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What component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) demonstrates antigenic variability, helping the bacteria elude host antibodies?
What component of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are typically composed of unusual sugars?
1) Lipid A
2) Core Polysaccharide
3) O Polysaccharide
What are the 3 regions of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) composed of?
What forms channels allowing entry of small molecules through the outer and inner membranes of gram-negative bacteria?
2) Periplasmic Space
3) Outer Membrane
5) Porin Proteins
What does the cell wall of a gram-negative bacterium consist of?
What does the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of a gram-negative bacterium contain that is antigenic?
Outer Leaflet of the Outer Membrane of Gram-Negative Bacteria
Where is lipopolysaccharide (LPS) found?
What is the inner leaflet of the outer membrane of a gram-negative bacterium composed of?
The space between the peptidoglycan layer and the outer membrane of a gram-negative bacterium
What type of bacteria have a thin layer of peptidoglycan in their cell walls?
What type of bacteria have peptide cross-bridges (interbridges) connecting the tetrapeptide chains of peptidoglycan?
What is bound to the plasma membrane of gram-positive bacteria, spans the peptidoglycan layer and extends from the surface of the cell wall?
What type of bacteria have teichoic acids linked to the peptidoglycan of their cell walls?
What type of bacteria have a thick layer of peptidoglycan in their cell walls?
The 3rd position amino acid of one tetrapeptide chain in peptidoglycan is linked to the what position amino acid in the adjacent chain?
The 4th position amino acid of one tetrapeptide chain in peptidoglycan is linked to the what position amino acid in the adjacent chain?
What part of the N-Acetylmuramic Acid (NAM) unit in peptidoglycan is the tetrapeptide chain attached to?
Carboxyl Group of the N-Acetylmuramic Acid (NAM) Units
What do the tetrapeptide chains attach to in the carbohydrate backbone of peptidoglycan?
What is attached to the carboxyl groups of the N-Acetylmuramic Acid (NAM) units in peptidoglycan?
1) N-Acetylmuramic Acid (NAM)
2) N-Acetylglucosamine (NAG)
What are the 2 alternating carbohydrates in the backbone of peptidoglycan?
3) Double Stranded DNA
Describe the characteristics of the bacterial chromosome.
3) Synthesis of Lipids
4) Synthesis of Cell Wall Components
What cellular processes can take place in prokaryotic plasma membranes?
2) Plasma Membrane
4) Nuclear Genome of DNA
What are the 4 characteristics common to both prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
What is always the 4th amino acid in a tetrapeptide chain attached to the carbohydrate backbone of peptidoglycan?
2) Axial Fillaments
In prokaryotes, the protein flagellin assembles as repeating units to form what structures?
1) Resists phagocytosis by host cells
2) Aids in attachment to surfaces
2) Protects against desiccation
What are 3 functions of glycocalyces in bacteria?
What encapsulated bacteria forms a biofilm on teeth resulting in dental plaque?
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