark used to show possession and contractions Ex. life's pleasures, life's good
Pronoun
A pronoun takes the position and function of nouns but do not specifically name them Ex. he, she, it, they, him, her, them
Object Pronoun
An object pronoun shows the object of a sentence Ex. me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them
Subject Pronoun
Subject pronouns show the subject of a sentence Ex. I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they
Possessive Pronoun
Possessive pronouns show possession Ex. mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, yours, theirs
Its vs. It's
"Its" shows possession, but no apostrophe is needed because its is already a possessive pronoun. It's is a contraction for it is. Ex. Its own phone, it's a phone
Antecedent
The noun or pronoun being replaced by the pronoun in question Ex. Jack did his homework. "Jack" is the antecedent because it is replaced by "his".
Pronoun/Antecedent Agreement
When a pronoun agrees with its antecedent in gender (boy/girl) and amount (singular/plural). Ex. Jack did his homework. "Jack" is singular and masculine, and so is "his". If there is not pronoun/ antecedent agreement, the sentence is incorrect
Adjective
An adjective describes nouns or pronouns and answers three questions about them: amount, type, and which one is being referred to Ex. blue, seven, high
Proper Adjective
A proper adjective is an adjective formed by a noun, but act like adjectives and is always capitalized Ex. American, English, Red Sox
Articles
Three adjectives are articles: "a", "an", and "the". The two indefinite articles are "a" and "an", because when you use them, you are describing a noun or pronoun that is "indefinite", or one of many. When you use "the", you are describing a specific noun or a "definite" one.
Adverbs
An adverb describes an adjective, a verb, or another adverb and answers three questions about them: how, when, and where Ex. Yesterday, extremely, toward
"Good" and "Well"
"I did good on that test" is incorrect because "good" is an adjective, but it is describing a verb. "Well" should be put instead because it is an adverb and therefore is valid to describe a verb.
Preposition
A preposition states position, time, and relationship Ex. above, before, of
Prepositional Phrase
A prepositional phrase starts with a preposition, can have adjectives in the middle, and ends with a noun or pronoun Ex. (Polly-O lives) near Kevin's desk
Verb
Verbs show action and state of being Ex. run, running, am,
Tenses
There are three verb tenses: past, present, and future. Ex. He walked in the park. He walks in the park He will walk in the park
Action Verb
Action verbs show action Ex. He smells
Linking Verb
Linking verbs link nouns to adjectives Ex. He smells like fish
Conjugation of Verb: to be
I am You are He is She is it is We are You are They are One is
Conjunction
Conjunctions join together clauses, words, sentences, phrases Ex. after, although, as, because, before, even though, rather than, if
Coordinate Conjunction
Joins independent clauses and equals together Ex. for, and, yet, so, but, or
Subordinate Conjunction
Joins dependent clauses together Ex. after, although, as
Conjunctive adverbs
Conjunctive adverbs are adverbs that behave like conjunctions but are punctuated differently Ex. however, therefore
Interjections
Interjections are words that express emotion and are separated from sentences by punctuation Ex. Hey, No, Yes
Mild Interjections
Mild interjections show relatively low amounts of emotion and are punctuated with commas Ex. Hey, do your homework
Extreme Interjections
Extreme interjections show relatively large amounts of emotion and are punctuated with an exclamation mark Ex. Hey! Do your homework
Direct Address
A noun which interrupts like an interjection because it names the person being talked to: It can be mild or extreme and will be punctuated accordingly Ex. Chris, do your homework Chris! Do your homework!
linking
verb that links the subject with the predicate
concrete
noun that can be perceived by any one of the senses
compound
Mother-in-law, skyscraper, Eiffel Tower: two or more nouns put together
proper
noun that names a specific person place or thing that begins with a capital letter
common
noun used often and is usually not capitalized
relative
pronoun that introduces a subordinate clause
possessive
pronoun that shows ownership
a, the, an
commonly used articles
article
most commonly used adjectives
abstract
noun that names a feeling, quality, or idea
noun
person, place, thing, idea
adjective
describes or modifies a noun or pronoun
personal
pronoun that names the one speaking, spoken to, or spoken about,
interrogative
pronoun that introduces a question
intensive
pronoun that emphasizes a noun or another pronoun and is not needed for the meaning of the sentence. ends in -self or -selves.
reflexive
pronoun that refers to, or reflects on, the subject of the sentence and ends in -self or -selves. necessary to the meaning of the sentence
indefinite
pronoun that may or may not be already named
helping
verb that helps the main verb express action or a state of being
verb phrase
something that contains one main vern and one or more helping verbs
adjective questions
what kind, which one, how much, how many
demonstrative
THAT book is the best book I have ever read!
nouns and pronouns
other parts of speech that can be used as adjectives
adjectives, adverbs, verbs
parts of speech that adverbs modify
adverb questions
when, where, how, to what degree
conjunction
links words or groups of words
interjection
expresses strong emotion or surprise
preposition
relates a noun or pronoun to another word
pronoun
takes the place of a noun
infinitive
"to" followed by the base form of a verb
gerund
ends in -ing and is used as a noun
appositive
phrase that identifies or gives more information about the subject
clause
group of words with a subject and a predicate
independent, main
clause can stand alone as a complete sentence
dependent, subordinate
clause has a subject and predicate, but cannot stand alone as a complete sentence
adjective
clause modifies a noun or pronoun
adverb
clause modifies a verb, adjective, or adverb
logical order
pattern of organization used for an expository essay
ideas
trait of good writing that is concerned with the topic and the information you will include
word choice
trait concerned with using specific nouns and vivid verbs
sentence fluency
trait has to do with sentence length and varied beginnings
spatial
pattern used for an essay about the structure of a cell
voice
trait concerned with the personality of the writer
chronological
pattern used for a narrative essay
organization
trait concerned with the order in which you present your ideas
compare/contrast
pattern used for an essay about the beliefs of one program versus the beliefs of another
complement
word or group of words that completes the meaning of a verb
noun or pronoun
part of speech usually a direct object
direct object
sentence with an indirect object has a...
direct object
receives the action of the verb
adverb
part of speech never is a complement
direct object questions
what, whom
sentence
expresses a complete thought; example: My father travels around the country.
in
already inside
into
tell about the movement from the outside to the inside
between
for two
among
three or more
different from
to tell about differences
of
do not use in the place of "have"
declarative
sentence that makes a statement; uses a period; example: Janelle is painting a picture of an imaginary place.
interrogative
sentence that asks a questions; uses a ? mark; example: Who could ever create a more imaginative scene?
imperative
sentence gives a command; uses a period; example: Think about all the uses for artwork.
exclamatory
sentence expresses strong feeling; uses an ! point; example: Who could ever create a more imaginative scene!
four kinds of sentences
declarative, interrogative, imperative, exclamatory
Include a ____ and a predicate in every sentence.
subject
Use a ____ and a subject in every sentence.
predicate
subject
whom or what the sentence is about; example: One PERSON described her experience.
predicate
tells something about the subject; example: One person DESCRIBED HER EXPERIENCE.
complete subject
all the words in a subject; example: MY TWO OLDER BROTHERS stared at me silently.
simple subject
is the main word or words in a subject; example: My two older BROTHERS stared at me silently.
Sometimes the complete ____ and simple ____ are the same; example: XAVIER stared at me silently.
subject
complete predicate
all the words in a predicate; example: Everyone in my house IS KEEPING A SECRET.
simple predicate
is the main word or words in a predicate; example: Everyone in my house IS KEEPING a secret.
Sometimes the complete ____ and simple ___ are the same; example: Everyone SMILES.
predicate
compound subject
two or more simple subjects with the same predicate; example: JON congratulated the actress. STACY congratulated the actress. --> JON and STACY congratulated the actress.
compound predicate
two or more predicates with the same subject; usually joined by AND or OR; example: We WILL FIND the card catelog or WILL ASK the librarian for help.
compound sentence
combines two or more simple sentences; can be joined by a comma and connecting words such as AND, OR, or BUT...or by a semi-colon; example: A crater can be formed by a bomb, or it can be formed by meteorite.
conjunction
joins a words or groups of words; can be AND, OR, or BUT; can be used to combine sentences; example: Janet lives in Austen, AND Elizabeth lives in New York.
interjection
a word or a group of words that expresses strong feeling; you can separate an interjection from the rest of a sentence with either an exclamation point or a comma, depending on the strength of the feeling; examples: Whew! That was close! Oh, no!
fragment
does not express a complete thought; example: Tells an interesting story.
run-on sentence
strings together two or more sentences without clearly separating them; example: This picture is his it is not yours.
expanded
adding details to sentences to make them more clear and more interesting
phrase
a group of words that work together; example: from the kitchen window
clause
a group of words that have a subject and a predicate; some stand alone; others cannot; example: Everyone should know about medical emergencies.
independent clause
expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a simple sentence
dependent clause
contains a subject and a predicate, but doesn't express a complete thought or stand alone; example: AFTER THEY LEARNED ABOUT TOXIC WASTE.
complex sentence
consist of one independent clause and at least one dependent clause
subordinating conjuction
AFTER, IF, SINCE, UNTIL, WHETHER, or WHEN connects the two clauses into one sentence; example: The senators left the capitol AFTER THE SESSION WAS ADJOURNED.
indirect object
is a noun or a pronoun that follows an action verb; example: The vet sent ME a reminder to bring my dogs in for their shots.
appositive
a noun that identifies or explains the noun or pronoun it follows; usually set off by commas; example: Robert Miller, the JUDGE, sentenced the criminal to prison.
predicate nominative
noun or pronoun that follows a linking verb and renames the subject; example: Susan B. Anthony was an early FEMINIST. (noun) / It was SHE who led the woman's suffrage movement to victory. (pronoun)
compound predicate nominative
Predicate nominatives sometimes contain more than one noun. These are called ____. example: Mahatma Ghandi was a Hindu religious LEADER and a social REFORMER in India.
predicate adjective
an adjective that follows a linking verb and modifies the subject of a sentence; example: A freshly baked pie is DELIGHTFUL to the eye and nose.
compound predicate adjective
Predicate adjectives sometimes contain more than one adjective. These are called ____. example: The job applicant seems HONEST and RELIABLE.
direct object
a noun or pronoun that follows an action verb; they tell or what receives the action; example: I inherited a pet DEER from the former residents of my house. (tells what) or The surgical team asked DR. HABIB to explain the procedure. (tells who)
noun clause
subordinate clause used as a noun; examples: WHAT YOU SAY is true.
participle
used as an adjective; it is a form of a verb used as an adjective to modify a noun or pronoun; example: The RUNNING water was moving dangerously fast.
participial phrase
contains a participle and acts as an adjective; examples: They arrested the man DRIVING THE CAR.
gerund
verb + ing used as a noun; example: SWIMMING is a good exercise.
gerund phrase
consist of a gerund and related words; example: SWIMMING IN THE LAKE is a good exercise.
infinitive
present tense of a verb preceded by the word TO; it may be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb; example: TO EXERCISE is a healthful habit.
dangling participle
To correct a ____, place the participial closer to the word it modifies; example: (incorrect: PLAYING SOLITAIRE, at the table sat a bored young man. / correct: At the table sat a bored young man PLAYING SOLITAIRE.)
split infinitive
use an adverb to avoid these; example: (incorrect: I wanted to SLOWLY SEE the city. / correct: I wanted TO SEE the city SLOWLY.)
modifier
Place a ___ as close to the word it describes; example: (incorrect: The man looks like a spy WITH THE HAT. / correct: The man WITH THE HAT looks like a spy.)
subordinate clause
contains a subject and a predicate, but does not express a complete thought, and cannot stand alone; often begins with a subordinating conjunction, such as AFTER, ALTHOUGH, BECAUSE, BEFORE, IF, SINCE, WHEN, or WHILE; example: People became more sensitive to pollution problems AFTER THEY LEARNED ABOUT TOXIC WASTE.
adjective clause
modifies a noun or a pronoun; majority of these clauses are introduced by relative pronouns such as WHO, WHOSE, WHOM, WHICH, and THAT; example: She lost the ring THAT YOU GAVE HER.
nonrestrictive clause
is descriptive or explanatory and can be omitted without changing the essential meaning; example: My father, WHO WAS COACHING THE BASEBALL TEAM, met us at the ballpark.
adverb clause
is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb
Passive Voice
the action is performed by an unknown agent. Ex. The papers were carried to the desk.
Degrees of Adjectives
Base (1) Ex. High, Thick, Beautiful, Bad;
Comparative (2) Ex. Higher, Thicker, More Beautiful, Worse; Superlative (3 or more) Ex. Highest, Thickest, Most Beautiful, Worst
Personal Pronoun
takes the place of a name of a person, place, or thing.
1st person- I, me, my mine;
2nd person- You, your, yours;
3rd person- He, him, his, she, her, hers, they, them, theirs, we, us, ours, it is, who whom
Relative Pronoun
used to relate to another noun in the sentence Ex. The chef WHO won the proze studied in Paris Who, whom, whoever, whomever, that, which
Indefinite Pronoun
refers to an unknown person, place, or thing. Another, anyone, anything, each, neither , no body, someone, something, both, few, many, serval, all, most, none, some
Demonstrative pronoun
points out a person, a place, a thing, or an idea Ex. THAT car is the one I want. This, that, these, those,
Interrogative Pronoun
used to ask a question Who, whom, which, what, whose
Reflexive Pronoun
refers back to the person to whom the pronoun refers, usually refers to the subject of a sentence; examples: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, and themselves
Simple Present Tense
verb tense that describes present action or condition. Ex. Hear, Play Run
Present Progressive Tense
verb tense that shows action in progress. Ex. Am hearing, Is playing, Are running
Simple Past Tense
verbe tense that shows completed action Ex. Heard, played, ran
Past Prgressive Tense
verb tense that shows past action that took place over a period of time. Ex. Was hearing, Were playing, Was running
Future Tense
verb tense that shows an action that will or will not happen in the futrure. Ex. Will hear, Won't play, Will runn
Present Perfect Tense
verb tense that describes an action that began in the past but continues til the present. Ex. Have heard, Has played, Has run
Past Perfect
verb tense that describes an event completed in the past prior to another event. Ex. Had heard, Had played, Had run
Present Perfect Progressive Tense
verb tense to describe an action that began in the pas, continues to the present and may continue into the future. Ex. Has been hearing, Have been playing, Has been running
Future Perfect Tense
verb tense to express an action that will be completed by or before a specified time in the future. Ex. Will have heard, Will have played, Will have run.
Comparative Adjective
adjectives used to compare two things. Usually using the suffix -er and the word 'than'. i.e. faster than or slower than
Superlative Adjective
The extreme degree of comparison of adjectives. Used when comparing three or more things. Usually using the suffix -est, or the word 'most'. i.e. most beautiful, or highest
Demonstrative Pronouns
Pronouns that point to specific things. i.e. this, that, there, and those. (this, these refer to things near the speaker. that, those refer to nouns further away)
Possessive Pronouns
Pronouns that attribute ownership. i.e. mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs
Active Voice
The subject performs the action denoted by the verb. i.e. the cat eats the fish.
Passive Voice
One can change the normal order of a sentence so that the subject is being acted upon. This voice may make the reader work harder to understand the intended meaning. i.e. fish are eaten by the cat.
Declarative Sentence
A sentence stating a fact or argument without requiring response. It makes a statement and ends in a period.
Interrogative Sentences
Sentences that ask a direct question. Always ends with a question mark.
Exclamatory Sentences
Sentences that end with an exclamation point.
Imperative Sentences
Sentences that give direct commands to someone. Can end with a period or an exclamation point.
Simple Present
They walk. Occasionally used to talk about scheduled events in the near future, i.e. the train leaves tonight at 6.
Present Perfect
They have walked. Consists of a past participle with "has" or "have." It designates action which began in the past but which continues into the present.
Simple Past
They walked. Used to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past.
Past Perfect
They had walked. Designates action in the past just as simple past does, but the action of the past perfect is action completed in the past before another action.
Future
They will walk. "will" or "be going to".
Future Perfect
They will have walked. Designates action that will have been completed at a specified time in the future.
3 types of sentences
Declarative, Interrogative, Imperative
Declarative sentence
Makes a statement.
Interrogative sentence
Asks a question.
Imperative sentence
Gives a command or makes a request.
4 sentence structures
Simple Compound Complex Complex-compound
Simple sentence
Sentence that has a subject and a verb
Compound sentence
Made up of two independent clauses joined by a coordinating (and, but, for, or, so, yet) or correlative (either/or, neither/nor, both/and, not only/but also) conjunction or a semicolon.
Independent clause
Clause that contains both a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought.
Complex sentence
Contains a dependent clause and an independent clause. Ex: Because I do not feel well, I will not be attending the concert.
Dependent clause
Contains a subject and a verb and does NOT express a complete thought.
Complex-compound sentence
Contains at least two independent clauses and at least one dependent clause. Ex. I am going to town, and Bill is going when he gets his car repaired.
Run-on sentence
Several thought incorrectly joined are not grammatically correct. Ex. I like to ice skate my brother does not.
Sentence fragment
An incomplete thought is not grammatically correct. Ex. Making his way in the world today.
8 Parts of speech
Noun Pronoun Verb Adjective Adverb Conjunction Preposition Interjection
Noun
A person, place, thing, or idea.
Pronoun
A word that can replace a noun. Ex. I, you, who, one, any, myself...
8 Types of Pronouns
Personal Relative Interrogative Demonstrative Indefinite Reciprocal Intensive Reflexive
Personal pronouns
I, you, she, she, it, we, you, they, them, us, my, mine, me, your, yours, her, hers, its, our, ours, us, their, theirs
Relative pronouns
who, whom, whose, what, which, that
Interrogative pronouns
who, what, when, where, how
Demonstrative pronouns
this, that, these, those
Indefinite pronouns
one, any, each, anyone, somebody, all...
Reciprocal pronouns
each other, one another
Intensive pronouns
myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves
Verb
A word or phrase (was writing, has been sewing) that shows action (writing, sewing) or a state of being (is, are, am, was, were).
Transitive verbs
May take a direct object: Bob BEAT the rug. Some can be used as active or linking verbs
Intransitive verbs
Do not require an object: The chorus WAS SINGING as they entered the building.
Active verb
Expresses action done by its subject: Jane FELT the prickly bush.
Linking verb
Verb followed by an adjective: Bill FELT dizzy.
Adjective
Modifies or limits a noun or pronoun. Answers the questions which one, what kind, and how many.
8 types of adjectives
Descriptive Limiting Possessive Demonstrative Interrogative Articles Numerical Comparative and Superlative
Descriptive adjective
Names a quality of an object: BLUE notebook
Limiting adjective
Restricts the meaning or indicates quantity or number.
Possessive adjective
HER jacket, THEIR house...
Demonstrative adjective
THIS automobile
Interrogative adjective
WHICH cat belongs to you?
Articles
A, AN, THE
Numerical adjectives
ONE ticket, SECOND half of the game
Comparative and Superlative adjectives
BIGGER house, ROUNDER shape, HOTTER weather BIGGEST house, ROUNDEST shape, HOTTEST weather
Adverb
A word that limits or describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Ex. Herman walks QUICKLY. Jane colors VERY WELL. Billy out the cat OUTSIDE EARLIER. (OUTSIDE modifies "put" with regard to location; EARLIER modifies "put" with regard to when it happened)
Preposition
Relates a noun or pronoun to another word in the sentence. (Anywhere a squirrel can go)
Prepositional phrase
The preposition and its object form a _____________. Ex. Bill drew a circle AROUND THE SUBJECT. (AROUND is the preposition, SUBJECT is the object of the preposition)
Conjunction
A word that may connect words, phrases, and clauses.
Coordinating conjunction
Joins words, phrases or clauses of equal rank: and, but, for, nor, or, so, yet.
Subordinating conjunction
Join subordinate clauses with main clauses: although, after, because, if... BECAUSE he was better, Billy went home from the hospital. ("Billy...hospital" is the main clause; "Because...better" is the subordinate clause.
Interjections
Words inserted to show emotion: Wow!, Ouch! Hey!
Modifiers
May describe or limit the meaning of a word or group of words.
Both adjectives and adjective phrases or clauses can...
modify a noun
Both adverbs and adverbial phrases or clauses can...
modify a verb
Phrase
A group of words without a subject and predicate. It can function as a noun, ,an adjective, an adverb, or a verb. They may be prepositional, participial, gerunds, infinitives, and verbs.
Prepositional phrase (adverb)
The team ran ACROSS THE FIELD. (_____used as _____)
Participial phrase (adjective)
The horse WINNING THE RACE belongs to me. (_____ used as _____)
Gerund phrase (noun and subject of the sentence)
WRITING THE BOOK was a pleasure. (_____ used as _____)
Infinitive (noun and subject of the sentence
TO WALK was his goal. (_____ used as _____)
Clause
Contains a subject and a verb. It may be independent or subordinate (dependent).
Do not capitalize
systems of government or individual adherents to a philosophy; compass directions or seasons
When to use a comma
1. In a series 2. With a long introductory phrase (not a short phrase, unless it includes a verb form being used as another form of speech: "When eating, Mary..." or "Having decided to leave, James...") 3. To separate sentences with two main ideas 4. To separate an introductory subordinate clause: "Whenever I can, I try to..." 5. To slow the flow of the sentence: appositives, interjections, direct address, tag questions, geographical names and addresses, transitional words and phrases, parenthetical words and phrases, unusual word order) 6. With nonrestrictive elements 7. To set off direct quotations or contrasting elements. 8. In dates
Nonrestrictive elements
A word or group of words that are not vital to the meaning of the sentence. These are set off by commas: My sister, THE GIRL WHO WROTE THE STORY, has always loved to write.
Restrictive elements
A word or group of words that are vital to the meaning of the sentence. These are NOT set off by commas: The girl WHO WROTE THE STORY is my sister.
Contrasting elements
Her intelligence, NOT HER BEAUTY, got her the job. Your plan will take you a little further from, RATHER THAN CLOSER TO, your destination. It was a reasonable, THOUGH NOT APPEALING, idea.
Semicolons
Use this punctuation to 1. Separate independent clauses not joined by a coordinating conjunction 2. Separate independent clauses separated by a conjunctive adverb 3. Separate items in a series with internal commas
Conjunctive adverbs
accordingly, besides, consequently, finally, furthermore, however, indeed, in fact, moreover, nevertheless, next, nonetheless, now, on the other hand, otherwise, perhaps, still, therefore...
Colon
Signals the reader that a list, explanation, or restatement of the preceding will follow. It is like an arrow, indicating that something more is to come. Information preceding this mark should be a complete sentence.
Descriptive Grammar:
describes a language - the way that people use it - w/out judging whether the utterance is correct or incorrect
Prescriptive Grammar:
concerned with correct usage
Gerund:
verb with -ing attached to it - functions as a noun e.g.: I like running. Thinking is my favorite thing to do.
Antecedents:
the person or thing that defines the pronoun in a sentence e.g.: Joe worked in the post office and he enjoyed it. (Joe is the antecedent.)
Interrogative pronouns:
Who are those people? Whose dog is that? Whom is she speaking to? What are they doing? Which one should I buy?
Demonstrative pronouns:
That is a nice suit. This is a nice suit. These are fine shoes. Those are fine shoes.
Indefinite pronouns:
Everyone is here. Everybody is here. No one is here. Nobody is here.
Transitive verbs:
require an object e.g.: Chris writes books in the morning.
Intransitive verbs:
e.g.: sleep (Sleep cannot be transitive.)
Infinitive form of a verb:
to be, to walk, to see e.g.: I need to work today. I like to work on writing
Predicate adjectives
when adjective follows a state of being verb e.g.: He looks sick. He seems tired. She is joyful. She is nice.
Adverbs
answer: how (sloppily), where (here, there) , to what degree (very, hardly), when (now, later, yesterday) e.g.: The cat runs here and there. I painted the house neatly. I am very happy. I want it finished now.
Conjunctions:
Coordinating Correlating Subordinating and, but, nor, for, or either/or both/and neither/nor when since because
Appositive phrases:
are offset with commas, further describe nouns eg: Mr. Dobbs, our teacher, is here. That car, a brand new Toyota, is what I want.
Simple
Sentence Types: Simple sentences are straightforward.
Compound
Sentence Types: One sentence contains a subject and verb, and the second sentence contains another subject and verb.
Sentence Types: Complex
If the sentence has an independent clause and a dependent clause, it is complex.
Compound-Complex
Sentence Types: If the sentence has two independent clauses and a dependent clause, it is compound and it is complex.
Determiners, Determiner
term for an element preceding a noun in a noun phrase. EXAMPLE: the, that, two, a, many, all, etc.
Determiners: Definite determiners
include the definite article the, demonstratives (this, those, etc.), possessives (his, John's), question words (which), and quantifiers (all, etc.)
Determiners: Indefinite determiners
include: a(n) and numerals like two, and many.
Determiners: Article:
class of determiners that identify a noun's status. (The, A, An)
Determiners: Demonstrative:
a determiner used to indicate spatial, temporal, or discourse location. It functions as a modifier of a noun, or a pronoun. Examples: These Those, This, That
Determiners: Quantifier:
a determiner that expresses a number or amount - functions as a modifier of a noun or pronoun. Examples: All (All are welcome; All these people) Five, Many, Some
Determiners: Examples
Examples with determiner phrases in italics: a little dog, the little dogs (indefinite or definite article) this little dog, those little dogs (demonstrative) my little dogs, their little dog (possessive adjective) Sheila's little dog, the Queen of England's little dog (noun phrase + 's) every little dog, each little dog, some little dog, either dog (quantifying)
Modal Verbs
Modal verbs behave very differently from normal verbs. A good way to remember them: You use "not" to make modal verbs negative. EXAMPLE: He should not be late.
Common Modal Verbs:
Can, Could, May, Might, Must, Ought to, Shall, Should, Will, Would
Nonstandard (American English)
pronunciation, vocabulary, or grammar that differs from what is in dictionaries and prescriptive handbooks
Standard American English (SAE)
a variety of American English that is widely shared by middle class, urban, educated speakers and most closely resembles the written form of language taught in schools
Standard Written English
the edited variety of language appropriate for use in writing; also known as Standard Edited English
Communicative Competence
the ability to use a language appropriately for a variety of social and cultural circumstances
Linguistic Competence
a speaker's knowledge of the phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics of a particular language
Textual Competence
the ability to use language for a variety of purposes, such as stories, conversations, and letters
pragmatic competence
the ability to use language in interpersonal relationships, taking into account such complexities as social distance between speakers and an indirectness required in a given situation
dialects
a variant of a language spoken by a group of people sharing the same time (historical period) or space (geographical or social environment)
regional dialects
a form of speech associated with a geographic area or region
social dialects
a form of speech used by a group within a society characterized especially by the socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and/or gender of the speakers
hypercorrection
an attempt to be overly "correct" resulting in the production of language different from the standard ("between Harlan and I" instead of "between Harlan and me")
interlanguage
the language form produced by speakers acquiring a second language that combines linguistic features from both their native and their new languages
developmental errors
errors made when learning a language based on the speaker's incorrect inference of grammatical rules, for example in acquiring English a learner may say "he goed" instead of "he went"
transfer errors
errors made when acquiring a second language in which a speaker substitutes features of the native language in the new language (ex. an Italian speaker saying "he has cold" for the English "he is cold"
linguistic insecurity
an anxious desire to be correct sometimes felt by speakers who believe their language does not always conform to SAE
style
variation in language use based on the formality or informality of the social setting
informal style
a speech used in casual settings, among friends, etc.
formal style
the language used in public speech, such as lectures, sermons, writing, and political addresses
style shifting
when the speaker adapts language use to the formality or informality of the situation ("goodbye" as opposed to "see ya!"
adjective
a form-class word (describe or modify another person or thing in a sentence)
adverb
a form-class word (modifies any part of language other than a noun)
form
denotes the part of speech of a word or the makeup of a grammatical structure
form class
the set of words capable of changing form through the addition of inflectional and derivational morphemes
frame sentence
a sentence with an empty slot in the position typically occupied by a member of a particular form class
function
the role a word or phrase plays in a sentence
gender
the classification of English nouns and pronouns as masculine, feminine, or neuter based on the sex of the person or thing referred to or on the conventional alignment of sex to inanimate objects
gerund
a verb having the {-ing} inflection and functioning as a nominal phrase
grammatical feature
a characteristic of a subclass of words that determines how it may be used
noun
a person, place, thing or idea
verb
a word that shows action or state of being
pronoun
takes the place of a noun; he, she, you, I, me
adverb
describes a verb; typically ends in ly
adjective
describes a noun
direct object
follows a transitive verb (active verb); can be nouns, pronouns; a simple formula is subject + verb+ who? what = direct object
indirect object
the noun or pronoun that receives the direct object
verb transitive
ALWAYS an action verb; is typically followed by a direct object
verb intransitive
ALWAYS a linking verb; is typically followed by a predicate adjective or predicate noun; acts like an equals sign
preposition
links nouns and pronouns to the rest of the sentence
prepositional phrase
gives a sentence detail; begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or pronoun
conjunction
links words, phrases and clauses FANBOYS = for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so
interjection
added to a sentence to convey emotion
clause
must have a subject and a verb; 2 types of clauses - independent and dependent
gerund
verb acting like a noun; ends in -ing
participle
verb acting like an adjective ends in -ing or -ed
lexicon
the complete stock of words known by any speaker
modifier
a word or phrase whose function is to give grammatical or lexical information about another word in the sentence
noun
form class word (person, place, or thing)
number
the singular or plural state of nouns and pronouns
qualifier
aka - intensifier, a structure-class word
semantic feature
elements of meaning (like human/non-human, animate/non-animate) that affect how words can be combined
verb
a form-class word having an {-s} affix in the third person singular and an {-ing} affix in the present participle form
gradable adjective
an adjective that can occur with qualifiers
common noun
a noun that names non-unique persons, places, or things
count noun
a noun that can be preceded by a number
noncount noun
aka - mass noun, a noun that ordinarily can not be preceded by a number or the determiner a/an
Universal Grammar (UG)
Noam Chomsky/Aspects of the Theory of Syntax: belieft that language acquistion was innate--not acquired.
Prelinguistic stage
silent period with only crying and later cooing and babbline
Holophrastic stage
one word communication
two-word stage
follows the holophrastic stage
telegraphic stage
(about 28 months) when the child may omit syllables in words, substitute sounds, and use only a pivot word with other words--much like a telegram
intermediate development stage
follows the telegraphic stage
adult stage
final stage of language acquistion
receptive language
language that is spoken or written by others and recieved by an individual, that is listening or reading (decoding or getting meaning from spoken words or written symbols)
cognitive language
language which is received, processed into memory, integrated with knowledge already integrated, and made a part of the knowledge of the individual from which new ideas and concepts can be generated. It is part of the creative process that shapes the thought of each person
expressive language
communication through speaking, writing, and/or gestures, that is, selecting words, formulating them into ideas, and producing them through speaking, writing, or gesturing (encoding or the process of expressive language). Expressive language involves word retrieval, rules of grammar (syntax), word and sentence structure (morphology), and word meaning (semantics).
The acquistion-learning hypothesis
two systems of language acquistion that are independent but related: the acquired system and the learned system
acquired system
unconscious aspect of language acquistion; speakers are less concerned with the structure of their utterances than with the act of communication meaning
learned system
formal instruction in which students engage in forma study to acquire knowledge about the target language
monitor hypothesis
illustrates how the acquired system is affected by the learned system: when second language learners monitor their speech, they are applying their understanding of learned grammaer to edit, plan, and initiate their communication
the natural order hypothesis
this hypothesis argures that there is a natural order to the way second language learners acquire their taget language, and that order transcends, age, the native language, the target language, and the conditions under which the second language is being learned
the natural order hypothesis
1. second language learners produce single words 2. they strong words together based on meaning and not syntax 3. they begin to identify elements that begin and end sentences 4. they begin to identify different elements within sentences and can rearrange them to produce questions
the input hypothesis
argues that learners progress along the natural order only when they encounter second language input that is one step beyond where they are in the natural order
the affective filter hypothesis
describes external factors that can act as a filter that impedes acquistion, such as motivation level, self-confidence level, and anxiety
dialect
a subdivision of a language that are related to regional differences and/or social class; may differ in sound (phonology), in vocabulary, and in grammar from the orignal language
pragmatics
the rules for social language
pragmatics
1. using language appropriately for different social situations 2. changing one's language according to the listener's needs (volume, change in vocabulary) 3. following rules for conversing with others, such a taking turns, staying on topic, not standing too close, and rephrasing when necessary
analytic language
language that uses very few bound morphemes--prefixes and suffixes and inflections or grammatical endings of nouns
synthetic language
language that uses large numbers of bound morphemes and often compbines strings of them to form a single word.
morpheme
in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix)
phoneme
(linguistics) one of a small set of speech sounds that are distinguished by the speakers of a particular language
A pronoun as a predicated noun
use verb to-be ("is") can be reversed "The person who prank called us is she." uses subjunctive case ("she") Ex: She is the person who pranked called us.
Essential Adj. Clause
Modifies the noun, "cookies": that clause is essential to sentence Ex: The cookies that I made were put in the refrigerator by Dr. Jones.
Non-essential Adj. Clause
modifies noun, "Bobert" set apart from sentence by commas who not essential to meaning of sentence Ex: Bobert, who is nice but a short guy, would like to take Tonie out sometime.
Subordinate/Dependent Clause
Cannot stand alone as a sentence (fragment) not a complete thought Ex: Ireland is my favorite country, a place where I would love to live one day.
Predicate Nominative
"place" describes "my apartment" follows linking verb, "is" Ex: My apartment is a place that is small and cheap.
Noun clause as Predicate Nominative
begins with "what" follows "is" (linking verb) Ex: Running on pavement is what my doctors told me not to do.
Appositive
set off by commas classifies the noun, "Tonie" Ex: Tonie, a Greek girl, is looking for a Greek man to marry.
Nonun clause as Indirect Object
noun clause "whatever" "whatever I want" = noun + verb Ex: I'd like to order whatever I want tonight.
Gerund
A verb that has been made into a noun by adding-ing Ex: I love working out as long as I have my music with me.
Independent clause
can stand alone without the rest of the sentence has subject and predicate Ex: Pudding face jumped for job, as Tonie and Megan wlaked through the doorway.
Declarative
A sentence that ends with a period.
Imperative
A command.
Interrogative
A sentence that ends with a question mark.
Transitive verb
A verb that requires an object to be grammatical.
Compounding
A word that consists of two or more elements that are independent words Ex: Loud speaker, baby sit
Stem
The root or main part of a word to which inflections or formative elements are added
Antecedent
A word or phrase that a subsequent word refers back to Ex: I'll give this to Mary if I see her. (HER is the antecedent of Mary)
When to use the articles: A and An
A is used with: a singular noun beginning with a consonant Ex: a car
a
singular noun with a consonant sound Ex: a unicorn
An
is used when: a singular noun begins with a vowel Ex: an elephant
Dependent or subordinate clause
A group of words that has a subject and a predicate, but they cannot stand alone It depends on some more information that is not expressed
Three types of dependent clauses
Adjective clause Noun clause Adverbial clause
Adjective clause
A subordinate clause that functions as an adjective
These clauses are dependent and limit nouns or pronouns
Noun Clause
Functions as a noun and can be used in 4 ways: 1) Subject of a sentence Ex: What the Chairman proposed was not practical. 2) DIrect obeject of a verb Ex: I hope that you will be promoted. 3) Prediate noun Ex: The rumor was that he had lef the city. 4) Object of a preposition Ex: Give the message to whoever is in the office.
Adverbial Clause
These clauses tell how, when, where, and to what extent an action is performed These clauses also modify: 1) verbs 2) adjectives 3) other adverbs
Semicolons
used to link independent clauses that do not contain conjunctions Use to avoid a comma splice Ex: I am going home, I intend to stay there. (There is no conjunction here) In this example, a semicolon needs to be placed in between the words HOME and I.
Conjunctions
It is also called a coordinate conjunction or connecting word The conjunctions are: and, for, or, nor, so, yet, but If used at the beginning of the second indpendent clause a comma is needed. It is always before the coordinating conjunction
Simple subject
To find the simple subject, divide the sentence between the complete subject and the complete predicate. Next, cross out all of the prepositional phrases Ex: On Saturday at the Horseshoe, the Ohio Sate Buckeyes played the Michigan Wolverines for a shot at the final game. (The "I" denotes the speraption b/w subject and predicate, and the underline indicates the prespositional phrase. Thuse, "the Ohio State Buckyeyes" is the simple subject.
Accept v. Except
Accept= verb meaning to receive or to agree. Ex: He accepted their praise.
Except= Preposition meaning all but, other than Ex: Everyone went to the game except Alyson.
Sentence completeness
Avoid fragments and run-on sentences. Recognize sentence elements necessary to make a complete though and proper use of punctuation.
Appositive Clause
An appositive clause is a group of words that gives more information about the noun. When these clauses are separated and made to look like sentences you get sentence fragments. Fragment: Hilda nearly fainted when she opend the letter from Publisher's Clearing House Sweepstakes. The contest she had been entering faithfully for twenty years. Correct: Hilda nearly fainted when she opened the letter from Publisher's Clearing House Sweepstakes, the contest she'd been entering faithfully for twenty years.
Fragments Caused by Verbals
Verbals are verb forms that act as other parts of speech. They can easily trick a writer into mistaking a phrase for a sentence b/c they like verbs, but do not act as verbs. Rember: An-ing word by itself can never act as the verb of a sentence. To qualify as a verb, it must have an auxiliary word such as have, is, or were. An infinitive, such as to run, to go, and so on can never act as the verb of a sentence. Fragment: To send the ringleaders to the principal's office. That was one possible response. Correct: To send the ringleaders to the principal's office was one possible response.
Participles
Used as adjectives Ex: an interesting experience, the surprised researchers
Based on verbs; expresses action or a state of being Ex: The crying baby had a wet diaper. Shaken, he walked away from the wrecked war.
Modify nouns or propouns Ex: Removing his coat, Jack rushed to the river.
Present Participles
end in-ing used with BE to indicate continuing action or state Ex: I am going. They were laughing.
Past Participles
end in -ed, -en, -d, -t, or-n Ex: asked, eaten, saved, dealt, and seen Used with have to form past tenses Ex: We have climbed. She had ridden.Used with BE to form the passive voice Ex: The floor is being scrubbed. The ball was kicked.
Adjective
Modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, identifying, or quantifying words Usually precedes the noun or the pronoun which it modifies Ex:The small boat foundered on the win dark sea. A battered music box sat on the mahogany sideboard.
Nouns and pronouns
A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea. Functions as a subject, direct objects, indirect objects, subject complements, object complements, adjectiveds or an adverbs. Ex: Late last year our NEIGHBORS bought a GOAT. A pronoun can replace a noun or another pronoun. Use pronouns like "he", "which", "none", and "you" to make sentneces less cumbersome and less reptitive. Ex: YOU are surely the strangest child I have ever met.
noun
a word that names a person, place, thing, or idea; example: boy, Juan, river, Texas
common noun
names any person place, thing or idea; example: pilot, city, park
proper noun
names a particular person, place, thing, or idea; example: Amelia Earhart, Chicago, Katmai National Park
singular noun
names one person, place, or thing; example: principal, cafeteria, stereos
plural noun
names more than one person, place, or thing; example: principals, switches, communities, toys, leaves, roofs, radios, potatoes, feet, sheep
possessive noun
noun that shows ownership or possession
singular possessive noun
shows ownership by one person or thing; example: my aunt's house
plural possessive noun
shows ownership by more than one person or thing; example: my friends' parents
pronoun
takes the place of one or more noun; example: I, you, he, she, it, we, they, it
antecedent
when using pronoun, the noun to which it refers; example: HE heard. NICHOLAS heard. // pronouns should agree with number and gender; example: NICHOLAS heard a LIBRARIAN tell STORIES.
subject pronoun
used as a subject or part of a the subject in a sentence; WE are ready to go.
object pronoun
is used as a direct/indirect object in a sentence; example: Rebecca gave ME a gift.
possessive pronoun
shows ownership or possession of something; example: Jerome is learning about HIS ancestors.
reflexive pronoun
usually refers to the subject of a sentence; examples: myself, yourself, himself, herself, ourselves, yourselves, and themselves
indefinite pronoun
a pronoun that does not refer to a specific, person, place, thing, or idea; examples: everyone, everything, everybody, anybody, many, most, few, each, some, someone, all, nothing, nobody, and no one
who
use as a subject pronoun; example: _____ is not going?
whom
use as an object pronoun; example: To _____ am I speaking?
adjective
a word that modifies, or describes, a noun or pronoun; example: We saw LAZY lions beneath a SHADY tree.
articles
adjectives 'a,' 'an,' and 'the'
proper adjective
an adjective that is formed from a proper noun; example: Africa --> African; Scotland --> Scottish
demonstrative adjective
tells which one; examples: this, that, these, and those
predicate adjective
an adjective that follows a linking verb and describes the subject of a sentence; includes forms of taste, look, feel, smell, appear, seem, and become; example: I look TIRED, but I feel FINE.
positive adjective
adjective used when no comparison being made; example: This is a HOT day.
comparative adjective
an adjective used to compare two items; example: Today is HOTTER than yesterday.
superlative adjective
an adjective used to compare three or more items; example: This is the HOTTEST day of the year.
action verb
tells what the subject of a sentence does or did; example: She SLEEPS every day. She SLEPT every day.
linking verb
joins the subject and the predicate
verb phrase
contains the main verb and helping verbs
main verb
the most important verb in a phrase
helping verb
is not the main verb in a phrase; are added to another verb to make the meaning clearer; includes any forms of TO BE
present / present participle
play / (is, are, am) playing --> adding -ing used with form be
past / past participle
played / (have, has, had) played --> adding -ed or -d with form have
verb tense
verb that tells the time of the action or being
present tense
verb that tells something that is happening now; example: Dena LAUGHS at the jokes.
past tense
verb that tells something that happened in the past; example: Dena LAUGHED at the jokes.
future tense
tells that something will happen in the future; uses WILL with the verb; example: Dena WILL LAUGH at the jokes.
present perfect
tense with the past participle and helping verb HAVE and HAS
past perfect
tense with the past participle and helping verb HAD
future perfect
tense with the past participle and helping verb WILL HAVE
irregular verb
does not end with -ed to form the past participle; examples; (is, are, am / was / were) ; (has, have / had / had) ; (do, does / did / done) ; ate, grown, bought, sold, spent, taken, etc.
direct object
noun or pronoun that receives the action of a verb; tells who or what receives the action; example: Bobby loved his PARENTS.
indirect object
tells to whom or for whom the action of the verb is done; example: Jack showed the DOG kindness.
predicate nominative
noun or pronoun that follows a linking verb and renames the subject; example: Lassie has been a CELEBRITY for decades.
transitive verb
action verb followed by a noun or pronoun that receives the action; example: I KNOW the story.
intransitive verb
includes all linking verbs and any action verbs that do not take an object; example: My friends CRIED.
adverb
words that describes verbs, adjectives, or other -----; answers when, where, how, to what extent; modifies a verb, adjective, or -----; tells how, when, where, or to what extent; example: Our skates move EFFORTLESSLY. (how) or The ice is glistening NOW. (when) most ----- are formed by adding -ly to an adjective
comparative adverb
adverbs such as lower, nearer, more slowly; faster, more seriously
superlative adverb
adverbs such as lowest, nearest, most slowly; fastest, most seriously
negatives
words that mean no; common negatives: no, not, never, nowhere, nothing, nobody, no one, neither, scarcely, barely; use only one in a sentence
preposition
shows the relationship of a noun or a pronoun to another word in the sentence; example: I walked ALONG the beach.
object of the preposition
is the noun or pronoun that follows the preposition; example: The sands of the BEACH were white.
prepositional phrase
is made up of a preposition, the object of the preposition, and all the words in between: example: Who lives IN THAT HOUSE?
adjective phrase
prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or pronoun; examples: The killer whale is a species of PORPOISE. (tells what kind of species) or That whale WITH THE UNUSUAL MARKINGS is our favorite. (tells which whale)
adverb phrase
prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb; examples: The porpoises performed WITH EASE. (tells how) or Shows begin ON THE HOUR. (tells when)
conjunction
connects words or word groups
coordinating conjunction
AND, BUT, and OR join ideas that are similar; remember to place a comma before you write sentences; example: Craig gets in trouble, BUT he usually gets out of it.
correlative conjunction
EITHER/OR, NEITHER/NOR, BOTH/AND join pairs of ideas
subordinating conjunction
connects an independent clause with one or more dependent clauses; examples: since, before, unless, however
interjections
a word or group of words that expresses strong feeling; example: WELL, Snoopy is at the typewriter again.
infinitive
a verb that functions as a noun or adjective; the word TO precedes the verb in an infinitive; example: Someday, I would like TO WRITE beautiful poetry.
infinitive phrase
phrase that includes the infinitive, it's objects, and the objects modifiers
gerund
a verb ending in -ing and functions as a noun; example: ESTIMATING is an important mathematics skill.
gerund phrase
includes the gerund, its object, and its object's modifiers; WRITING A BEST SELLER is the goal of every novelist.
participle
verb that functions as an adjective; example: A RUNNING horse galloped down the road.
participle phrase
phrase that includes the participle, its modifier, and its objects; example: The child, FLASHING A MISCHIEVOUS SMILE, turned and walked away.
collective noun
common noun that names a group with more than one member; examples: jury, brigade, staff
mass noun
a common noun that cannot be easily separated into countable units; examples: water, sand, gold, cement, air
demonstrative pronoun
points out particular person, place, or things
indefinite pronoun
points out person, places, or things, but less clearly;
interrogative pronoun
pronoun that asks a question; examples: who, whom, whose, what, which
reflexive pronoun
pronoun that ends in -self or -selves
concrete noun
names things you can see and touch; examples: pizza, kitten, diamond
abstract noun
names an idea, quality, action, or feeling
intensive pronoun
emphasizes its antecedent; adds emphasis to pronoun or named noun; examples: I MYSELF will go.
personal pronoun
takes the place of a noun or nouns; they show number and gender; example: singular: I, me, my, mine, you, your, yours, he, him, his, she, her, hers, it, its / plural: we, us, our, ours, you, your, yours, they, them, their, theirs
relative pronoun
linked group of words preceding noun or pronoun; examples: who, which, that
common prepositions
about, behind, above, across, as, after, between, beyond, beside, despite, during, for, inside, in, near, off, outside, onto, opposite, around, against, along, at, before, below, beneath, but, by, down, except, from, into, like, out, over, of, opposite, past, toward, under, upon within, since, through, until, underneath, with
common articles
a, and, the
coordinating conjunctions
for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so
parts of speech
adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, interjections, nouns, pronouns, prepositions, verbs
types of nouns
common, proper, compound, collective
types of verbs
action, linking, helping, phrases
types of helping verbs
do, does, did, have, has, had, shall, should, will, would, can, could, may, might, must
common linking verbs
be, feel, grow, seem, smell, remain, appear, sound, stay, look, taste, turn, become, am, are, is, was, were, am being, can be, have been
types of adjectives
common, proper, compound, articles, indefinite articles
types of indefinite articles
another, each, neither, many, all, more, other, both, either, few, several, any, most, some
common adverbs (non -ly)
afterward, already, quick, hard, never, today, even, low, rather, tomorrow, how, now, then, yesterday, late, often, almost, back, long, soon, when, here, next, still, where, far, more, slow, too, fast, near, so
common pronouns
I, me, mine, my, we, us, our, ours, you, your, yours, he, she, him, her, his, it, them, them, their, theirs, its
types of demonstrative pronouns
this, that, these, those
noun
a word that names a person, place, thing, or idea; example: boy, Juan, river, Texas
common noun
names any person place, thing or idea; example: pilot, city, park
proper noun
names a particular person, place, thing, or idea; example: Amelia Earhart, Chicago, Katmai National Park
singular noun
names one person, place, or thing; example: principal, cafeteria, stereos
plural noun
names more than one person, place, or thing; example: principals, switches, communities, toys, leaves, roofs, radios, potatoes, feet, sheep
possessive noun
noun that shows ownership or possession
singular possessive noun
shows ownership by one person or thing; example: my aunt's house
plural possessive noun
shows ownership by more than one person or thing; example: my friends' parents
pronoun
takes the place of one or more noun; example: I, you, he, she, it, we, they, it
antecedent
when using pronoun, the noun to which it refers; example: HE heard. NICHOLAS heard. // pronouns should agree with number and gender; example: NICHOLAS heard a LIBRARIAN tell STORIES.
subject pronoun
used as a subject or part of a the subject in a sentence; WE are ready to go.
object pronoun
is used as a direct/indirect object in a sentence; example: Rebecca gave ME a gift.
possessive pronoun
shows ownership or possession of something; example: Jerome is learning about HIS ancestors.
reflexive pronoun
usually refers to the subject of a sentence; examples: myself, yourself, himself, herself, ourselves, yourselves, and themselves
indefinite pronoun
a pronoun that does not refer to a specific, person, place, thing, or idea; examples: everyone, everything, everybody, anybody, many, most, few, each, some, someone, all, nothing, nobody, and no one
who
use as a subject pronoun; example: _____ is not going?
whom
use as an object pronoun; example: To _____ am I speaking?
adjective
a word that modifies, or describes, a noun or pronoun; example: We saw LAZY lions beneath a SHADY tree.
articles
adjectives 'a,' 'an,' and 'the'
proper adjective
an adjective that is formed from a proper noun; example: Africa --> African; Scotland --> Scottish
demonstrative adjective
tells which one; examples: this, that, these, and those
predicate adjective
an adjective that follows a linking verb and describes the subject of a sentence; includes forms of taste, look, feel, smell, appear, seem, and become; example: I look TIRED, but I feel FINE.
positive adjective
adjective used when no comparison being made; example: This is a HOT day.
comparative adjective
an adjective used to compare two items; example: Today is HOTTER than yesterday.
superlative adjective
an adjective used to compare three or more items; example: This is the HOTTEST day of the year.
action verb
tells what the subject of a sentence does or did; example: She SLEEPS every day. She SLEPT every day.
linking verb
joins the subject and the predicate
verb phrase
contains the main verb and helping verbs
main verb
the most important verb in a phrase
helping verb
is not the main verb in a phrase; are added to another verb to make the meaning clearer; includes any forms of TO BE
present / present participle
play / (is, are, am) playing --> adding -ing used with form be
past / past participle
played / (have, has, had) played --> adding -ed or -d with form have
verb tense
verb that tells the time of the action or being
present tense
verb that tells something that is happening now; example: Dena LAUGHS at the jokes.
past tense
verb that tells something that happened in the past; example: Dena LAUGHED at the jokes.
future tense
tells that something will happen in the future; uses WILL with the verb; example: Dena WILL LAUGH at the jokes.
present perfect
tense with the past participle and helping verb HAVE and HAS
past perfect
tense with the past participle and helping verb HAD
future perfect
tense with the past participle and helping verb WILL HAVE
irregular verb
does not end with -ed to form the past participle; examples; (is, are, am / was / were) ; (has, have / had / had) ; (do, does / did / done) ; ate, grown, bought, sold, spent, taken, etc.
direct object
noun or pronoun that receives the action of a verb; tells who or what receives the action; example: Bobby loved his PARENTS.
indirect object
tells to whom or for whom the action of the verb is done; example: Jack showed the DOG kindness.
predicate nominative
noun or pronoun that follows a linking verb and renames the subject; example: Lassie has been a CELEBRITY for decades.
transitive verb
action verb followed by a noun or pronoun that receives the action; example: I KNOW the story.
intransitive verb
includes all linking verbs and any action verbs that do not take an object; example: My friends CRIED.
adverb
words that describes verbs, adjectives, or other -----; answers when, where, how, to what extent; modifies a verb, adjective, or -----; tells how, when, where, or to what extent; example: Our skates move EFFORTLESSLY. (how) or The ice is glistening NOW. (when) most ----- are formed by adding -ly to an adjective
comparative adverb
adverbs such as lower, nearer, more slowly; faster, more seriously
superlative adverb
adverbs such as lowest, nearest, most slowly; fastest, most seriously
negatives
words that mean no; common negatives: no, not, never, nowhere, nothing, nobody, no one, neither, scarcely, barely; use only one in a sentence
preposition
shows the relationship of a noun or a pronoun to another word in the sentence; example: I walked ALONG the beach.
object of the preposition
is the noun or pronoun that follows the preposition; example: The sands of the BEACH were white.
prepositional phrase
is made up of a preposition, the object of the preposition, and all the words in between: example: Who lives IN THAT HOUSE?
adjective phrase
prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or pronoun; examples: The killer whale is a species of PORPOISE. (tells what kind of species) or That whale WITH THE UNUSUAL MARKINGS is our favorite. (tells which whale)
adverb phrase
prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb; examples: The porpoises performed WITH EASE. (tells how) or Shows begin ON THE HOUR. (tells when)
conjunction
connects words or word groups
coordinating conjunction
AND, BUT, and OR join ideas that are similar; remember to place a comma before you write sentences; example: Craig gets in trouble, BUT he usually gets out of it.
correlative conjunction
EITHER/OR, NEITHER/NOR, BOTH/AND join pairs of ideas
subordinating conjunction
connects an independent clause with one or more dependent clauses; examples: since, before, unless, however
interjections
a word or group of words that expresses strong feeling; example: WELL, Snoopy is at the typewriter again.
infinitive
a verb that functions as a noun or adjective; the word TO precedes the verb in an infinitive; example: Someday, I would like TO WRITE beautiful poetry.
infinitive phrase
phrase that includes the infinitive, it's objects, and the objects modifiers
gerund
a verb ending in -ing and functions as a noun; example: ESTIMATING is an important mathematics skill.
gerund phrase
includes the gerund, its object, and its object's modifiers; WRITING A BEST SELLER is the goal of every novelist.
participle
verb that functions as an adjective; example: A RUNNING horse galloped down the road.
participle phrase
phrase that includes the participle, its modifier, and its objects; example: The child, FLASHING A MISCHIEVOUS SMILE, turned and walked away.
collective noun
common noun that names a group with more than one member; examples: jury, brigade, staff
mass noun
a common noun that cannot be easily separated into countable units; examples: water, sand, gold, cement, air
demonstrative pronoun
points out particular person, place, or things
indefinite pronoun
points out person, places, or things, but less clearly;
interrogative pronoun
pronoun that asks a question; examples: who, whom, whose, what, which
reflexive pronoun
pronoun that ends in -self or -selves
concrete noun
names things you can see and touch; examples: pizza, kitten, diamond
abstract noun
names an idea, quality, action, or feeling
intensive pronoun
emphasizes its antecedent; adds emphasis to pronoun or named noun; examples: I MYSELF will go.
personal pronoun
takes the place of a noun or nouns; they show number and gender; example: singular: I, me, my, mine, you, your, yours, he, him, his, she, her, hers, it, its / plural: we, us, our, ours, you, your, yours, they, them, their, theirs
relative pronoun
linked group of words preceding noun or pronoun; examples: who, which, that
common prepositions
about, behind, above, across, as, after, between, beyond, beside, despite, during, for, inside, in, near, off, outside, onto, opposite, around, against, along, at, before, below, beneath, but, by, down, except, from, into, like, out, over, of, opposite, past, toward, under, upon within, since, through, until, underneath, with
common articles
a, and, the
coordinating conjunctions
for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so
parts of speech
adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, interjections, nouns, pronouns, prepositions, verbs
types of nouns
common, proper, compound, collective
types of verbs
action, linking, helping, phrases
types of helping verbs
do, does, did, have, has, had, shall, should, will, would, can, could, may, might, must
common linking verbs
be, feel, grow, seem, smell, remain, appear, sound, stay, look, taste, turn, become, am, are, is, was, were, am being, can be, have been
types of adjectives
common, proper, compound, articles, indefinite articles
types of indefinite articles
another, each, neither, many, all, more, other, both, either, few, several, any, most, some
common adverbs (non -ly)
afterward, already, quick, hard, never, today, even, low, rather, tomorrow, how, now, then, yesterday, late, often, almost, back, long, soon, when, here, next, still, where, far, more, slow, too, fast, near, so
common pronouns
I, me, mine, my, we, us, our, ours, you, your, yours, he, she, him, her, his, it, them, them, their, theirs, its
types of demonstrative pronouns
this, that, these, those
types of indefinite pronouns
anything, no one, all, some, several
plot
the series of related events that make up a story
conflict
a struggle or clash between opposing characters or opposing forces
external conflict
a character struggles against some outside force. This outside force may be another character or society as a whole.
internal conflict
this takes place within a character's mind. It is a struggle between opposing needs, desires, or emotions
climax
the most emotional or suspenseful moment in the story
characterization
the process of revealing the personality of a character in a story
direct characterization
used when a writer simply states the character's traits, or characteristics
indirect characterization
used when a writer depends on the reader to draw conclusions about the character's traits
resolution
the last part of a story when the character's problems are solved and the story ends
theme
the idea about life revealed in a work of literature
foreshadowing
the use of clues to hint at events that will happen later in the story
point of view
vantage point from which a story is told
omniscient
all knowing point of view. A narrator who can tell the reader everything about all the characters, even their most private thoughts.
1st person
a story told by one of the characters. The character uses the first person pronoun "I"
3rd person limited
the narrator zooms in on the thoughts and feelings of just one character in the story
fiction
a prose account that is made up rather than true
nonfiction
prose writing that deals with real people, events, and places without changing any facts
biography
(form of nonfiction) a ___________ is a story that the author writes about someone else's life
autobiography
(form of nonfiction) a __________ is a story that the author writes about his/her own life
meter
a poem or song's rhythmical pattern. The pattern is determined by the number and types of stresses, or beats, in each line
rhyme
the repetition of accented vowel sounds and all sounds following them in words close together in a poem
end rhyme
rhymes at the end of a line
internal rhyme
rhymes within lines
figure of speech
a word or phrase that describes one thing in terms of something else and is not literally true
simile
comparison of two unlike objects using like or as
metaphor
comparison of two unlike objects without using the words like or as
onomatopoeia
the use of words with sound that echo their sense
alliteration
the repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words
personification
giving human characteristics to inanimate objects
mythology
a story that explains something about the world and typically involves gods or other super human beings
run-on
two or more sentences joined together without any punctuation
independent clause
a sentence contains a subject, a verb, and it expresses a complete thought
fragment
part of a sentence
verb
word that shows action or state of being
noun
a person place thing or idea
pronoun
a word that takes the place of a noun
adjective
a word that describes a noun or pronoun
adverb
a word that describes a verb, adjective, or another adverb
preposition
a word used to show the relationship of a noun or a pronoun to another word or words in the sentence
conjunction
a word used to join words or groups of words
interjection
a word used to express emotion
Noun
A word which is the name of something: a person, place, thing, or idea.
Proper Noun
The name of a particular person, place, thing or idea. Proper nouns are always capitalized.
Common Noun
Any noun which does not name any particular person, place, thing, or idea. Common nouns are not capitalized.
Noun Groups (3)
Form (number, gender and case); Function (subject,object, complement, appositive, and modifier); Class (proper, common, concrete, abstract, and collective)
Pronoun
A word used in place of a noun.
Antecedent
The noun which the pronoun refers to or replaces. Each pronoun must agree with the antecedent in number, person, and gender.
Verb
A word which expresses action or state of being.
Voice
Indeicates wether the subject is acting or being acted upon.
Passive Voice
Indicates that the subject of the verb is being acted upon.
Tense
Indicates time.
Present Tense
Expresses action which is happening at the present time, or which happens continually, regularly.
Past Tense
Expresses action which is completed at a particular time in the past.
Future Tense
Expresses action which will take place in the future.
Present Perfect Tense
Expresses action which began in the past but continues in the present or is completed at the present.
Past Perfect Tense
Expresses action which began in the past and was completed in the past.
Future Perfect Tense
Expresses action which will begin in the future and be completed by a specific time in the future.
Adjective
Describes or modifies a noun or pronoun. i.e. a, an, the
Adverb
Modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Tells how, when, where, why, how often, and how much.
Preposition
is a word (or goup of words) that shows the relationship between its object (a noun or pronoun that follows the preposition) and anouth word in the sentence.
Conjunction
Connects individual words or groups of words.
Interjection
Is included in a sentence in order to commincate strong emotion or suprise.
Active Voice
Indicates that the subject of the verb is acting - doing something.
Adjective
is a word that modifies, or describes, a noun or a pronoun.
Adverb
is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
Definite Article
is the most commonly used adjective and points to a specific person, place,thing, or idea.
Indefinite Article
is the most commonly used adjective and is used before a noun that names a nonspecific person,place, thing, or idea.
Noun
names a person, place,thing, or idea.
Pronoun
a word that is used in place of a noun or another pronoun.
Simple Predicate
answers the question: what is the subject doing? And it must be a verb.
Simple Subject
answers the question: Who or what is doing something in the sentence without any descriptors?
Verb
a word used to express an action, a condition, or a state of being.
Verb Phrase
is made up of a main verb and one or more helping verbs.
Grammar
A way of thinking about language and the architecture of the human mind.
Four-Level Analysis
Level 1: Parts of Speech Level 2: Parts of the Sentence Level 3: Phrases Level 4: Clauses
The Noun Family
Noun, Pronoun, Adjective
The Verb Family
Verb, Adverb
The -tion Family
Conjunction, Preposition, Interjection
Noun
A person, place, thing, or idea Answers the questions "what" and "who"
Proper Nouns
Names specific persons, places, and things Are capitalized Ex: Chicago
Common Nouns
Names generic persons, places, things, or ideas Are not capitalized Ex: pen
Concrete Nouns
Names tangible objects Ex: table
Abstract Nouns
Names ideas, qualities, and emotions Ex: freedom
Collective Nouns
Names a group Ex: flock
Are
singular in America Ex: The flock is heading South for the winter.
Are
sometimes plural in England Ex: The flock are heading South for the winter.
Nouns of Direct Address
Address someone directly Ex: "Friends, Romans, countrymen, ..."
Singular Noun
Describes one object Ex: boat
Plual Noun
Describes multiple objects Ex: boats
Pronouns
A word that takes the place of a noun Refer to nouns Are used instead of repeating an antecedent (noun) Makes language fast Has gender (masculine- he, him, his)(feminine- she, her, hers)(neuter- it, its) May have person and number
Antecedent
The noun the pronoun replaces Named so because it goes (cede) before (ante) its pronoun Ex: Hamlet was he... Note: are not always present
Subject Pronouns
Used to make subjects Can be subjects of clauses Can be subject complements Are said to be in the subject case Ex: I, we, you (singular), you (plural), he, she, it, they
Object Pronouns
Used as objects Can be direct objects Can be indirect objects Can be the objects of prepositions Are said to be in the object case Ex: me, us, you (singular), you (plural), him, her, it, them
Possessive Pronouns
Shows possession or ownership Used as both a pronoun and an adjective Ex: my, our, your (singular), your (plural), his, her, its, their
Interrogative Pronouns
Used to interrogate (ask) Ex: who, whose, whom, which, what
Demonstrative Pronouns
Used to demonstrate Ex: this, these, that, those
Relative Pronouns
Used to relate an adjective clause to a main clause Often begin short adjective clauses that interrupt main clauses Ex: who, whose, whom, which, what
Reflexive Pronouns
-self or -selves pronouns that reflect back to a word used previously in the sentence Ex: I am almost mad myself.
Indefinite Pronouns
General pronouns that do not have a definite antecedent Ex: anyone, someone, all, anybody, somebody, each Note: those ending in -one and -body are singular
Intensive Pronouns
-self or -selves pronouns that are used to intensify the emphasis on a noun or another pronoun Ex: I myself agree with that idea.
Adjective
A word that modifies a noun or a pronoun Can be used as a subject complement Answers the questions "which one," "what kind," and "how many" The presence of an adjective implies the presence of a noun or pronoun Ex: The red car
The Adjective Degrees
Positive- not modified Ex: hot, good, fun Comparative- used to compare two or more nouns and/or pronouns Uses either "-er" or "more", BUT NEVER BOTH!! Ex: hot, better, more fun Superlative- expresses the highest or a very high degree of the quality of what is being described Uses either "-est" or "most", BUT NEVER BOTH!! Ex: hot, best, most fun
Coordinated Conjunction
FANBOYS = For + And + Nor + But + Or + Yet + So
For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So.
Coordinated Conjunction Mnemonic Device: FANBOOYS
Their vs. There
THEIR meaning "belonging to them".

THERE meaning "in that place"
Principal or Principle
"A princi"pal at a school is your pal, and a principle you believe is a rule"
Parts of Speech
(Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction and Interjection)
Noun
Every name is called a NOUN,
As field and fountain, street and town
Pronoun
In place of noun the PRONOUN stands
As he and she can clap their hands
Adjective
The ADJECTIVE describes a thing,
As magic wand and bridal ring
Verb
The VERB means action, something done -
To read, to write, to jump, to run
Adverb
How things are done, the ADVERBS tell,
As quickly, slowly, badly, well
Preposition
The PREPOSITION shows relation,
As in the street, or at the station
Conjunction
CONJUNCTIONS join, in many ways,
Sentences, words, or phrase and phrase
Interjection
The INTERJECTION cries out, 'Hark!
I need an exclamation mark!'
THE PARTS OF SPEECH POEM
Every name is called a NOUN,
As field and fountain, street and town
In place of noun the PRONOUN stands
As he and she can clap their hands
The ADJECTIVE describes a thing,
As magic wand and bridal ring
The VERB means action, something done -
To read, to write, to jump, to run
How things are done, the ADVERBS tell,
As quickly, slowly, badly, well
The PREPOSITION shows relation,
As in the street, or at the station
CONJUNCTIONS join, in many ways,
Sentences, words, or phrase and phrase
The INTERJECTION cries out, 'Hark!
I need an exclamation mark!'
Through Poetry, we learn how each
of these make up THE PARTS OF SPEECH .
NINE PARTS OF SPEECH
Three little words you often see
Are articles - a, an, and the.
A noun's the name of anything
As school or garden, hoop or swing.
Adjectives describe the 'kind of noun'
As great, small, pretty, white or brown.
Instead of nouns, the pronouns stand -
Her head, his face, your arm, my hand.
Verbs tell of something to be done -
To read, count, sing, to laugh or run.
How things are done the adverbs tell,
As slowly, quickly, ill or well.
Conjunctions join the words together,
As men and women, wind or weather.
The preposition stands before
A noun, as in or through a door.
The interjection shows surprise,
As Oh! How pretty! Oh! How wise!
The whole are called nine parts of speech,
Which reading, writing, speaking teach.
Articles
Three little words you often see
Are articles - a, an, and the.
Noun
A noun's the name of anything
As school or garden, hoop or swing.
Adjectives
Adjectives describe the 'kind of noun'
As great, small, pretty, white or brown.
pronouns
Instead of nouns, the pronouns stand -
Her head, his face, your arm, my hand.
Verbs
Verbs tell of something to be done -
To read, count, sing, to laugh or run.
adverbs
How things are done the adverbs tell,
As slowly, quickly, ill or well.
Conjunctions
Conjunctions join the words together,
As men and women, wind or weather.
preposition
The preposition stands before
A noun, as in or through a door.
interjection
The interjection shows surprise,
As Oh! How pretty! Oh! How wise!
Singular subject takes a singular verb Rule
The Basic Rule of Subject and Verb Agreement states a singular subject takes a singular verb, while a plural subject takes a plural verb. Verbs do not form their plurals by adding an s as nouns do. The trick is in knowing whether the subject is singular or plural. In order to determine which verb is singular and which one is plural, think of which verb you would use with he or she and which verb you would use with they.
Which one is the singular form?
Which word would you use with he?
We say, "He talks." Therefore, talks is singular.
We say, "They talk." Therefore, talk is plural.
require a singular verb
Two singular subjects connected by either/or or neither/nor
require a singular verb
Two singular subjects connected by or or nor
Place I second, and follow it with the singular verb am.
When I is one of the two subjects connected by either/or or neither/nor?
Like : Neither she nor I am going to the festival.
put the plural subject last and use a plural verb.
When a singular subject is connected by or or nor to a plural subject,
As in : Neither Jenny nor the others are available.
put the plural subject last and use a plural verb
When a singular and plural subject are connected by either/or or neither/nor,
And
As a general rule, use a plural verb with two or more subjects when they are connected by ___?
Ignore them
Sometimes the subject is separated from the verb by words such as along with, as well as, besides, or not. ____ what to these expressions when determining whether to use a singular or plural verb?
Are singular and require singular verbs
The pronouns each, everyone, every one, everybody, anyone, anybody, someone, and somebody are ___ and require ___ __-. Do not be misled by what follows of.
Everyone is one word when it means everybody.
Everyone or Every one?
Every one is two words when the meaning is each one.
Everyone / Every one?
Noun; singular verb, plural verb
With words that indicate portions—percent, fraction, part, majority, some, all, none, remainder, and so forth —look at the ___ in your of phrase (object of the preposition) to determine whether to use a singular or plural verb. If the object of the preposition is singular, use a ___. If the object of the preposition is plural, use a ___.
singular verb
The expression "the number" is followed by a___?
"The number" of people we need to hire "is" thirteen.
plural verb
the expression "a number" is followed by a ____.
"A number" of people "have" written in about this subject.
singular verbs
When either and neither are subjects, they always take ?
Neither of them is available to speak right now.
Either of us is capable of doing the job.
the subject follows the verb
The words here and there have generally been labeled as adverbs even though they indicate place. In sentences beginning with here or there, The __ ___ ___ __.
Use a singular verb
with sums of money or periods of time.
if that noun is singular, use a singular verb. If it is plural, use a plural verb.
Sometimes the pronoun who, that, or which is the subject of a verb in the middle of the sentence. The pronouns who, that, and which become singular or plural according to the noun directly in front of them. So,
may be either singular or plural depending on their use in the sentence
Collective nouns such as team and staff
Subject, Object, or Possessive
A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun. Pronouns can be in one of three cases: .
Subject pronouns
are used when the pronoun is the subject of the sentence. You can remember subject pronouns easily by filling in the blank subject space for a simple sentence.
Subject pronouns
are also used if they rename the subject. They follow to be verbs such as is, are, was, were, am, and will be.
Object pronouns
are used everywhere else (direct object, indirect object, object of the preposition). ______ ______ are me, you, him, her, it, us, and them.
strong clause
A ___ ___ can stand on its own.
Examples: She is hungry.
I am feeling well today.
weak clause
A ____ ____ begins with words such as although, since, if, when, and because. _____ clauses cannot stand on their own. Examples: Although she is hungry...
If she is hungry...
Since I am feeling well...
isolate the clauses so that you can decide which pronoun is correct
If a sentence contains more than one clause.
mentally complete the sentence
To decide whether to use the subject or object pronoun after the words than or as, mentally complete the sentence.
Possessive pronouns
show ownership and never need apostrophes.
E.g. mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs
Reflexive pronouns
- myself, himself, herself, itself, themselves, ourselves, yourself, yourselves- should be used only when they refer back to another word in the sentence.
Use the he/him method
to decide which word is correct.
he = who
him = whom
he
= who
him
= whom
who
Who/Whom wrote the letter? He wrote the letter. Therefore, ___ is correct.
whom
For who/whom should I vote?
Should I vote for him? Therefore, ___ is correct.
him + he = whoever
him + him = whomever
To determine whether to use whoever or whomever, here is the rule:
him + he = whoever
him + him = whomever
whoever
him + he =
whomever
him + him =
look inside the clause to determine whether to use whoever or whomever.
When the entire whoever/whomever clause is the subject of the verb that follows the clause,
refers to people
Who
refer to groups or things
That and which
introduces essential clauses
That
Examples:
I do not trust products that claim "all natural ingredients" because this phrase can mean almost anything.
We would not know which products were being discussed without the that clause.
introduces nonessential clauses.
which
The product claiming "all natural ingredients," which appeared in the Sunday newspaper, is on sale.
The product is already identified. Therefore, which begins a _____ _____?
use which to introduce the next clause
If this, that, these, or those has already introduced an essential clause, you may do what to the next clause, whether it is essential or nonessential?
That is a decision which you must live with for the rest of your life.
Those ideas, which we've discussed thoroughly enough, do not need to be addressed again.
Adjectives
are words that describe nouns or pronouns. They may come before the word they describe (That is a cute puppy.) or they may follow the word they describe (That puppy is cute.).
Adverbs
are words that modify everything but nouns and pronouns. They modify adjectives, verbs, and other adverbs. A word is an adverb if it answers how, when, or where.
how?
The only adverbs that cause grammatical problems are those that answer the question ____, so focus on these.
adverb; If it can have an -ly added to it, place "how" there.
Generally, if a word answers the question how, it is an adverb. If it can have an -ly added to it, place it there.
-ly word
A special -ly rule applies when four of the senses - taste, smell, look, feel - are the verbs. Do not ask if these senses answer the question how to determine if -ly should be attached. Instead, ask if the sense verb is being used actively. If so, use the -ly.
When referring to health
use well rather than good.
Good vs. Well
The word good is an adjective, while well is an adverb., good is an adjective use good before nouns and after linking verbs to modify the subject use well as an adverb when modifying a verb use the advery well well is used tas an adjective only when describing someone's health
the wrong form for comparison
A common error in using adjectives and adverbs arises from using. To compare two things, we should say poorer, as in, "She is the poorer of the two women."
to describe one thing
we would say poor, as in, "She is poor."
To compare two things
we should say poorer, as in, "She is the poorer of the two women."
To compare more than two things
we should say poorest, as in, "She is the poorest of them all."
Use more or most in front of the words.
Usually with words of three or more syllables, don't add -er or -est. Use ___.
Never drop the -ly from an adverb
when using the comparison form.
When this, that, these, and those
are followed by nouns, they are adjectives. When they appear without a noun following them, they are pronouns.
This and that
are singular, whether they are being used as adjectives or as pronouns. This points to something nearby while that points to something "over there."
These and those
are plural, whether they are being used as adjectives or as pronouns. These points to something nearby while those points to something "over there."
Than
Use ____ to show comparison.
Then
Use ____ to answer the question when.
End a sentence with a preposition
You may ___ a sentence with a preposition.
do not use extra prepositions
Just do not do what to prepositions when their meaning is clear?
Use on
with expressions that indicate the time of an occurrence
Of
should never be used in place of have.
Between
refers to two.
Among
is used for three or more.
informal writing
like may be used as a preposition and in what kind of writing, as a conjunction.
like
In formal writing, use as, as if, or as though rather than ____ as the conjunction.
Active voice
means the subject is performing the verb.
Avoid overusing
there is, there are, it is, it was, and so on.
positive
don't use two negatives to make a
parallel construction
Use similar grammatical form when offering several ideas. This is called ____? successive sentences or phrases follow the same pattern of wording in order to emphasize and idea, repetition of a grammatical pattern.
dangling modifier
If you start a sentence with an action, place the actor immediately after or you will have created the infamous ___., A phrase or a clause, which says something different from what is meant, because words are left out. Place modifiers near the words they modify!
near the words they modify.
Place modifiers
modifiers
Words that describe a noun that can include adjectives, verbs and nouns themselves, adjectives and adverbs are also known as
sentence fragment
occurs when you have only a phrase or weak clause but are missing a strong clause., a sentence missing a subject or verb or complete thought, when one or more of the three parts of a complete sentence is missing.
complete sentence
group of words that expresses a complete thought and contains a subject and a verb, contains a subject and a predicate
predicate
one of the two main constituents of a sentence, involve as a necessary condition of consequence, to declare; to assert; to say something about the subject.
Grammar Rules
rules about correct spoken or written language
for and, nor, but, or, yet, and so
fanboys - two independent clauses can be combined with the conjunctions?
apostrophes
The superscript sign ( ' ) used to indicate the omission of a letter or letters from a word, the possessive case, or the plurals of numbers, letters, and abbreviations.
prepositions
a word that shows a relationship between nouns or pronouns and some other words in a sentence
Ask who or what before the verb
Finding Subjects
Verb
is a word that shows action (runs, hits, slides) or state of being (is, are, was, were, am, and so on). Definition. A Subject is the noun or pronoun that performs the verb.
Sentence patterns
the arrangement of independent and dependent clauses into known sentence constructions-such as simple,compound.complex,or compound-complex, s-v, s-v-o, s-lv- adjective complement, s-lv - subject complement
independent and dependent clauses
what are the two types of clauses???
dependent clauses
are used as nouns or modifiers, are incomplete sentences and cannot stand alone grammatically; they are sometimes called subordinate clauses; those that function as adjectives, nouns, or adverbs are known, respectively, as adjective, noun, and adverbial clauses, clause the known as a fragment sentence when alone, contains a subject and a verb, but it does not express a complete thought. (subordinate clause)....starts with words such as: although, before, because, so that, when, while, so, that
independent clauses
expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence (main clause), clause with a subject and a predicate that expresses a complete thought that make sense by itself, but which are joined by coordinating conjunctions because they are related.
subordinating conjunction
dependent clauses start with what type of conjunction?
E.g. although, before, because, so that, when, while, so, that, connects an independent clause with one or more dependent clauses; examples: since, before, unless, however
conjunction
something that joins or connects, A word that connects other words, phrases, or sentences (and, but, or, because ).
clause
a grammatical unit that contains both a subject and a verb, a grammatical unit that contains both a subject and a verb. An independent, or main, clause expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence. A dependent, or subordinate, clause cannot stand alone as a sentence and must be accompanied by an independent clause.
main clause
past/imperfect subjunctive, perfect subjunctive
subjunctive
a mood that represent an act or state (not as a fact but) as contingent or possible, uses different form of the past and present to express matters of urgency, formality, possibility, or speculation, ie. "If I WERE...", setting up a hypothetical situation
The Subjunctive
is used after the following expressions:
It is best (that)
It is crucial (that)
It is desirable (that)
It is essential (that)
It is imperative (that)
It is important (that)
It is recommended (that)
It is urgent (that)
It is vital (that)
It is a good idea (that)
It is a bad idea (that)
The Subjunctive
is used after the following verbs: to advise (that) to ask (that) to command (that) to demand (that) to desire (that) to insist (that) to propose (that) to recommend (that) to request (that) to suggest (that) to urge (that)
hypothetical situation
supposed for the sake of argument, an example., tells what would happen if something else were to happen first, uses past subjunctive: if clause (si + past subjunctive) result clause (conditional) What if....
Topic sentence
a sentence that states the topic of its paragraph, A sentence, most often appearing at the beginning of a paragraph, that announces the paragraph's idea and often unites it with the work's thesis. The controlling sentence in the paragraph.
Controlling topic
The point the writer makes about the topic., what the author wants you to know or understand about the topic, clarifies the author's focus
signal
any incitement to action, anything that serves to direct, guide, or warn, a sound or action that sends a message.
development
the act of improving a prototype outlined paragraph by expanding, enlarging, and refining the state in which facts and thoughts are defined, organized, and communicated to the audience.
coherence
logical and orderly and consistent relation of parts, quality of a piece of writing in which all the parts contribute to the development of the central idea, theme, or organizing principle, a principle demanding that the parts of any composition be so arranged that the meaning of the whole may be immediately clear and intelligible, easy to understand
Chronological
the science that deals with determining details and events, arranges speech topic according to the sequential order in which events or steps occurred When you use this pattern, you discuss events, problems or processes in the sequence of time in
which they take place or should take place (past to present or present to future). This commonly
used pattern is used in writing histories, tracing the evolution of processes, recording problem
conditions, and documenting situations that evolve over time.
This approach is also used in official biographies, which are written in chronological order
because they serve as a history of the member's professional career.
descriptive
...
spatial
When using this pattern, you'll start at some point in space and proceed in sequence to other points. The pattern is based on a directional strategy—north to south, east to west, clockwise or counterclockwise, bottom to top, above and below, etc. Make sure to use appropriate transitions to indicate spatial relationships— to the left, farther to the left, still farthermost to the left; adjacent to, a short distance away, etc. These signal the flow of the communication; if missing, your audience can easily become confused or disoriented.
physical analysis
...
process analysis
...
analogy
...
Topical classification
to present groups of ideas, objects or events
by categories. This is a commonly used pattern to present
general statements followed by numbered listings of
subtopics to support, explain, or expand the statements.
A topical pattern usually follows some logical order that
reflects the nature of the material and the purpose of the
communication. For example, if you are giving a briefing
on helicopters, you might separate them into light, medium,
and heavy lift capabilities and briefly describe the weight
limits for each category. You could begin with the lightest
capability and move to the heaviest or begin with the
heaviest and move to the lightest.
Tip: To help your readers absorb complex or
unfamiliar material, consider organizing your material to
move from the most familiar to the unfamiliar or from the
simplest category to the most complex. When using this pattern, experiment to find the
arrangement that will be most comfortable for your audience.
division
...
enumeration
...
comparison
Use this style when you need to discuss similarities and/or differences between topics, concepts,
or ideas.
When you are describing similarities and differences, it often helps the reader to see a point-bypoint comparison of the two items. if you were writing a document that compares
and contrasts certain characteristics of the something red and the color blue, you might go item by item,
discussing similarities and differences between the two as you go. TO COMPARE IDEAS like
just as
similar
this
contrast
...
climactic
...
anticlimactic
...
general
...
particular
...
opinion
...
reason
...
problem and solution
You can use this pattern to identify and describe a problem and one or more possible solutions, or an issue and possible techniques for resolving the issue. Discuss all facets of the problem—its origin, its characteristics, and its impact. When
describing the proposed solution, include enough support to convince your readers the solution is practical and cost effective. After presenting your solution, you may want to identify immediate actions required to implement the solution. The problem/solution pattern may be used in several variations:
• One Solution: Discuss the problem and follow with the single, most logical solution.
• Multiple Solutions: Discuss the problem, several possible solutions, the effects of each and your recommendation.
• Multiple Solutions, Pro-Con: This popular format includes a discussion of the advantages ("Pros") and disadvantages ("Cons") of each solution. Remember that a problem-solution pattern is not a format for a personal attack on an adversary;
it's simply a systematic approach to use in persuading people either to accept your ideas or to modify their own ideas.
question
...
answer
...
cause and effect
You can use this pattern to show how one or more ideas, actions or conditions lead to other ideas, actions or conditions. Two variations of this pattern are possible: (1) begin with the effect, then identify the causes; or (2) begin with the causes, then identify the effects. The technique you use depends on the context of your discussion. Sometimes an effect-to-cause approach is used when your purpose is to identify WHY something happened. When might you use this approach? Let's say you are the president of the Safety Investigation Board following a fatal aircraft mishap (the effect). Your report might begin by describing the mishap
itself, and then explain the factors that led up to the mishap and conclude with your determination of one or more causes for the effect. Sometimes a cause-to-effect pattern is used when your purpose is to explain how current actions or conditions (causes) may produce future consequences (effects). Be careful to avoid faulty logic traps when writing about cause and effect. You're guilty of a false cause fallacy
when you assume one event causes a second event merely because it precedes the second event. You're guilty of a
single cause fallacy when you assume only one factor caused an outcome, when in fact there are multiple causes.
dialogue
...
narrative
...
anecdotal
...
introductory
...
transitional
...
conclusion
occurring at or forming an end or termination, to bring to an end, The final analysis; What more do I want my reader to know?; Sum it up; Reflect; Do not repeat key words; Let with a concluding transition, usually the last sentence in a paragraph; sums up topic idea, to influence policy and recommendations, requires theorist to be specific identify important/salient beliefs formulate predictions guidance to be persuasive, Restates argument , the last paragraph of a persuasive essay. It includes a call for action and an important strong thought the writer wants the reader to leave with. It includes no new information., the "then" part of a conditional statement
summery
belonging to or characteristic of or occurring in summer
paragraph structure
1: topic sentence, 2-4: supporting details, 5: clincher, a framework that brings order and purpose to a group of sentences, intro-clincher, thesis statement
body 1,2,3,4... topic sentence, supporting facts, transition, conclusion, All paragraphs that you write in this class must have an introduction-also known as a topic sentence. Your topic sentence is your promise to your reader, and you must keep your promise. A well-organized paragraph supports and develops a single controlling idea, and you topic sentence lets the reader know what you will write about. The topic sentence also previews the structure of the your paper. Keep your promise!
sentence constructions
parallelism
parallelism
similarity by virtue of correspondence, the use of a series of words, phrases, or sentences that have similar grammatical form
simple sentence
Sentence having only a subject and a verb construction , having few parts, without descriptive embellishment, a sentence having no coordinate clauses or subordinate clauses
compound sentence / s-v-c-s-v
s-v-con-s-v; a sentence with two or more coordinate independent clauses, often joined by one or more conjunctions
complex
s-lv
compound-complex,
two independent clauses and at least one subordinate, A sentence that contains two or more independent clauses and at least one dependent clause.
adjective complement
Describes direct object, describing what it has become or been called.
s-v
subject/verb agreement, subject/verb agreement s+v+do
Subject-Verb-Object /s-v-o
s-v-o; subject does the action, verb transfers it to object, and object receives it, E.g. I like rice., in this type of sentence the subject does the action to someone or something, which is the direct object,Verb will be a transitive verb in the active voice. I bought a coat. She invited him.
Subject-Adjective-Verb
s-ly-v; Subject-Adjective-Verb;she also needs, S strongly recommend, linking verbs link the subject with a word that compliments th subject, if the word is a noun it is called a predicate noun (if adjective, a predicate adjective)
subject complement
is a word or group of words that follows a linking verb and renames or describes the subject., the name of a grammatical unit that is comprised of predicate moninatives and predicate adjectives, The word or clause that follows a linking verb and complements, or completes the subject or the sentence by either renaming it or describing it
coordinate clauses
two clauses that have equal importance. ex. the ice melted. the sun came out. "the ice melted and the sun came out." occur in sentences where there are two or more independant clauses. They're joined together by words like 'and' 'or' 'but' s-v-con-s-v / s-v-do
Subject+Verb+Pronoun (Prepositional Phrase) / s+v+pn (pp)
Follow Action Verbs and Receive the action of the verb She sent me a postcard, Follow action verbs and precede DO, s+v+pn (pp) / s+v+do "goats have cages that surround them."
Pronoun
takes the place of one or more noun; example: I, you, he, she, it, we, they, it
function
the actions and activities assigned to or required or expected of a person or group, the special purpose something is used for, The kind of action or activity proper to a person, thing, or institution; the purpose for which something is designed or exists; role.
clarity
free from obscurity and easy to understand, clearness in thought or expression, clearness or lucidity as to perception or understanding; freedom from indistinctness or ambiguity. written with precision.
logical consistency
a criterion for evaluating theories; refers to the internal logic in the theoretical statements, a measure of how well data features represent real-world features, in particular with respect to topology, Theories should make sense, be clear, and not contradict.
internal logic
the cultural beliefs that give a context to a behavior, custom, or artifact, What happens in the story makes sense in the story, the rules which will govern the film in question-- usually established at the beginning of the movie
evaluating theories
1. Parsimony: As simple as possible.
2. Breadth: How many different kinds of observations can your theory explain, how broad a theory is.
3. Generativity: How many people want to test your theory, it has to be usable, a theory that doesn't generate research is a bad theory., generate research questions about the relationship between variables that can be addressed by the correlational research design,
*nature vs nurture
theory
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events, a belief that can guide behavior, a tentative theory about the natural world, , a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, a well-tested explanation for a broad set of observations,
substantiated
supported or established by evidence or proof, verified, to give substance or form to; proved true with evidence, verified, , Backed up
explanation
a statement that makes something comprehensible by describing the relevant structure or operation or circumstances etc., an expression that purports to shed light on some event or phenomenon, A statement that makes clear how something is done or why it exists in its present or past form. Act of telling and showing why., Discussion that helps clarify a topic or demonstrates how a process works
examine
consider in detail and subject to an analysis in order to discover essential features or meaning, question closely, put to the test, as for its quality, or give experimental use to, Consider an argument or concept in a way that uncovers the assumptions and interrelationships of the issue, Consider in detail and subject to an analysis in order to discover essential features or meaning.
assumptions
Premises for which no proof or evidence is offered., opinions and beliefs, often unstated, that direct our choice of ideas, support, writing strategies and language, the taken-for-granted notions of how something should be
clincher
concluding sentence; restates the paragraphs main idea. It may also summarize the paragraph's main points, reveal and insight the writer has gained or suggest a course of action., a point or fact or remark that settles something conclusively, Wrap Up Entire Paragraph
Analyze Purpose and Audience
Focus and understand your audience knowledge
Your purpose: to direct, inform, persuade or inspire
Your purpose statement: one sentence that captures your bottom line
Conduct Research
Remember: information must be objective
-Non-biased
-Factual, The analysis of data collected from a homogeneous group of subjects who meet study inclusion and exclusion criteria for the purpose of answering specific research questions or testing specified hypotheses
introduction
must capture your audience's attention, establish rapport and announce your purpose. sets the stage and tone for your message. Although the content and length of
your introduction may vary with the assignment, the introduction should, at a minimum, clearly
state your purpose ("bottom line") and the direction
you plan to take the audience.
• Stage-setting remarks set the tone of the communication, capture the audience's attention and encourage them to read further. Stage setting remarks are optional, so you can omit them in very short messages or in messages where you don't want to waste words.
• The purpose statement is the one sentence you'd
keep if you had only one. It specifically states your
purpose, thesis or main point.
• The overview is like a good roadmap—it clearly presents your main points, previews your paragraph sequence and ties your main points to your purpose.
body
must be an effective sequence of ideas that flow logically in a series of paragraphs, the heart of your message. It includes your main ideas about your subject and supporting details under each main idea. typically consists of several paragraphs. The total number of paragraphs (and overall length of the body) will depend on your purpose and subject. As a general rule, write a separate paragraph for each main idea—you might confuse your reader if you have two or more main ideas in a single paragraph. In a longer communication, you may find it necessary to use more than one paragraph to cover one main point or idea.
conclusion
must summarize the main points stated in the body and close smoothly. The conclusion is the last and often neglected part of a
well-arranged communication. Sometimes inexperienced
writers stop writing as soon as they finish discussing their
last main idea. That's not an effective conclusion. The
conclusion is your last chance to summarize your
communication and give your audience a sense of closure.
An effective conclusion often summarizes the overall
theme and main points discussed in the body. If you have
a simple, straightforward purpose, you might want to
emphasize it by restating it in slightly different words in
the conclusion. If you have a complicated purpose or a
long, involved communication, you'll probably need to
emphasize your main ideas and state your proposals or
recommendations.
TO SHOW TIME
immediately
presently
nearly a ... later
meantime
meanwhile
afterward
next
as of today
this year, however
a little later
then last year
next week
tomorrow
as of now
finally
TO CONTRAST IDEAS
but
yet
nevertheless
however
still
conversely
on the one hand
instead of
neither of these
(to) (on) the contrary
rather than
no matter what
much less as
in contrast
otherwise
on the other hand
in the (first) (second) place
nor
according to
TO RELATE THOUGHTS
indeed
anyway, anyhow
elsewhere
nearby
above all
even these
beyond
in other words
for instance
of course
in short
in sum
yet
in reality
that is
by consequence
notwithstanding
nonetheless
as a general rule
understandably
traditionally
the reason, of course
the lesson here is
from all information
at best
naturally
in the broader sense
to this end
in fact
TO COMPARE IDEAS
like
just as
similar
this
TO SHOW RESULTS
therefore
as a result
thus
consequently
hence
TO ADD IDEAS
first, second, next, last, etc.
in addition
additionally
moreover
furthermore
another
besides
clear, too, is
the answer does not only lie
to all that
more than anything else
here are some ... facts
now, of course, there are
now however
Internal transitions
improve the flow of sentences, within a paragraph are one or more related words that show the relationship between ideas
within a paragraph. Woven skillfully into your writing, internal transitions help your reader follow your line of thought. "First go home and then clean your room." repetition of key words at the beginning of individual
sentences
external transitions
link separate paragraphs together within the body of your communication.
CLICHÉS
Clichés are expressions that have lost their impact because they have been overused. Strive for originality in your choice of words and phrases.
accept
verb, receive
except
verb or preposition, omitting or
leaving out
advice
noun, counsel given, an opinion
FOCUS Principles
Focused - Address the issue, the whole issue, and
nothing but the issue.
Organized - Systematically present your information
and ideas.
Clear - Communicate with clarity and make
each word count.
Understanding - Understand your audience and its
expectations.
Supported - Use logic and support to make your
point.
Plural subjects take plural verbs and singular subjects take singular verbs
Another way to state this rule using grammatical terms is "Subjects and verbs must agree in number."
identify the subject of a sentence, determine whether it's singular or plural, and then choose a verb in the same number and keep it near its subject.
The key to avoiding most problems in subject-verb agreement is to
Phrases between the subject and verb
do not change the requirement that the verb must
agree in number with its subject.
A linking verb
agrees with its subject, not with its complement.
compound subject
consists of two or more nouns or pronouns joined by one of these conjunctions: and, but, or, for or nor. Some compound subjects are plural; others are not.
plural verb.
If two nouns are joined by and, they typically take a
nearest it
If two nouns are joined by or, nor, or but, the verb should agree in number with the
subject
Use a singular verb
for a compound subject that is preceded by each or every.
Use a singular verb
for a compound subject whose parts are considered a single unit
Use singular verbs
with most indefinite pronouns
most indefinite pronouns
another, anybody, anything, each,
everyone, everybody, everything, neither, nobody, nothing, one, no one, someone, somebody and
something.
antecedent
a preceding occurrence or cause or event, the word, phrase, or clause to which a pronoun refers., The word or phrase to which a pronoun refers
Transition
needed for coherence
Informative briefing
Purpose is to keep listener abreast of the current situation and supply specific information.
• Designed to inform the listener and gain his understanding
• Deals with
High priority facts and information requiring immediate action
Complex information on complicated plans, systems, statistics, or visuals
Controversial information requiring explanation
• May have conclusions or recommendations
Decision briefing
Purpose is to produce an answer to a question or obtain a decision on a specific problem.
• Briefer must be prepared to present
Assumptions
Facts
Alternative solutions
Reasons/rationale for recommended solutions(s)
Coordination involved
Visual information
• Briefer states he/she is looking for a decision; asks for decision if one is not
forthcoming at conclusion.
• Advises appropriate staff elements of commander's decision after the briefing.
FORMING:
When a team is forming, members cautiously explore the boundaries of acceptable group behavior. This is a stage of transition from individual to member status, and of testing the
leader's guidance both formally and informally. Because there is so much going on to distract the members' attention in the beginning, the team accomplishes little, if anything, that concerns its project goals. Don't despair and flush your project down the toilet! This is perfectly normal!
STORMING
Storming is probably the most difficult stage for the team. You may ask yourself, "What was I thinking?" The team members begin to realize the task is different and more
difficult than they imagined, becoming testy, blameful, or overzealous. Impatient about the lack of progress, but still too inexperienced to know much about decision making or the scientific approach, members argue about just what actions the team should take. They try to rely solely on their personal and professional experience, resisting any need for collaborating with other team members. Their behavior means team members have little energy to spend on progressing towards the team's goal. Still, they are beginning to understand one another.
decision making
the cognitive process of reaching a decision, evaluating alternatives and making choices among them, The process by which managers respond to opportunities and threats by analyzing options and making determinations about specific organizational goals and courses of action.
scientific approach
another name for the classical theory of formal curiosity, skeptical, objective, and critical thinking of organizations , A testable hypothesis, a reproducible experiment that can be replicated by other scientists, an operationalized definition (observable and measureable) of the concept under study, Observations, Hypothesis, Experiment, Model (Theory), Further Experimentation
NORMING
During this stage, members reconcile competing loyalties and responsibilities. They accept the team, team ground rules (or "norms"), their roles in the team, and the individuality of fellow members. Emotional conflict is reduced as previously competitive relationships become more cooperative. As team members begin to work out their differences, they now have more time and energy to spend on the project. Thus, they are able to at last start making significant strides.
PERFORMING
By this stage, the team has settled its relationships and expectations. They can begin performing—diagnosing and solving problems, and choosing and implementing changes. At last team members have discovered and accepted each other's strengths and weaknesses, and learned what their roles are. The team is now an effective, cohesive unit. You
can tell when your team has reached this stage because you start getting a lot of work done—finally!
ACTION VERB
Accomplished Compared Compelled Competed Compiled Completed Composed Comprehend Computed Conceived Concentrated Conducted Conformed Confronted Considered Consolidated Consulted Contacted Continued Contract Contributed Controlled Cooperate Coordinated Created Cultivated Delegated Demonstrated Deterred Developed Devised Displayed Dominated Drove Elicited Embodied Emerged Emulated Encouraged Endeavored Energized Enforced Enhanced Enriched Ensured Escalated Established Exceeded Excelled Expanded Expedited Exploited Explored Fabricated Facilitated Focused Forced Formulated Generated Grasped Helped Honed Identified Ignited Impassioned Implemented Improved Initiated Inspired Insured Invigorated Kindled Launched Maintained Manipulated Motivated Organized Originated Overcame Oversaw Performed Perpetuated Persevered Persuaded Planned Practiced Prepared Produced Projected Promoted Prompted Propagated Propelled Quantified Rallied Recognized Rectified Refined Reformed Regenerated Rehabilitated Rejuvenated Renewed Renovated Reorganized Required Resolved Revived Sacrificed Scrutinized Sought Solved Sparked Spearheaded Stimulated Strengthened Strove Supervised Supported Surpassed Sustained Transformed Utilize Achieved Acquired Acted Activated Actuated Adapts Adhered Adjusted Administered Advised Agitated Analyzed Anticipated Applied Appraised Approved Aroused Arranged Articulated Assembled Asserted Assessed Assigned Assisted Assured Attained Attend Authorized Averted Bolstered Brought Build Calculated Capitalized Catalyzed Chaired Challenged Clarified Collaborate Collected Commanded Communicated
Adverbs
Actively Aggressively Anxiously Ardently Articulately Assertively Avidly Boldly Competitively Compulsively Creatively Decisively Eagerly Energetically Enterprisingly Enthusiastically Expeditiously Exuberantly Feverishly Fiercely Forcefully Frantically Impulsively Incisively Interactively Intensely Powerfully Promptly Prosperously Provocatively Quickly Relentlessly Restlessly Spiritedly Spontaneously Swiftly Tenaciously Vigorously Vigilant
Helping verbs
can, could, may, might, must, ought, shall, should, will, would
forms of be:
be, am, is, are, was, were, been, being
forms of have
have, has, had, having
forms of do
do, does, did
Linking verbs
forms of verbs associated with five senses: look, sound, smell, feel, taste
Prepositions
(use them sparingly): over, under, in, during, within, etc.
Use a
before consonant sounds
Use an
before vowel sounds
Adjective
Describes or limits a noun or pronoun.
Adverbs
Modifies or limits a verb, adjective or another adverb and answers
"When? Where? Why? How much? How far? To what degree?"
<quickly run, very dull, very loudly>
Antecedent
Noun, phrase or clause to which a pronoun refers or replaces.
Appositive
Word, phrase or clause preceding or renaming a noun.
Article
Small set of words used with nouns to limit or give definiteness to the
application. <a, an, the>
Case
Forms that nouns and pronouns take when they fit into different
functions of the sentence. There are three:
Nominative—for subjects, predicate nominatives and appositives. <I>
Objective—for objects and their appositives. <me>
Possessive—to show ownership, hence adjectival, functions. <my>
Clause
A group of related words containing a subject and a verb
Conjunctions
Connects words, phrases, clauses, or sentences (and, or, but, nor).
Interjection
Words used to express emotion or surprise (ah, alas, great, hooray, help,
etc.) Strong interjections are punctuated with an exclamation point.
(Wow! That's profound.) Milder interjections are often set off by
commas, usually at the beginning of a sentence. <Oh, I guess it wasn't.
Ouch, that hurts.>
Modifier
Words or groups of words that limit or describe other words.
If improperly placed, modifiers can confuse the reader or suggest an
illogical relationship
can
Primarily expresses ability; cannot is used to deny permission.
could
Sometimes the past tense of can. <We could see the Big Dipper
last night.> Otherwise, could expresses possibility, doubt or something
dependent on unreal conditions. <We could see the Big Dipper if it
weren't overcast.>
may
Originally meant "have the power" (compare the noun might).
Now it means "permission." Also, may is used to indicate possibility.
<You may leave if you are finished with your work.>
May is also used in wishes. <May you recover soon.>
USE AN APOSTROPHE
- to create possessive forms of certain words
- to form contractions or to stand in for missing letters
- to form plurals for certain letters and abbreviations
- to mark a quote within a quote
- in technical writing to indicate units of measurement
Use an apostrophe to create possessive forms of nouns and abbreviations used as nouns.
Add 's to singular or plural nouns that do not end with an s. Add 's to singular nouns that end with an s.
USE A COLON
To separate an introductory statement from explanatory or summarizing material that
follows when there is no coordinating conjunction or transitional expression. (Capitalize the
first word of the expression that follows the colon if it is the dominant element and is a complete
sentence. For additional details, see the "Capitalization" section.) Living in base housing has many advantages: People can walk to work, shopping is convenient,
and there are organized activities for the children.
The board consists of three officials: a director, an executive director, and a recording secretary.
USE A COLON
When a sentence contains an expression such as following or as follows or is followed by
a list or enumerated items. [Notice the capitalization and punctuation.]
The new directive achieved the following results: better morale and improved relations.
Results were as follows: better morale, less work, and more pay.
Consider these advantages when making your decision:
1. You won't have to be somewhere at 0800 every day.
2. You can get more involved in community activities.
3. You can pursue hobbies you haven't had time for in the last year.
Modal Auxiliary
Verbs that are used with a principal verb that are characteristically used
with a verb of predication and that in English differs formally from other
verbs in lacking -s or -ing forms.
can
Primarily expresses ability; cannot is used to deny permission.
could
Sometimes the past tense of can. <We could see the Big Dipper
last night.> Otherwise, could expresses possibility, doubt or something
dependent on unreal conditions. <We could see the Big Dipper if it
weren't overcast.>
may
Originally meant "have the power" (compare the noun might).
Now it means "permission." Also, may is used to indicate possibility.
<You may leave if you are finished with your work.>
May is also used in wishes. <May you recover soon.>
might
Sometimes functions as simple past tense of may. <He said he might
have time to talk to us.> Often it is used to express a more doubtful
possibility than may does. <He might returned before then.> Might is
also used after contrary-to-fact conditions. <If I were off today, I might
go fishing.>
shall
Shall expresses futurity in the first person;
should
should does also, but it adds a slight coloring of doubt that the
action will take place. Notice the difference in meaning in these
sentences. <I shall be happy to call the VA Medical Center for you. I
should be happy to call the VA Medical Center for you.> In indirect
discourse should replaces the shall of direct discourse. <I shall call at
once. I said that I should call at once.> Many speakers who use shall in
the first person use would in preference to should. <I said I would call at
once.> Should is used to express likelihood. <Sue Sizemore should be
able to finish on time.> Should expresses obligation. <We should file
these orders more carefully.>
will
is the common future auxiliary used in the second and third persons. In addition it is used with special emphasis to
express determination. <You will finish by 4 p.m.>
would
Would still indicates
past time in expressing determination. <You thought you would finish by
4 p.m.> Would expresses customary action in past time. <Our last
supervisor would bring us doughnuts every Friday morning.> Would
points to future time, but adding doubt or uncertainty. Notice the
difference in meaning. <I will if I can. I would if I could.> Would
replaces will in indirect discourse. <He said that he would call.>
must
Expresses necessity or obligation. It is somewhat stronger than should.
<You must call the director's office immediately.> Must also expresses
likelihood. <It must have rained last night.>
ought
Originally the past tense of owe, but now it points to a present or future
time. Ought expresses necessity or obligation, but with less force. See
the difference. <We must go. We ought to go.> Ought is nearly the
equivalent of should.
dare
Originally a modal only, it is now used primarily in negatives or
questions. <He dare not submit the report in that form. Dare we submit
the report like this?>
need
Not originally a modal auxiliary, need is now used to mean have to.
<He need only fill out the top form. He need not get upset about the
delay.> In the meaning "lack," need is always a regular verb. <He needs
a little help with this project.>
be able to
Used instead of can or could to indicate the ability as a fact rather than a
mere potentiality. It is used also to avoid the ambiguity that may result
from using can to express permission. <He is able to support his
mother.>
be to
Indicates future events but hints at uncertainty. <He is to have that
report to us tomorrow.>
have to
Commonly substitutes for must. It is a stronger expression of necessity.
<You have to have that done.>
Nouns
Names a person, place, thing, action or abstract idea. <woman, office,
pencil, game, Ohio, Maxwell AFB, democracy, freedom>
Abstract Noun
nouns that name qualities rather than material things.
<love, danger>
Collective Noun
nouns that are singular in form but plural in meaning;
names a group of persons or things. <audience, army, company, flock,
committee, trio>
Concrete Noun
nouns that can be seen or touched. <table, book>
Proper Noun
nouns that are capitalized and name specific persons,
places, or things. <Major Palmisano, Ohio, Air War College>
Number
Shows the singular or plural of nouns, pronouns, or verbs.
Object
Noun or pronoun that is affected by the verb. <The man read the
book.>
Parts of Speech
The basic building blocks of language: nouns, pronouns, verbs, adverbs,
adjectives, prepositions, interjections, and conjunctions
Passive Voice
Shows the subject as receiver of the action. <A song was sung by her.>
Person
Pronouns that denote the speaker (first person; I, we), the person spoken
to (second person, you), or the person spoken of (third person; she, they).
Phrases
Groups of words without a subject or predicate that function as a unit
(adjective, adverbial, gerund, or infinitive phases).
Plagiarism
Using someone else's writing as if it were your own. This serious
offense can lead to severe professional and legal consequences. If using
another person's material, identify the borrowed passage and credit the
author.
Predicate
Tells what the subject does or what is done to the subject, or the state of
being the subject is in.
Preposition
Shows the relationship between a noun or pronoun to another word in
the sentence. <by, at, up, down, between, among, through>
Pronouns
Substitutes for a noun.
Definite Pronouns
includes I, you, he, she, it, we, they, and all of their forms.
Indefinite Pronouns
includes words like someone, no one, each, anyone, and
anybody.
Relative Pronouns
includes words like who, whom, which, that.
Sentence
Expresses one complete thought with one subject and one verb; either or
both may be compound.
Complex Sentence
contains one main clause and at least one
subordinate clause. <When it rains, it pours.>
Compound Sentence
contains two or more main clauses and no
subordinate clauses. <It rains, and it pours.>
Subject
Tells what the sentence is about; the person, place or thing that performs
the action or that has the state of being indicated by the verb.
Tense
Shows the time of the action, condition or state of being expressed. The
three tenses—past, present, future—can be expressed in the simple,
perfect, or progressive.
Verbals
Past and present participle forms of the verbs that act as nouns or
adjectives. There are three: Gerund, Infinitive, Participle.
Gerund
ends in -ing and functions as a noun. <talking, singing>
Infinitive
simple verb form used as a noun, adjective, or adverb and
usually preceded by to. <to go, to type>
Participle
used as an adjective and acts as a modifier in present (-ing),
past (-ed, lost), and perfect (having lost) forms
Verbs
Expresses action or state of being of the sentence. There are six: Transitive Verbs, Intransitive Verbs, Linking Verbs, Auxiliary or Helping Verbs, Principal Verbs, Irregular Verbs.
Transitive Verb
transfers action from the subject to the object.
Intransitive Verb
transfers no action and is followed by an adverb or
nothing.
Linking Verb
acts as an equal sign connecting the subject and the
complement.
Auxiliary or Helping Verb
verb used with another verb to form voice
or perfect and progressive tenses. <We have eaten there before.>
Principal Verb
last verb in a verb phrase.
Irregular Verb
verbs that form past tense and past
participle differently: E.g. become became become break broke broken bring brought brought buy bought bought catch caught caught choose chose chosen
Use a comma
to separate three or more parallel words, phrases, or clauses in a series.
closed punctuation
includes the comma before the final and, or or nor.
Will you go by car, train, or plane?
You will not talk, nor do homework, nor sleep in my class.
open punctuation
excludes the comma before the final and, or, or nor.
Will you go by car, train or plane?
You will not talk, nor do homework nor sleep in my class.
Help Clarify Meaning
The additional comma specified in closed punctuation may?
USE A COMMA
With the coordinating conjunctions and, but, or, or nor when joining two or more
independent clauses.
No comma is needed
if the sentence has one subject with a compound predicate
connected with a coordinating conjunction because the second half of the sentence is not an
independent clause.
Use a comma
Use a what, After introductory words such as yes, no, or oh?
Yes, I'll do it.
Oh, I see your point.
Use a Comma
To set off explanatory dates, addresses and place names; use a what? The change of command, 1 October 1996, was the turning point.
The British prime minister lives at 10 Downing Street, London, England.
Use a comma
To set off statements such as he said, she replied, they answered, and she announced.
She said, "Welcome to the Chamber of Commerce. May I help you?"
She replied, "I have an appointment with Lt Col Rick Jenkins at 10 a.m."
NOTE: If a quotation functions as an integral part of a sentence, commas are unnecessary.
They even considered "No guts, no glory!" as their slogan.
Use a comma
To set off names and titles used in direct address.
Use a comma
With afterthoughts (words, phrases or clauses added to the end of a sentence).
It isn't too late to get tickets, is it? Send them as soon as possible, please.
NOTE: The word too does not require a comma if located at the end of a sentence
Use a comma
To indicate omission of words in repeating a construction.
We had a tactical reserve; now, nothing. [The comma replaces we have.]
Use a comma
Before for used as a conjunction.
She didn't go to the party, for she cannot stand smoke-filled rooms.
Use a comma
To separate repeated words.
That was a long, long time ago.
Well, well, look who's here.
Use a comma
With titles following personal names. (Jr. and Sr. are set off by commas; 2d, 3d, II,
and III are not.)
Lee B. Walker, Sr.
Henry Ford II
William Price, Esq
James Stokes 3d
In text: Lee B. Walker, Sr., is ...
NOTE: When you must show possession drop the comma following Jr. and Sr.
Lee Walker, Sr.'s car is ...
Use a comma
When names are reversed. Adams, Angie Middleton, Mary
Baldwin, Sherwood, Jr. Parks, James, III
Brown, Carolyn Price, William, Esq
Use a comma
To prevent confusion or misreading.
No space before. One space after, unless a closing quotation mark immediately follows the comma. No space after within a number.
When using spacing and commas
Use an em Dash (—)
To indicate a sudden break or abrupt change in thought.
He is going—no, he's turning back.
Our new building should be—will be—completed by June 2004.
Use an em Dash (—)
To give special emphasis to the second independent clause in a compound sentence.
Our new, but used, pickup truck is great—it's economical too!
You'll double your money with this plan—and I'll prove it!
Use an em Dash (—)
To emphasize single words.
Girls—that's all he ever thinks about!
They're interested in one thing only—profit—nothing else matters.
Use an em Dash (—)
To emphasize or restate a previous thought.
One day last week—Monday, I think—Congress finally voted on the amendment.
Use an em Dash (—)
Before summarizing words such as these, they, and all when those words summarize a
series of ideas or list of details.
A tennis racket, swimsuit and shorts—these are all you'll need for the weekend.
Faculty, staff and students—all are invited.
Use an em Dash (—)
In place of commas to set off a nonessential element requiring special emphasis.
There's an error in one paragraph—the second one.
We will ensure all students—as well as faculty members—are informed of the
Chief of Staff's visit.
Use an em Dash (—)
To set off a nonessential element when the nonessential element contains internal
commas.
Certain subjects—American government, calculus and chemistry—are required courses.
Use an em Dash (—)
Instead of parentheses when a nonessential item requires strong emphasis (dashes
emphasize; parentheses de-emphasize).
Call Lieutenant Colonels Kessler, Sims, and Forbes—the real experts—and get their opinion.
Use an em Dash (—)
In place of a colon for a strong, but less formal, break in introducing explanatory words,
phrases or clauses.
Our arrangement with the Headquarters USAF is simple—we provide the camera-ready copy and they
handle the printing and distribution.
Use an em Dash (—)
With quotation marks. Place the dash outside the closing quotation mark when the
sentence breaks off after the quotation and inside the closing quotation mark to indicate the
speaker's words have broken off abruptly.
If I hear one more person say, "See what I'm saying!?"—
Thomas Hardy said, "When I get to 25 Barberry Street, I'll —"
Use an em Dash (—)
With a question mark or an exclamation mark: When a sentence contains a question or exclamation that is set off by dashes, put
the appropriate punctuation mark before the closing dash.
I'll attend Friday's meeting—is it being held at the same place?—but I'll have to leave early for another
appointment.
He's busy now, sir—wait, don't go in there!—I'll call you when he's free.
Use an em Dash (—)
With a question mark or an exclamation mark: When a sentence abruptly breaks off before the end of a question or exclamation,
put the end punctuation mark immediately following the dash.
Shall I do it or —?
Look out for the —!
Use an En Dash (-)
Before the source of a quotation or credit line in typed material (use an en dash in
printed material).
The ornaments of a home are the friends who frequent it.
- Anonymous
Use an En Dash (-)
To indicate inclusive numbers (dates, page numbers, time) when not introduced by the
word from or between.
Some instructions are on pages 15-30 of this article and from pages 3 to 10 in the attached brochure.
My appointment is 0800-0900. I will be there between 0745 and 0800.
She worked in the Pentagon from 1979 to 1996 and she said the 1990-1996 period went by quickly.
Use an En Dash (-)
In a compound adjective when one element has two words or a hyphenated word.
New York-London flight Air Force-wide changes quasi-public-quasi-judicial
body
before or after
No space ___ __ ___ an em dash (—) or en dash (-) within a sentence.
after
Two spaces ___ the em dash at the end of a sentence that breaks off abruptly (rule 10)—
unless manuscript format and using right justified, then one space after.
Use an Exclamation mark
At the end of a sentence or elliptical expression (condensed sentence, key words left out)
to express strong emotion (surprise, disbelief, irony, dissent, urgency, amusement,
enthusiasm).
Congratulations on your new son!
I suppose you consider that another "first"!
Fantastic show!
Use an Exclamation mark
In parentheses within a sentence to emphasize a particular word.
He lost 67(!) pounds in 6 months.
She said what(!)?
Use a hyphen
When dividing a word at the end of a line. When in doubt about the proper place to divide
a word, consult a dictionary and apply the guidelines
Use a hyphen to indicate the continua-
tion of a word divided at the end of a line.
Use a hyphen
To join unit modifiers. When you abbreviate the unit of measure, omit the hyphen.
4-hour sortie, 4 hr sortie long-term loan
rust-resistant cover 24-gallon tank, 24 gal. tank
Use a hyphen
When expressing the numbers 21 through 99 in words and in adjective compounds with
a numerical first element.
Twenty-one people attended.
Twenty-one people attended with at least 2 that failed to show up.
Eighty-nine or ninety miles from here there's an outlet mall.
I kept their 3-year-old child while they were away.
There will be a 10-minute delay.
Use a hyphen
To join single capital letters to nouns or participles. U-boat H-bomb X-height U-turn
T-shirt T-bone D-mark E-mail
Use a hyphen
To indicate two or more related compound words having a common base (suspended
hyphen).
It will be a 12- to 15-page document.
The cruise line offers 2-, 3-, and 7-day cruises at special group rates.
Long- and short-term money rates are available.
Use a hyphen
To join capital letter(s) and numbers in system designators and numerical identifiers.
F-117 B-1B F-16
KC-10 Su-24TK T-38
Use a hyphen
To form compound words and phrases. Some compound words are written as two words
(post office, air brake, Mother Nature, fellow traveler), some as one (manpower, masterpiece,
aircraft), some as a combination of words and joined by hyphens (father-in-law, great-uncle,
secretary-treasurer, governor-general, men-of-war, grant-in-aid, mother-of-pearl), and some
multiple-word compounds that include a preposition and a description (jack-of-all-trades, but
flash in a pan and master of none). There's a growing trend to spell compound words as one
word once widely accepted and used. However, sometimes the way you use a compound word
or phrase will dictate how you write it—as one word, with a hyphen, or as two separate words.
When in doubt, consult an up-to-date dictionary or treat as two words if the guidelines on the
next pages don't fit.
Use a hyphen
Use a hyphen with words and phrases that are combined to form a unit modifier
immediately preceding the word modified (except with an adverb ending in ly). Do not
hyphenate these phrases when they follow the noun.
an up-to-date report; this report is up to date; a $500-a-week salary; a salary of $500 a week
decision-making process; the process of decision making; red-faced man; the man with the red face
X-rated movies; movies that are X rated; the X-ray equipment; the X-ray showed
a well-known author; the author is well known
a first-come, first-served basis; on the basis of first come, first served
a highly organized group; a completely balanced meal
Use a hyphen
Use a hyphen when two or more proper names are combined to form a one-thought
modifier and when two adjectives are joined by the word and or or.
Montgomery-Atlanta-Washington flight life-and-death situation
black-and-white terms cause-and-effect hypothesis
yes-or-no answer go-no-go decision
Use a hyphen
Use a hyphen when spelling the word solid creates a homonym.
re-cover [cover again]; recover [to regain] re-creation [create again]; recreation [play]
re-count [count again]; recount [to detail] pre-position [position again]; preposition
re-create [create again]; recreate [refresh] [word that forms a phrase]
un-ionized [substance]; unionized [to organize] re-mark [mark again]; remark [say]
re-sign [sign again]; resign [quit] multi-ply [as in fabric]; multiply [arithmetic function]
re-start [start again]; restart [to start anew] co-op [cooperative]; coop [to confine]
re-treat [treat again]; retreat [withdraw]
Use a hyphen
to avoid doubling a vowel when the last letter of the prefix "anti,"
"multi," and "semi" is the same as the first letter of the word. Also, use a hyphen when the
second element is a capitalized word or a number.
anti-inflammatory; anti-Nazi; antiaircraft semi-icing; semi-Americanized; semiofficial
multi-industry; multielement; multimillion pre-1914, post-World War II; ultra-German
Use a hyphen
to join duplicate prefixes.
re-redirect sub-subcommittee super-superlative
USE ITALICS
In printed material to distinguish the titles of whole published works: books,
pamphlets, bulletins, periodicals, newspapers, plays, movies, symphonies, poems, operas,
essays, lectures, sermons, legal cases, and reports.
Use parenthesis
To enclose explanatory material (a single word, a phrase or an entire sentence) that is
independent of the main thought of the sentence. The ACSC students (542 of them) will begin classes the second week of June.
The results (see figure 3) were surprising.
Use parenthesis
To set off nonessential elements when commas would be inappropriate or confusing and
dashes would be too emphatic.
Mr. Henry Anderson, Jr., is the general manager of the Montgomery (Alabama) branch.
[Parentheses are clearer than commas when a city-state expression is used as an adjective.]
All the classes will meet three days a week (Mondays, Tuesdays and Thursdays). [Parentheses are
used in place of commas because the nonessential element contains commas.]
I suggest you contact Edward Clinton (a true professional) for his recommendation. [Parentheses
used in place of dashes to de-emphasize the nonessential element.]
Contact Ms. Louise Robinson—the manager of the house in Tuscaloosa—and ask her if a room is
still available. [Dashes are used in place of parentheses for emphasis.]
Use parenthesis
To enclose enumerating letters or numerals within a sentence.
Our goals are to (1) reduce the number of curriculum hours, (2) eliminate the 90-minute lunch period, and
(3) reduce the number of personnel needed to accomplish the mission.
Also, include the following when you file your medical costs: (a) hotel charges, (b) meal costs (including
gratuities), and (c) transportation costs.
Use parenthesis
To enclose a nickname or a descriptive expression when it falls between a person's first
and last names. However, when it precedes or replaces a person's first name, simply capitalize
it.
George Herman (Babe) Ruth Stonewall Jackson
Major William F. (Clark) Kent the Iron Duke
Use a period
To end declarative and imperative sentences.
His work is minimally satisfactory.
Don't be late.
Use a period
To end an indirect question or a question intended as a suggestion or otherwise not
requiring an answer.
She wanted to know how to do it.
He asked what the job would entail.
Tell me how they did it.
Use a period
With certain abbreviations. Most abbreviations today are written without punctuation Ms. Miss [not an Sr. no. [number; could be confused
abbreviation] with the word no]
Mr. Dr. e.g. in. [inch; could be confused
with the word in]
Mrs. Jr. i.e. etc.
Use a Question Mark
To indicate the end of a direct question.
Did he go with you?
Will you be able to attend?
Use a Question Mark
With elliptical (shortened) questions and to express more than one question within a
sentence.
You rang? For what purpose?
Was the speaker interesting? Convincing? Well versed?
Who approved the sale? When? To whom? For what amount?
Use a Question Mark
After an independent question within a larger sentence.
The question "Who will absorb the costs?" went unanswered.
When will the reorganization take place? will surely be asked.
Use a Question Mark
To express doubt.
They plan to purchase three(?) new Pentium computers with individual scanners for us.
Jackie Baltzell and Gayle Magill have been associated with her since 1990(?).
Use a Question Mark
Use a question mark before a closing parenthesis only when it applies solely to the
parenthetical item and the sentence ends in a different punctuation mark.
At our next meeting (it's on the 16th, isn't it?), we'll elect a new president. As the gun opened fire
(was it a .50-caliber gun?), all movement ceased. [Question marks were used within
parentheses because sentences require a period at the end.]
Are tickets still available (and can I get two), or is it too late? [Question mark is omitted within
parentheses because sentence ends with a question mark.]
Use a Question Mark
A question mark is placed inside the closing quotation mark only when it applies to the
quoted material or when the same punctuation is required for both the quotation and the
sentence as a whole.
She asked, "Did you enjoy the trip?" [Question mark belongs with quoted material.]
Why did he ask, "When does it start?" [Question mark is same as ending punctuation.]
Did you say, "I'll help out"? [Quoted material is not a question; therefore, question mark applies
to the sentence as a whole.]
Use a Question Mark
When a question within a sentence is set off by dashes, place the question mark before
the closing dash.
The new class—isn't it called Super Seminar?—begins tomorrow.
Use a Semicolon
To separate independent clauses not connected by a coordinating conjunction (and, but,
for, or, nor, and so), and in statements too closely related in meaning to be written as
separate sentences.
The students were ready; it was time to go.
It's true in peace; it's true in war.
War is destructive; peace, constructive.
Use a Semicolon
Before transitional words and phrases (accordingly, as a result, besides, consequently, for
example, furthermore, hence, however, moreover, namely, nevertheless, on the contrary,
otherwise, that is, then, therefore, thus, and yet) when connecting two complete but related
thoughts and a coordinating conjunction is not used. Follow these words and phrases with a
comma. Do not use a comma after hence, then, thus, so and yet unless a pause is needed.
Our expenses have increased; however, we haven't raised our prices.
Our expenses have increased, however, and we haven't raised our prices.
The decision has been made; therefore, there's no point in discussing it further.
The decision has been made so there's no point in discussing it.
The general had heard the briefing before; thus, he chose not to attend.
Let's wait until next month; then we can get better result figures.
Use a Semicolon
To separate items in a series that contain commas (when confusion would otherwise
result).
If you want your writing to be worthwhile, organize it; if you want it to be easy to read, use simple
words and phrases; and, if you want it to be interesting, vary your sentence and paragraph
lengths.
Those who attended the meeting were Colonels Jim Forsyth, Dean of Education; Michael Harris,
Dean of Distance Learning; Mark Zimmerman, Chairman of Leadership and Communications
Studies; and Phil Tripper, Chairman of Joint Warfare Studies.
Use a Semicolon
To precede words or abbreviations that introduce a summary or explanation of what
has gone before in the sentence.
We visited several countries on that trip; i.e., England, Ireland, France, Germany, and Finland.
There are many things you must arrange before leaving on vacation; for example, mail pickup, pet
care, yard care.
Capitalize The First Word
of every sentence.
Twenty-one people attended the secret presentation given by the chief of staff.
Nonessential government employees were furloughed from 14 to 19 November 2002.
Capitalize The First Word
of every sentence fragment treated as a complete sentence.
Really? No! So much for that.
More discussion. No agreement. Another hour wasted.
Capitalize The First Word
of direct questions and quotations placed within a sentence even if quotation marks
are not used.
The commander asked this question: How many of you are volunteers?
The order read "Attack at dawn."
Capitalize The First Word
of items shown in a list (using numbers, letters, or display dots) when a complete
sentence introduces them.
The commander listed the following responsibilities of liaison officers:
a. Become familiar with the situation.
b. Know the mission.
c. Arrange for communications.
Capitalize The First Word
in the salutation and complimentary closing of a letter.
Dear Mr. McBride Sincerely Respectfully yours
Capitalize The First Word
after a hyphen when the hyphenated word is followed by a proper noun or
adjective.
non-Latin speaking people
Capitalize The First Word
after a colon when the word is a proper noun or the pronoun I.
Two courses are required: English and Economics.
Capitalize The First Word
after a colon when the word is word is the first word of a quoted sentence.
When asked by his teacher to explain the difference between a sofa and a love seat, the nursery school boy
had this to say: "Don't reckon I know, ma'am, but you don't put your feet on either one."
Capitalize The First Word
after a colon when the word is expression after the colon is a complete sentence that is the dominant or more
general element.
A key principle: Nonessential elements are set off by commas; essential elements are not set off.
Capitalize The First Word
after a colon when the word is material following the colon consists of two or more sentences.
There are several drawbacks to this: First, it ties up our capital for three years. Second, the likelihood
of a great return on our investment is questionable.
Capitalize The First Word
after a colon when the word is material following the colon starts on a new line.
They gave us two reasons:
1. They received the order too late.
2. It was Friday and nothing could be done until Monday.
Capitalize The First Word
after a colon when the word is material preceding the colon is an introductory word (NOTE, CAUTION,
WANTED, HINT, or REMEMBER).
WANTED: Three editorial assistants who know computers as well as editing and typesetting.
Capitalize The First Word
after a colon when the word is each line in a poem. (Always follow the style of the poem, however).
I used to write quite poorly.
My boss said it made him ill.
But now he's feeling better
'Cuz I use The Tongue and Quill!
- TSgt Keyes
Do Not Capitalize
the first word of a sentence enclosed in parentheses within another sentence unless
the first word is a proper noun, the pronoun I, the first word of a quoted sentence, or
begins a complete parenthetical sentence standing alone.
The company finally moved (they were to have vacated 2 months ago) to another location.
One of our secretaries (Carolyn Brown) will record the minutes of today's meeting.
This is the only tree in our yard that survived the ice storm. (It's a pecan tree.)
Do Not Capitalize
part of a quotation slogan or motto if it is not capitalized in the original quotation.
General MacArthur said that old soldiers "just fade away."
Do Not Capitalize
the first word of an independent clause after a colon if the clause explains, illustrates
or amplifies the thought expressed in the first part of the sentence.
Essential and nonessential elements require altogether different punctuation: the latter should be set off by
commas, whereas the former should not.
Do Not Capitalize
after a colon if the material cannot stand alone as a sentence.
I must countersign all cash advances, with one exception: when the amount is less than $50.
Three subjects were discussed: fund raising, membership, and bylaws.
Capitalize
all proper names (the official name of a person, place or thing).
Porie and Tourcoing Anglo-Saxon Cliff Brow
Judy Phillips-McDonald Rio Grande River Stratford-on-Avon
the Capitol in DC the capital of Maine is ... Mönchengladbach
US Constitution the Constitution the Alamo
Capitalize
a common noun or adjective that forms an essential part of a proper name,
but not a common noun used alone as a substitute for the name of a place or thing.
Statue of Liberty; the statue Potomac River; the river
Air War College; the college Berlin Wall; the wall
Washington Monument; the monument Vietnam Veterans Memorial; the memorial
Not Capitalize
If a common noun or adjective forming an essential part of a name becomes removed
from the rest of the name by an intervening common noun or adjective, the entire
expression is no longer a proper noun and is ___ ___.
Union Station; union passenger station Eastern States; eastern farming states
Capitalize
all hyphenated words, except articles and short prepositions; coordinating
conjunctions; second elements of prefixes (unless proper noun or proper adjective); and
flat, sharp and natural after musical key symbols.
English-Speaking Run-of-the-Mill Non-Christians Follow-Through
Large-Sized Mat Post-Prezhnev Self-explanatory Ex-Governor
Over-the-Hill Sayings Twenty-first Century One-eighth E-flat Concerto
figures
numbers 10 and above should be expressed in
Words
numbers one through
nine should be expressed in
scientific and statistical material
all numbers are expressed in figures
STATING THE RESEARCH QUESTION
1. Name your topic: I am studying ...
2. Imply your question: Because I want to find out/show you who/how/why ...
3. State the rationale for the question and the project: In order to understand/explain
how/why/what ...
Once you have your focus narrowed, and you know just what you want to study, it is time to
begin the hunt for what others have written on the same, or similar, subjects.
Research Methodology Guidelines
Use this approach if: Quantitative Qualitative
1. You believe that: There is an objective reality that
can be measured or There are multiple possible
realities constructed by different
individuals
2. Your audience is: Familiar with/supportive of
quantitative studies
Familiar with/supportive of
qualitative studies
3. Your research question is: Confirmatory, predictive Exploratory, interpretive
4. The available literature is: Relatively large Limited
5. Your research focus: Covers a lot of breadth Involves in-depth study
6. Your time available is: Relatively short Relatively long
7. Your ability/desire to work
with people is:
Medium to low High
8. Your desire for structure is: High Low
9. You have skills in the area(s)
of:
Deductive reasoning and statistics Inductive reasoning and attention
to detail
10. Your writing skills are
strong in the area of:
Technical, scientific writing Literary, narrative writing
indicate Time, Order, and Sequence.
Abruptly, After, After a few days, After a long time, After a short time, After a while, After that, Afterward, All at once, All of the time, All the while, Always, As long as, As soon as, At first, At last, At length, At present, At that time, At the beginning, At the end, At that onset, At the same time, At this moment, At times, Before, Begin, By now, Just then, Last, Last of all, Lastly, Later, Later on, Later that day, Little by little,
indicate Time, Order, and Sequence.
Commence, Commencing, Concurrently, Consequently, Continually, Currently, Cyclically, Directly, During, Earlier, Embark, Eventually, Every time, Final, Finally, First, Following, Following that, Former, Formerly, Frequently, From this point, Generally, Gradual, Henceforth, Hereafter, Heretofore, Immediately, In an instant, In awhile, In conclusion, In the end, In the first place, In the future, In the last place, In the meantime, In the past, In the second place, In turn, In frequently, Initial, Instantly, Instantaneously, Intermittent,
indicate Time, Order, and Sequence.
Meanwhile, Momentarily, Never, Next, Not at all, Not long after, Not long ago, Now, Occasionally, Of late, Often, Often time, On the next occasion, Once, Once upon a time, Past, Periodically, Preceding, Present, Presently, Previously, Prior to, Promptly, Quick, Rarely, Recently, Repeatedly, Right after, Right away, Second, Seldom, Sequentially, Shorty, Simultaneously, Slow, So far, Some of the time, Some time, Soon, Soon after, Soon afterward, Sporadically, Starting with, Subsequently, Suddenly, Temporary, The latter, The next, The final, Then, Thereafter, This instant, Third, To begin with, To conclude, To finish, Today, Tomorrow, Twice, Uncommon, Ultimately, Until, Until now , Usually, When, While, Yesterday
Words to replace SAID in your writing
Accepted, Accused, Acknowledged, Acquiesced, Additionally, Added, Addressed, Ad-libbed, Admitted, Admonished, Advised, Advocated, Affirmed, Agreed, Alleged, Allowed, Alluded, Announced, Answered, Anticipated, Appealed, Approved, Argued, Articulated, Asked, Assented, Asserted,
Assumed, Assured, Assured, Attested, Avowed.
Words used to INTENSIFY
"...become intense or more intensive" Above all, Accentuate, Act of increasing, Added to, Amp up, Amplify, Beef up, Boost, Consolidate, Deepen, Enhance, Exaggerate, Heighten, Increase in extent, Increase the contrast, Incremental, Intensifying, Magnify, Make stronger, More, More extreme, Redouble, Sharpen, Step up, Strengthen, To enlarge, To stress.
Words that describe cause and effect
"...reason for an action...come into being" Accordingly, After, As a result, Because, Because of this, Begin, Bring about, Bring on, By reason of, By the way, By-product, Cause, Caused by, Consequence, Consequently, Created, Due to, Effect, Effected, Eventually, Feedback, Following, For this reason, Further, Furthermore, Generate, Gradual, Hence, Impact, In conclusion, In fact, In view of, Incentive, Incidentally, Launched, Of course, On account of, Otherwise, Owing to, Produced, Reason, Result, Resulted in, Since, Started, Subsequently, The aftermath, The end product, The end result, The outcome, The ramifications, Then, There upon, Thus, To this end,
words that COMPARE
"...to examine the character or qualities of esp. in order to discover resemblances or differences..." A comparable aspect, Affinity, A strong resemblance, Akin, Also, Analogous to, Another similarity, As, As compared with, As well as, At the same time, Balance, By the same token, Coincide, Comparable, Comparatively, Compare, Conform, Consistent with, Correlate, Correspondingly, Exactly, Equal, Equally, Equally important, Equate, Equivalent, Harmonize, Homogeneous, Identical, Identically, In comparison, In like manner, In much the same way, In relation to, In similar fashion, In the same manner, In the same way, Just the same, Like, Liken, Likeness, Likewise, Look like, Match, Matching, Of little difference, Of no difference, Parallel, Paralleling, Parallel to, Relate to, Relatively, Relative to, Resemblance, Resemble, Resembling, Same as, Similarity, Similarly, Similar to, Synonymous with, The next likeness, Too, To the same extent, Uniform.
words that CONCEDE
"...to accept as true, valid, or accurate...". Admittedly After all Albeit
Although Although this may be true At the same time
But even so Certainly Clearly
Doubtless Doubtlessly Even so
Even though Granted Granted that
Naturally Nevertheless No doubt
Of course Still Surely
Though To accede To accommodate
To acknowledge To acknowledge defeat To acquiesce
To adjust To admit To admit the truth
To agree To capitulate To comply with
To compromise To concede To concur
To confess To conform To consent
To give up To make a concession To reconcile
To settle To submit To succumb
To surrender To withdraw To yield
Unfortunately While it is true Yet
Adjective
A word that answers the question what kind (excellent results), how many (Jour laptops), or
which one (the latest) data. An adjective may be a single word (a wealthy man), a phrase (a man of great
wealth), or a clause (a man who possesses great wealth). An adjective modifies the meaning of a noun
(loose cannon) or a pronoun (unlucky me, I was wrong
Adverb
A word that answers the question when, where, why, in what manner, or to what extent. An adverb
may be a single word (speak clearly), a phrase (speak in a clear voice), or a clause (speak as clearly as you
can). An adverb modifies the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. (See also Clause, adverbial.)
We closed the deal quickly. (Modifies the verb closed.)
Caroline seemed genuinely pleased. (Modifies the adjective pleased.)
My presentation went surprisingly well. (Modifies the adverb well.)
Adverbial conjunctive (or connective)
An adverb that connects the main clauses of a compound sentence;
for example, however, therefore, nevertheless, hence, moreover, otherwise, consequently. Also referred
to as a conjunctive adverb or a transitional expression
Antecedent
A noun or a noun phrase to which a pronoun refers.
She is the person who wrote the letter. (Person is the antecedent of who.)
Owning a home has its advantages. (Owning a home is the antecedent of its.)
Appositive
A noun or a noun phrase that identifies another noun or pronoun that immediately precedes
it.
Mr Mancuso, our chief financial officer, would like to meet you.
My brother Kyle and his wife Martha are planning to move to Colorado.
Article
Considered an adjective. The definite article is the; the indefinite articles are a and an.
Case
The form of a noun or of a pronoun that indicates its relation to other words in the sentence. There
are three cases: nominative, possessive, and objective. Nouns have the same form in the nominative and
objective cases but a special ending for the possessive.
Nominative pronouns
I, you, he, she, it, we, they, who.
Possessive pronouns
my, mine
your, yours
his, hers, its
our, ours
their, theirs
whose
Objective pronouns
me
you
him, her, it
us
them
whom
Nominative case
Used for the subject or the complement of a verb.
She publishes a newsletter (Subject]
The person who ca led you was / (Complement)
Possessive case
Used to show ownership and other relationships. My statistical analysis is in this report The suggestions in the appendix are also mine.
Objective case
Used for (1) the object of a verb, (2) the object of a preposition, (3) the subject of
an infinitive, (4) the object of an infinitive, and (5) the complement of the infinitive to be.
Can you help us this weekend? (Object of the verb help.)
Brenda has not written to me. (Object of the preposition to.)
I encouraged her to enter the biathlon. (Subject of the infinitive to enter)
William promised to call me but he didn't (Object of the infinitive to call.)
They believed me to be her. (Complement of the infinitive to be.)
Clause
A group of related words containing a subject and a predicate. An independent clause (also
known as a main clause or principal clause) expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence.
A dependent clause (also known as a subordinate clause) does not express a complete thought and
cannot stand alone as a sentence.
I will go (independent clause) if I am invited [dependent clause].
Adjective clause
A dependent clause that modifies a noun or a pronoun in the main clause.
Adjective clauses are joined to the main clause by relative pronouns (which, that, who, whose, whom).
Their bill, which includes servicing, seems reasonable. (Modifies bill.)
Adverbial clause
A dependent clause that functions as an adverb in its relation to the main clause.
Adverbial clauses indicate time, place, manner, cause, purpose, condition, result, reason, or contrast.
These orders can be filled as soon as stock is received. (Time.)
I was advised to live where the climate is dry. (Place.)
She worked as though her life depended on it (Manner.)
Please write me at once if you have any suggestions. (Condition.)
Because our plant is closed in August, we cannot fill your order now. (Reason.]
Coordinate clauses
Clauses of the same rank—independent or dependent.
Cart will oversee the day-to-day operations, and Sheila will be responsible for the finances.
(Coordinate independent clauses.)
When you have read the user's manual and you have mastered all the basic operations, try to deal
with these special applications. (Coordinate dependent clauses.)
Elliptical clause
A clause from which key words have been omitted. Now, for the next topic. Really? If possible, arrive at one.
Essential (restrictive) clause
A dependent clause that cannot be omitted without changing the
meaning of the main (independent) clause. Essential clauses are not set off by commas.
The magazine that came yesterday contains an evaluation of new software.
Nonessential (nonrestrictive) clause
A dependent clause that adds descriptive information but
could be omitted without changing the meaning of the main (independent) clause. Such clauses are
separated or set off from the main clause by commas.
She has had a lot of success with her latest book, which deals with corporate finance.
Her latest book, which deals with corporate financial analysis, has sold quite well
Noun clause
A dependent clause that functions as a noun in the main clause.
Whether the proposal will be accepted remains to be seen. (Noun clause as subject)
They thought that the plan was a failure. (Noun clause as object)
Then he said, "Who gave you that information?" (Noun clause as object)
Comparison
The form of an adjective or adverb that indicates degrees in quality, quantity, or manner.
The degrees are positive, comparative, and superlative.
Positive degree of Comparison
The simple form; for example, new, efficient (adjectives); soon, quietly (adverbs).
Comparative degree of Comparison
Indicates a higher or lower degree of quality or manner than is expressed by the positive
degree. The comparative is used when two things are compared and is regularly formed by
adding er to the positive degree (newer, sooner). In longer words the comparative is formed by adding
more or less to the positive (more efficient, less efficient; more quietly, less quietly.
Superlative degree of Comparison
Denotes the highest or lowest degree of quality or manner. The superlative is used
when more than two things are compared and is regularly formed by adding est to the positive degree
(newest, soonest). In longer words the superlative is formed by adding most or least to the positive
(most efficient, least efficient; most quietly, least quietly.
Complement
A word or phrase that completes the sense of the verb. It may be an object, a predicate
noun, a predicate pronoun, or a predicate adjective. the term complement is used to refer only to a predicate noun, pronoun, or adjective
following a linking verb.
Object
Follows a transitive verb. (See Verb.) is used to denote the complement of a transitive verb
I have already drafted the contract.
Predicate noun or pronoun
Follows a Unking verb (such as is, are, was, were, will be, has been, could
be). It explains the subject and is identical with it. (Also called & predicate complement, subject complement,
and predicate nominative.)
Miss Kwong is our new accountant. (Accountant refers to Miss Kwong.)
The person responsible for the decision was /. (The pronoun / refers to person.)
Predicate adjective
Completes the sense of a linking verb. (Also called ^predicate complement.)
These charges are excessive. (The adjective excessive refers to charge
Compound adjective
A phrase or clause that qualifies, limits, or restricts the meaning of a word. Also
referred to as a compound modifier.
Conjunction
A word or phrase that connects words, phrases, or clauses.
Coordinating conjunction
Connects words, phrases, or clauses of equal rank. The coordinating
conjunctions are and, but, or, and nor.
Correlative conjunction
Consists of two elements that are used in pairs; for example, both ... and,
not only. . . but (also), either.. . or, neither... nor.
Subordinating conjunction
Used to join a dependent clause to a main (independent) clause; for
example, when, where, after, before, if.
Conjunctive adverb
Adverbial conjunctive
Connective
A word that joins words, phrases, or clauses. The chief types of connectives are conjunctions,
adverbial conjunctives, prepositions, and relative pronouns.
Contraction
A shortened form of a word or phrase in which an apostrophe indicates the omitted letters
or words; for example, don't for do not.
Dangling modifier
A modifier that is attached either to no word in a sentence or to the wrong word.
Direct address
A construction in which a speaker or a writer addresses another person directly; for
example, "What do you think, Sylvia?"
Elliptical expressions
Condensed expressions from which keywords have been omitted; for example,
if necessary (for if it is necessary).
Essential elements
Words, phrases, or clauses needed to complete the structure or meaning of a sentence.
(See also Clause; Phrase)
Gender
The characteristic of nouns and pronouns that indicates whether the thing named is masculine
(man, boy, he), feminine (woman, girl, she), or neuter (book, concept, it). Nouns that refer to either males
or females have common gender (person, child).
Gerund
A verb form ending in ing and used as a noun.
Selling requires special skills. (Subject]
I enjoy selling. (Direct object of enjoy!)
She is experienced in selling. (Object of preposition in.)
Dangling gerund
A prepositional-gerund phrase that is attached either to no word in a sentence or
to the wrong word.
Imperative
relating to verbs in the imperative mood
Indicative
relating to the mood of verbs that is used simple declarative statements
Infinitive
The form of the verb usually introduced by to. An infinitive may be used
as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. (See Phrase. NOUN: To find affordable housing these days is not easy. (Subject.)
She is trying to do a hatchet job on my proposal. (Object.}
ADJECTIVE: I still have two more contracts to draft (Modifies contracts.)
ADVERB: He resigned to take another position. (Modifies resigned.)
Interjection
A word that shows emotion; usually without grammatical connection to other parts of a
sentence.
Wow! What a weekend! Oh, so that's what he meant.
Modifier
A word, phrase, or clause that qualifies, limits, or restricts the meaning of a word. (See
Adjective; Adverb; Compound adjective; Dangling modifier, Squinting modifier
Mood (mode)
The form of the verb that shows the manner of the action. There are three moods: indicative,
imperative, and subjunctive.
Indicative Mood
States a fact or asks a question.
Our lease has expired. When does our lease expire?
Imperative Mood
Expresses a command or makes a request.
Call me next week. Please send me your latest catalog.
Subjunctive Mood
Used in dependent clauses following main (independent) clauses expressing necessity,
demand, or wishing; also used in if, as if, and as though clauses that state conditions
which are improbable, doubtful, or contrary to fact. I demand that we be heard. It is imperative that he be notified.
We urge that she be elected. If he were appointed, I would quit
I wish I were going. If she had known, she would have written.
Nonessential elements
Words, phrases, or clauses that are not needed to complete the structure or
meaning of a sentence.
Noun
The name of a person, place, object, idea, quality, or activity.
Abstract noun
The name of a quality or a general idea; for example, courage, freedom
Collective noun
A noun that represents a group of persons, animals, or things; for example, audience,
company, flock.
Common noun
The name of a class of persons, places, or things; for example, child, house.
Predicate noun
Follows a linking verb and defines or renames the subject
Proper noun
The official name of a particular person, place, or thing; for example, Ellen, San Diego,
Wednesday. Proper nouns are capitalized.
Number
The characteristic of a noun, pronoun, or verb that indicates whether one person or thing (singular)
or more than one (plural) is meant.
NOUW: beeper, beepers PRONOUN: she, they VERB: [she] works, (they] work
Object
The person or thing that receives the action of a transitive verb. An object may be a word, a
phrase, or a clause. (See Case, objective.)
I need a new laptop computer. (Word.]
She prefers to work with hard copy. (Infinitive phrase.]
We did not realize that your deadline was so tight. (Clause.]
Direct object
The person or thing that is directly affected by the action of the verb. (The object in
each of the three sentences above is a direct object.)
Indirect object
The person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb. The indirect object
can be made the object of the preposition to or for.
Molly gave (to] me a hard time about my sales performance this quarter.
Ordinal number
The form of a number that indicates order or succession; for example, first, second,
twelfth or 1st, 2d, 12th.
Parenthetical elements
Words, phrases, or clauses that are not necessary to complete the structure
or the meaning of a sentence.
Gina Sala, my wife's older sister, is my accountant.
Participle
A word that may stand alone as an adjective or may be combined with helping (auxiliary)
verbs to form different tenses. There are three forms: present, past, and perfect.
Present participle
Ends in ing; for example, making, advertising
Past participle
Regularly ends in ed (as in asked or filed) but may be irregularly formed (as in lost,
seen, and written).
Perfect participle
Consists of having plus the past participle; for example, having asked, having lost.
When a participle functions as an adjective, it modifies a noun or a pronoun.
The coming year poses some new challenges. (Modifies year)
Having retired last year, I now do volunteer work. (Modifies /.)
Because a participle has many of the characteristics of a verb, it may take an object and be modified
by an adverb. The participle and its object and modifiers make up a. participial phrase.
Seizing the opportunity, Orzo offered to buy the business. [Opportunity is the object of seizing.)
Moving aggressively, we can control the market. [Aggressively modifies moving.)
Dangling participle
A participial phrase attached either to no word in a sentence or to the wrong
word.
Parts of speech
The eight classes into which words are grouped according to their uses in a sentence:
verb, noun, pronoun, adjective, adverb, conjunction, preposition, and interjection.
Time flies like an arrow. On this case, time is a noun, flies is a verb, and like is a preposition.]
Fruit flies like a banana. On this case, flies is part of a compound noun, fruit flies; like is a verb.]
Person
The characteristic of a word that indicates whether a person is speaking (first person), is spoken
to (second person), or is spoken about (third person). Only personal pronouns and verbs change their
forms to show person. All nouns are considered third person.
Singular Plural
FIRST PERSON: / like this book. We like this book.
SECOND PERSON: You like this book. You like this book.
THIRD PERSON: She likes this book. They like this book.
Phrase
A group of two or more words without a subject and a predicate; used as a noun, an adjective,
or an adverb. (See Predicate.)
Noun phrase
A phrase that functions as a noun (such as a gerund phrase, an infinitive phrase, or
a prepositional phrase).
I like running my own business. (Gerund phrase as object]
To provide the best possible service is our goal. Onfinitive phrase as subject.]
Before 9 a.m. is the best time to call me. (Prepositional phrase as subject.]
Adjective phrase
A phrase that functions as an adjective (such as an infinitive phrase, a participial
phrase, or a prepositional phrase).
The time to act is now! Onfinitive phrase indicating what kind of time.)
Adverbial phrase
A phrase that functions as an adverb (such as an infinitive phrase or a prepositional
phrase).
Let's plan to meet after lunch. (Prepositional phrase indicating when to meet.)
Gerund phrase
A gerund plus its object and modifiers; used as a noun.
Delaying payments to your suppliers will prove costly. (Gerund phrase as subject.)
Infinitive phrase
An infinitive plus its object and modifiers; may be used as a noun, an adjective,
or an adverb. An infinitive phrase that is attached either to no word in a sentence or to the wrong
word is called a dangling infinitive. To get TFs okay on this purchase order took some doing. (As a noun; serves as subject of the
verb took.)
The decision to close the Morrisville plant was not made easily. (As an adjective; tells what kind
of decision.)
Janice resigned to open her own business. (As an adverb; tells why Janice resigned.) An infinitive phrase, unlike other phrases, may sometimes have a subject. This subject precedes
the infinitive and is in the objective case.
I want her to review this draft for accuracy. (Her is the subject of to review.)
Participial phrase
A participle and its object and modifiers; used as an adjective.
The committee considering your proposal should come to a decision this week.
I prefer the cover sample printed in blue and yellow.
Prepositional phrase
A preposition and its object and modifiers; may be used as a noun, an adjective,
or an adverb.
From Boston to Tulsa is about 1550 miles. (As a noun; serves as subject of is.)
Profits in the automobile industry are up sharply this quarter. [As an adjective; indicates which
type of profits.]
You handled Dr. Waterman's objections with great skill. (As an adverb; indicates the manner in
which the objections were handled.)
Prepositional-gerund phrase
A phrase that begins with a preposition and has a gerund as the
object. By rechecking these figures before you release them, you deal with any questions raised higher management. (By is the preposition; rechecking, a gerund, is the object of by]
Essential (restrictive) phrase
A phrase that limits, defines, or identifies; cannot be omitted without
changing the meaning of the sentence.
The study analyzing our competitors' promotion activities will be finished within the next two
weeks.
Nonessential (nonrestrictive) phrase.
A phrase that can be omitted without changing the meaning
of the sentence.
The Stanforth-Palmer Company, one of the country's largest financial services organizations, expanding into satellite communications.
Verb phrase
The individual words that make up the verb in a sentence. Sometimes a verb phrase
includes an adverb. A verb phrase can function only as a verb.
You should work together with Nora on the report. (The verb phrase consists of the verb form
should work plus the adverb together)
Predicate
That part of a sentence which tells what the subject does or what is done to the subject or
what state of being the subject is in. (See also Verb.)
Complete predicate
Consists of a verb and its complement along with any modifiers.
Barbara has handled the job well.
Simple predicate
The verb alone, without regard for any complement or modifiers that may accompany
it.
Barbara has handled the job well.
Compound predicate
Two or more predicates joined by conjunctions.
Barbara has handled the job well and deserves a good deal of praise.
Prefix
A letter, syllable, or word added to the beginning of a word to change its meaning; for example,
afloat, reupholster, undernourished.
Preposition
A connective (such as from, to, in, on, of, at, by, for, with) that shows the relationship
between a noun or pronoun and some other word in the sentence. The noun or pronoun following a
preposition is in the objective case. Martin's work was reviewed by Hedley and me.
Punctuation
Marks used to indicate relationships between words, phrases, and clauses.
Terminal (end) punctuation
The period, the question mark, and the exclamation point—the three
marks that may indicate the end of a sentence.
NOTE: When a sentence breaks off abruptly, a dash may be used to mark the end of the sentence. When a sentence trails off without really ending, ellipsis marks (three spaced periods)
are used to mark the end of the sentence.
Internal punctuation
Commas, semicolons, colons, dashes, parentheses, quotation marks, apostrophes,
ellipsis marks, asterisks, diagonals, and brackets are the most common marks of internal
punctuation.
Question
an instance of questioning or challenging the accuracy, probity, or propriety of,
Direct question
A question in its original form, as spoken or written.
He then asked me, "What is your opinion?"
Indirect question
A restatement of a question without the use of the exact words of the speaker.
He then asked me what my opinion was.
Independent question
A question that represents a complete sentence but is incorporated in a
larger sentence.
The main question is, Who will translate this idea into a clear plan of action?
Quotation
a short note recognizing a source of information or of a quoted passage
Direct quotation
A quotation of words exactly as spoken or written.
I myself heard Ed say, "I will arrive in Santa Fe on Tuesday."
Indirect quotation
A restatement of a quotation without the use of the exact words of the speaker.
I myself heard Ed say that he would arrive in Santa Fe on Tuesday.
Sentence
A group of words representing a complete thought and containing a subject and a predicate
(a verb along with any complements and modifiers).
Simple sentence
A sentence consisting of one independent clause.
I have no recollection of the meeting.
Compound sentence
A sentence consisting of two or more independent clauses.
Our Boston office will be closed, and our Dallas office will be relocated.
Complex sentence
A sentence consisting of one independent clause (also called the main clause)
and one or more dependent clauses.
We will make an exception to the policy if circumstances warrant.
Compound-complex sentence
A sentence consisting of two independent clauses and one or more
dependent clauses.
I tried to handle the monthly report alone, but when I began to analyze the data, I realized that
I needed your help.
Elliptical sentence
A word or phrase treated as a complete sentence, even though the subject and
verb are understood but not expressed. Enough on that subject. Why not?
Declarative sentence
A sentence that makes a statement.
Our company is continually testing cutting-edge technologies.
Interrogative sentence
A sentence that asks a question.
When will the conference begin?
Exclamatory sentence
A sentence that expresses strong feeling.
Don't even think of smoking here!
Imperative sentence
A sentence that expresses a command or a request. (The subject you is understood
if it is not expressed.)
Send a check at once. Please let us hear from you.
Sentence fragment
A phrase or clause that is incorrectly treated as a sentence.
Squinting modifier
A modifier placed in such a way that it can be interpreted as modifying either what
precedes or what follows.
Statement
A sentence that asserts a fact.
Subject
A word, phrase, or clause that names the person, place, or thing about which something is
said. (See Case, nominative.)
The law firm with the best reputation in town is Barringer and Doyle.
Whoever applies for the job from within the department will get special consideration.
Compound subject
Two or more subjects joined by a conjunction.
My wife and my three sons are off on a white-water rafting trip.
Suffix
A letter, syllable, or word added to the end of a word to modify its meaning; for example, trendy
friendly, countless, receivership, lonesome.
Superlative degree
See Comparison, superlative.
Syllable
One or more letters that represent one sound.
There are six progressive tenses, corresponding to each of the primary and perfect tenses:
PRESENT PROGRESSIVE: they are thinking
PAST PROGRESSIVE: they were thinking
FUTURE PROGRESSIVE: they will be thinking
PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE: they have been thinking
PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE: they had been thinking
FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE: they will have been thinking
PRESENT PROGRESSIVE:
they are thinking
PAST PROGRESSIVE:
they were thinking
FUTURE PROGRESSIVE:
they will be thinking
PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE:
they have been thinking
PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE:
they had been thinking
FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE:
they will have been thinking
There are two emphatic tenses:
PRESENT EMPHATIC: they do think
PAST EMPHATIC: they did think
PRESENT EMPHATIC:
they do think
PAST EMPHATIC:
they did think
Transitional expressions
Expressions that link independent clauses or sentences; for example, as a
result, therefore, on the other hand, nevertheless.
Verb
A word or phrase used to express action or state of being.
Enniston has boosted its sales goals for the year. (Action.]
My son-in-law was originally a lawyer, but he has now become a computer-game designer.
(State of being.)
Helping (auxiliary) verb
A verb that helps in the formation of another verb. The chief helping verbs are be, can, could, do, have, may, might, must, ought, shall, should,
will, would.
Transitive verb
A verb that requires an object to complete its meaning.
Fusilli has rejected all offers to purchase his business.
Intransitive verb
A verb that does not require an object to complete its meaning.
As market growth occurs and customer interest builds, our sales expectations are rising and top
management's excitement has increased.
Linking verb
A verb that connects a subject with a predicate adjective, noun, or pronoun. The various
forms of to be are the most commonly used linking verbs. Become, look, seem, appear, and grow
are also used as linking verbs. Laura seemed willing to compromise, but Frank became obstinate in his demands.
Was he afraid that any concession might make him appear a fool?
Principal parts of verbs
Principal parts
Verbal
A word that is derived from a verb but functions in some other way. (See Gerund; Infinitive; Participle.)
Voice
The property of a verb that indicates whether the subject acts or is acted upon.
Active voice
A verb is in the active voice when its subject is the doer of the act. About a dozen people reviewed the report in draft form
Passive voice
A verb is in the passive voice when its subject is acted upon. The report was reviewed in draft form by about a dozen people.
A-an
In choosing a or an, consider the sound (not the spelling) of the word that
follows. Use the article a before all consonant sounds, including sounded h (as in
hat), long u (as in use), and o wi th the sound of w (as in one).
Opposition / Limitation / Contradiction
Transition phrases like but, rather and or, express that there is evidence to the contrary or point out alternatives, and thus introduce a change the line of reasoning (contrast).
although this may be true, in contrast, different from, of course ..., but, on the other hand, on the contrary, at the same time, in spite of, even so / though, be that as it may, then again, above all, in reality, after all, but, (and) still, unlike, or, (and) yet, while, albeit, besides, although, instead, whereas, despite, conversely, otherwise, however, rather, nevertheless, regardless, notwithstanding,
Cause / Condition / Purpose
These transitional phrases present specific conditions or intentions.
in the event that, granted (that), as / so long as, on (the) condition (that), for the purpose of, with this intention, with this in mind, in the hope that, to the end that, for fear that, in order to, seeing / being that, in view of, If, ... then, unless, when, whenever, since, while, because of, as, since, while, lest, in case, provided that, given that, only / even if, so that, so as to, owing to, inasmuch as, due to,
Examples / Support / Emphasis
These transitional devices (like especially) are used to introduce examples as support, to indicate importance or as an illustration so that an idea is cued to the reader.

in other words
to put it differently
for one thing
as an illustration
in this case
for this reason
to put it another way
that is to say
with attention to
by all means


important to realize
another key point
first thing to remember
most compelling evidence
must be remembered
point often overlooked
to point out
on the positive / negative side
with this in mind
notably
including
like
to be sure
namely
chiefly
truly
indeed
certainly
surely
markedly

especially
specifically
expressively
surprisingly
frequently
significantly
in fact
in general
in particular
in detail
for example
for instance
to demonstrate
to emphasize
to repeat
to clarify
to explain
to enumerate
such as
Effect / Consequence / Result
Some of these transition words (thus, then, accordingly, consequently, therefore, henceforth) are time words that are used to show that after a particular time there was a consequence or an effect.
Note that for and because are placed before the cause/reason. The other devices are placed before the consequences or effects.

as a result
under those circumstances
in that case
for this reason
for
thus
because the
then
hence
consequently
therefore
thereupon
forthwith
accordingly
henceforth
Conclusion / Summary / Restatement
These transition words and phrases conclude, summarize and/orrestate ideas, or a indicate a final general statement. Also some words (like therefore) from the Effect / Consequence category can be used to summarize.

as can be seen
generally speaking
in the final analysis
all things considered
as shown above
in the long run
given these points
as has been noted
in a word
for the most part
after all
in fact
in summary
in conclusion
in short
in brief
in essence
to summarize
on balance
altogether
overall
ordinarily
usually
by and large
to sum up
on the whole
in any event
in either case
all in all
Time / Chronology / Sequence
These transitional words (like finally) have the function of limiting, restricting, and defining time. They can be used either alone or as part of adverbial expressions.

at the present time
from time to time
sooner or later
at the same time
up to the present time
to begin with
in due time
until now
as soon as
in the meantime
in a moment
without delay
in the first place
all of a sudden
at this instant

immediately
quickly
finally
after
later
last
until
since
then
before
hence
since
when
once
about
next
now


formerly
suddenly
shortly
henceforth
whenever
eventually
meanwhile
further
during
first, second
in time
prior to
forthwith
straightaway





instantly
presently
occasionally


Many transition words in the time category (consequently; first, second, third; further; hence; henceforth; since; then, when; and whenever) have other uses.
Except for the numbers (first, second, third) and further they add a meaning of time in expressing conditions, qualifications, or reasons. The numbers are also used to add information or list examples. Further is also used to indicate added space as well as added time.
Space / Location / Place
These transition words are often used as part of adverbial expressions and have the function to restrict, limit or qualify space. Quite a few of these are also found in the Time category and can be used to describe spatial order or spatial reference.

in the middle
to the left/right
in front of
on this side
in the distance
here and there
in the foreground
in the background
in the center of

adjacent to
opposite to
here
there
next
where
from
over
near
above
below
down
up
under
further
beyond
nearby
wherever
around
between
before
alongside
amid
among
beneath
beside
behind
across
coordinating conjunctions
All english transition words and phrases (sometimes also called 'conjunctive adverbs') do the same work as
Conjunctions
Words that connect or link two parts of a sentence are called conjunctions (see "to conjoin"). The most common ones are 'and', 'or' and 'but'. There are three basic types of conjunctions: 1. coordinating conjunctions used to connect two independent clauses, 2. subordinating conjunctions used to establish the relationship between the dependent clause and the rest of the sentence, and 3. correlative conjunctions, joining various sentence elements which are grammatically equal.
Coordinating Conjunctions
usually comes in the middle of a sentence, and a comma is used before the it (unless both clauses are very short). They join individual words, phrases, and independent clauses.
And, but, for, nor, or, so, and yet
are the seven coordinating conjunctions. To remember them, the acronym FANBOYS can be used.
Subordinating Conjunctions
also called subordinators, are conjunctions that introduce a dependent clause. These adverbs that act like conjunctions are placed at the front of the clause - and a comma is needed at the end of the adverbial phrase when it precedes the main clause.
Examples:
If the only tool you have is a hammer, you tend to see every problem as a nail. [Abraham Maslow]
Some people make headlines while others make history. [Philip Elmer-DeWitt]
Subordinating Conjunctions
after
although
as
as if
as long as
because
before
how
(only) if
in case that
in order that
provided that
now that
once
rather than
since
so that
than
that
though
till
unless
until
what
when
where
whereas
whether
which
while
who
whom
whose
why
Correlative Conjunctions
Correlative conjunctions always appear in pairs - and are used to link equivalent (similar) sentence elements. When joining singular and plural subjects, the subject closest to the verb determines whether the verb is singular or plural.
as . . . as, just as . . . so, both . . . and, either . . . or, neither . . . nor, not only . . . but also, not . . . but, whether . . . or,
A verb or compound verb
asserts something about the subject of the sentence and express actions, events, or states of being.
verbs
are the critical element of the predicate of a sentence.
The Parts of the Sentence
are a set of terms for describing how people construct sentences from smaller pieces. There is not a direct correspondence between the parts of the sentence and the parts of speech -- the subject of a sentence, for example, could be a noun, a pronoun, or even an entire phrase or clause.
To determine the subject of a sentence
first isolate the verb and then make a question by placing "who?" or "what?" before it -- the answer is the subject.
adjectives.
are words that describe or modify another person or thing in the sentence. The Articles — a, an, and the — are
adjectives
nearly always appear immediately before the noun or noun phrase that they modify. Sometimes they appear in a string of adjectives, and when they do, they appear in a set order according to category.
...
The degrees of comparison are known as the positive, the comparative, and the superlative. (Actually, only the comparative and superlative show degrees.) We use the comparative for comparing two things and the superlative for comparing three or more things. Notice that the word than frequently accompanies the comparative and the word the precedes the superlative. The inflected suffixes -er and -est suffice to form most comparatives and superlatives, although we need -ier and -iest when a two-syllable adjective ends in y (happier and happiest); otherwise we use more and most when an adjective has more than one syllable
as
construction is used to create a comparison expressing equality:

He is as foolish as he is large.
She is as bright as her mother.
fewer
when we're talking about countable things, we use the word
less
when we're talking about measurable quantities that we cannot count, we use the word
less
definitely use___ when referring to statistical or numerical expressions:
Determiners
articles and other limiters. See Determiners
a
Observation
postdeterminers and limiter adjectives (e.g., a real hero, a perfect idiot) and adjectives subject to subjective measure (e.g., beautiful, interesting)
Size and Shape
adjectives subject to objective measure (e.g., wealthy, large, round)
Age
adjectives denoting age (e.g., young, old, new, ancient)
Color
adjectives denoting color (e.g., red, black, pale)
Origin
denominal adjectives denoting source of noun (e.g., French, American, Canadian)
Material
denominal adjectives denoting what something is made of (e.g., woolen, metallic, wooden)
Qualifier
final limiter, often regarded as part of the noun (e.g., rocking chair, hunting cabin, passenger car, book cover)
author's purpose
the reason the author wrote the story
character
the person or animal around which the action in a story occurs
climax
the high point or turning point in a story
conclusion
a decision reached based on information presented in a selection
conflict
the problem or complications in a story
dialogue
the written conversation between two or more characters
entertain
to use writing to amuse a reader or keep the reader interested
express
to use writing to state an author's ideas or feelings
fact
a statement that is true or can be proven
first-person point of view
a point of view that includes the author, uses the word "I"
flashback
when the author remember or recalls something, returning to an earlier time in a story
foreshadowing
a prediction about what will happen later, a suggestion in a story of what is to come later by giving hints and clues
infer
to try and understand and interpret the author's message
inform
to use writing to provide factual information about a topic
main idea
a figurative comparison that does not use "like" or "as"
main idea
the most important or main part of a story or passage
mood
how the writing makes ME the reader feel (happy, sad, upset)
opinion
a statement that requires a value judgement; it is what someone thinks or believes
persuade
to use writing to convince a reader to accept an author's viewpoint or perspective
plot
the action or events in a story
point of view
the perspective from which the author writes the story
resolution
the part of the story where the problem is solved
sequence
the order in which the events in a selection occur
setting
the time and place in which the action of a story occurs
simile
a figurative comparison that uses "like" or "as"
style
how the author writes rather than what the writer writes
summarize
a shortened form of the story and main idea
supporting details
ideas that support, or back up, the main idea of a selection
symbolism
something that represents something else- an object representing an idea
theme
the moral of the story. a statement about how life is
third person
a point of view that does not include the author, does not use the word "I"
tone
the way the author feels or the author's attitude toward the subject