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41 terms

advanced pharmacology

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pharmacology
the study of chemicals (drugs) on living tissues and how those chemicals help diagnose, treat, cure, and prevent disease or correct the pathophysiology of living tissues. the study of drugs and their action in the body
pharmacy
the art of preparing, compounding, and dispensing drugs for medicinal use
pharmacotherapeutics
the study of how drugs are used in the treatment of illness, which drug to use for a specific disorder, and the appropriate dose, form, route, and frequency to use
pharmacodynamics
the study of drug's effect on cellular physiology and biochemistry and the mechanism of action
pharmacognosy
study of drugs derived from herbal and other natural sources
biotechnology
the fiedl of pharmacology that involves using living cells, usually altered cultures of Escherichia coli, to manufacture drugs
toxicology
the science that deals with poisons, their detection, and the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of conditions caused by them
additive effect
the combined effect of two drugs that is equal to the sum of the effects of each drug taken alone
adverse or untoward effect
an action, usually negative, that is different from the planned effect
adjunct
an additional drug or chemical substance used to increase the efficacy or safety of a primary drug or to facilitate its action
agonists
drugs capable of combining with receptors to produce a response
agranulocytosis
a toxic condition often caused by reactions to drug therapy in which a certain type of white blood cells-- those with very small grandules in the cell body-- is deficient or absent
analog
a substance structurally or chemically similar to another related drug or chemical but that has different effects
anaphylaxis
a severe, life-threatening allergic reaction accompanied by vasodilation, lowered blood pressure, and shock
antagonist
an agent that resists or opposes the action of another agent
aplastic anemia
dysfunction of the bone marrow, often occuring as a reaction to drug therapy, in which there is a severe decrease in the production of erythrocytes and white blood cells
ataxia
muscular incoordination, with staggering gait
athetosis
recurrent, slow, and continual body movements, usually the result of a brain lesion
biosynthesis
formation of a chemical compound by enzymes either within an organism (in vivo) or in vitro by fragments of cells
blood dyscrasia
a pathologic condition in which any of the constiuents of the blood are abnormal in structure, function, or quality, as in leukemia or hemophilia
DEA
under department of justice; organized to enfore the conrolled substances act. Every manufacturer, physician nurse practitioner, physician assistant, dentist, pharmacy, and hospital that manufactures, prescribes, or dispenses any of the drugs listed in the five schedules must register
depression
a decrease in activity of cells caused by the action of a drug
gynecomastia
an abnormal enlargement of one or both breasts in men; sometimes accompanied by milk production. may be related to hormonal imbalance, adrenal or pituitary tumor, medication containing estrogens or steroidal compounds, or liver disorders
half-life
the time interval required for elimination processes to reduce the concentration of a drug in the body by one-half
hirsutism
excessive body hair as a result of hereditary, hormonal dysfunction, porphyria, or medication
hypersensitivity
sensitive to the effects of the drug, has adverse symptoms, but doesn't have a full allergic reaction
idiosyncrasy
abnormal sensitivity to a drug, or a reaction not intended
inotropic drug
an agent that increases myocardial contractility
palliative
relieving symptoms when a disease can't be cured
parethesia
a sensation of numbness, tingling, or a "pins and needles" feeling. may be related to posture, activity, rest, edema, congestion, medication, or underlying disease
physical dependence
physical need for the substance on which one is dependent in order to avoid unpleasant physical withdrawal symptoms
potentiation
combined action of drugs is greater than the effects of each used alone
prophylactic
an agent or measure used to prevent disease
psychoactive drug
a drug that affects such normal mental functioning as mood, behavior, or thinking processes
stevens-johnson syndrom
a serious, sometimes fatal, inflammatory disease affecting children and young adults. it is characterized by the acute onset of fever, skin rash, and ulcers on the mucous membranes of the lips, eyes, mouth, nasal passage, and genitalia. it may be an allergic reaction to certain drugs, or it may follow pregnancy, herpes virus I, or other infection
stimulation
an increase in the activity of cells which is produced by drugs
synergistic effect
where the action of two drugs combined is increased or greater than the effect of the drugs given separately
teratogen
any substance, agent, or process that interferes with normal prenatal development, causing the formation of one or more developmental abnormalities in the fetus. may be related to chemical agents such as drugs, cleansers, alcohol, or may be related to radiation, infectious agents, age or health of mother or intrauterine trauma
therapeutic range
range of level of a drug in the blood that will produce a desired effect without causing toxic effects
tolerance
increasing resistance to the usual effects of an established dosage of a drug as a result of continued use
withdrawal syndrome
a physical and mental response after cessation or severe reduction in the intake of a substance such as alcohol or opiates that has been used regularly to induce euphoria, intoxication, or relief from pain or distress. characterized by anxiery, restlessness, insomnia, irritability, impaired attention, and often physical illness