How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

98 terms

CSU Microbiology 1

STUDY
PLAY
O Polysaccharide
What component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) demonstrates antigenic variability, helping the bacteria elude host antibodies?
O Polysaccharide
What is known as the "O" antigen?
O Polysaccharide
What component of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria can be used to serotype?
O Polysaccharide
What component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is antigenic?
O Polysaccharid
What component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extends outward from the cell surface?
Core Polysaccharide
What component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) provides structural support?
Core Polysaccharide
What component of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are typically composed of unusual sugars?
Core Polysaccharide
What is attached to lipid A in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)?
Gram-Negative Bacteria
In what type of cells are lipopolysaccharides (LPS) found?
Gram-Negative Bacteria
In what type of cells is lipid A found?
Endotoxin
When lipid A is released upon lysis of a gram-negative bacterium, what does it act as?
Lipid A
What acts as an endotoxin after it is released during lysis of gram-negative bacteria?
Outer Leaflet of the Outer Membrane of Gram-Negative Bacteria
Where is lipid A found?
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)
What is lipid A a component of?
2 Glucosamine Residues
What is lipid A composed of?
1) Lipid A
2) Core Polysaccharide
3) O Polysaccharide
What are the 3 regions of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) composed of?
Porins
What forms channels allowing entry of small molecules through the outer and inner membranes of gram-negative bacteria?
1) Peptidoglycan
2) Periplasmic Space
3) Outer Membrane
4) Lipoproteins
5) Porin Proteins
What does the cell wall of a gram-negative bacterium consist of?
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)
What does the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of a gram-negative bacterium contain that is antigenic?
Outer Leaflet of the Outer Membrane of Gram-Negative Bacteria
Where is lipopolysaccharide (LPS) found?
Phospholipids
What is the inner leaflet of the outer membrane of a gram-negative bacterium composed of?
Lipid Bilayer
What type of membrane is the outer membrane of a gram-negative bacterium?
Gram-Negative Bacterium
What type of bacterium has a periplasmic space?
Gram-Negative Bacteria
In what type of bacteria is a 2nd outer membrane found?
Periplasmic Space
The space between the peptidoglycan layer and the outer membrane of a gram-negative bacterium
Thin
Gram-negative bacteria have a ___ layer of peptidoglycan in their cell walls.
Gram-Negative Bacteria
What type of bacteria have a thin layer of peptidoglycan in their cell walls?
Gram-Positive Bacteria
What type of bacteria have peptide cross-bridges (interbridges) connecting the tetrapeptide chains of peptidoglycan?
Peptide Cross-Bridges (Interbridges)
What connects tetrapeptide chains in gram-positive bacteria?
Lipoteichoic Acids
What is bound to the plasma membrane of gram-positive bacteria, spans the peptidoglycan layer and extends from the surface of the cell wall?
Teichoic Acids
What component of the cell wall in gram-positive bacteria is antigenic?
Teichoic Acids
What may be used for serotyping in gram-positive bacteria?
Teichoic Acids
What extends from the surface of the cell walls of gram-positive bacteria?
Gram-Positive Bacteria
What type of bacteria have teichoic acids linked to the peptidoglycan of their cell walls?
Thick
Gram-positive bacteria have a ___ cell wall.
Gram-Positive Bacteria
What type of bacteria have a thick layer of peptidoglycan in their cell walls?
Gram-Negative Bacteria
What type of bacteria stains pink in a gram-stain?
Gram-Positive Bacteria
What type of bacteria stains purple in a gram-stain?
Pink
What color do gram-negative bacteria stain in a gram stain?
Purple
What color do gram-positive bacteria stain in a gram-stain?
4th
The 3rd position amino acid of one tetrapeptide chain in peptidoglycan is linked to the what position amino acid in the adjacent chain?
3rd
The 4th position amino acid of one tetrapeptide chain in peptidoglycan is linked to the what position amino acid in the adjacent chain?
Carboxyl Group
What part of the N-Acetylmuramic Acid (NAM) unit in peptidoglycan is the tetrapeptide chain attached to?
Carboxyl Group of the N-Acetylmuramic Acid (NAM) Units
What do the tetrapeptide chains attach to in the carbohydrate backbone of peptidoglycan?
Tetrapeptide Chains
What is attached to the carboxyl groups of the N-Acetylmuramic Acid (NAM) units in peptidoglycan?
1) N-Acetylmuramic Acid (NAM)
2) N-Acetylglucosamine (NAG)
What are the 2 alternating carbohydrates in the backbone of peptidoglycan?
1) Animals
2) Plants
3) Fungi
4) Protisits
What are the 4 types of eukaryotes?
1) Bacteria
2) Archaea
What are the 2 types of prokaryotes?
1) Prokaryote
2) Eukaryote
What are the 2 cell types?
Cells
All organisms possess one or more what?
1) Enzymes
2) Antibiotics
3) Toxins
What are 3 things plasmids may encode for?
Survival
Plasmids are not required for what in prokaryotes?
1) Small
2) Double Stranded DNA
3) Circular
Describe the characteristics of a plasmid.
1) Single
2) Circular
3) Double Stranded DNA
Describe the characteristics of the bacterial chromosome.
Nucleoid
The region in a bacterial cell containing the bacterial chromosome
Plasma Membrane
What is the chromosome attached to in prokaryotes?
1) 60 S
2) 40 S
What are the sedementation coefficients of the ribosomal subunits for eukaryotes?
80 S
What is the sedementation coefficient of eukaryotic ribosomes?
1) Bacterial Chromosome
2) Plasmids
What are the 2 components of the prokaryotic genome?
1) 50 S
2) 30 S
What are the sedementation coefficients of the ribosomal subunits for prokaryotes?
70 S
What is the sedementation coefficient of prokaryotic ribosomes?
1) rRNA
2) Proteins
What are the 2 major components of ribosomes?
Archaea
What type of cells often have plasma membranes composed of a lipid monolayer?
1) Respiration
2) Photosynthesis
3) Synthesis of Lipids
4) Synthesis of Cell Wall Components
What cellular processes can take place in prokaryotic plasma membranes?
Prokaryotes
What type of cells have no sterols in their plasma membranes?
Organelle
A membrane surrounded structure within a cell with specific shape and function
Prokaryotes
What types of cells have no cytoskeleton or organelles?
1) Cytoplasm
2) Plasma Membrane
3) Ribosomes
4) Nuclear Genome of DNA
What are the 4 characteristics common to both prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
1) Viruses
2) Viroids
3) Prions
What are the 3 types of acellular infectious agents?
Prions
What infectious particles are composed only of protein?
Crops
What do viroids most commonly infect?
Viroids
What are composed of only naked RNA
Viruses
What are composed of only nucleic acid in a protein coat with or without a lipid envelope?
Organism
An individual composed of one or more cells
Nanometers (nm)
Viruses are measured in what?
Micrometers (mum) or Microns (mu)
Bacteria are measured in what?
Microorganism
An organism too small to be seen with the unaided eye
D-Alanine
What is always the 4th amino acid in a tetrapeptide chain attached to the carbohydrate backbone of peptidoglycan?
Flagellin
Prokaryotic flagella are composed of repeating units of what protein?
1) Flagella
2) Axial Fillaments
In prokaryotes, the protein flagellin assembles as repeating units to form what structures?
Rotating Motion
What motion do prokaryotic flagella have?
Spirochetes
In what type of prokaryotes are axial fillaments found?
Axial Fillament
A flagella wrapped around a bacterial cell between the cell wall and outer sheath
Axial Fillaments
What is responsible for the shape of spirochetes?
Flagellin
What protein are axial fillaments composed of?
Between the Cell Wall and the Outer Sheath
Where are axial fillaments located in bacteria?
Sugars
What are bacterial glycocalyces usually composed of?
Capsule
A glycocalyx that is firmly attached to the bacterial cell wall
Slime Layer
A glycocalyx that is loosely attached to the bacterial cell wall
Glycocalyces
What are capsules and slime layers in bacteria?
Desiccation
Drying-out
1) Resists phagocytosis by host cells
2) Aids in attachment to surfaces
2) Protects against desiccation
What are 3 functions of glycocalyces in bacteria?
Encapsulated
What type of bacteria form smooth colonies on agar plates?
Unencapsulated
What type of bacteria form rough colonies on agar plates?
Streptococcus mutans
What encapsulated bacteria forms a biofilm on teeth resulting in dental plaque?
Dental Plaque
What does Streptococcus mutans cause?
Biofilm
What does Streptococcus mutans form on teeth?
1) Microfilaments (MFs)
2) Intermediate Filaments (IFs)
3) Microtubules (MTs)
What are the 3 components of the cytoskeleton in eukaryotes?