245 terms

Nutrition - Final

Nutrition Bio 280 Dr. Fitzgerald Scc
Which of the following is a feature of vitamins
The quantities present in foods are measured in micrograms or milligrams
Which of the following is NOT a water soluble vitamin
Vitamin D
What is the primary excretory route for the water-soluble vitamins
Which of the following explains why B vitamin deficiencies lead to lack of energy
Coenzymes needed for energy metabolism are produced in insufficient amounts
Beriberi results from a deficiency of
All of the following are characteristic of thiamin nutrition except
recommended intakes are stated in "equivalents.
Which of the following provides the most thiamin per serving size
Riboflavin needs are more difficult to meet when the diet is low in
dairy foods
Which of the following vitamins is involved substantially in energy transformation reactions
The coenzyme FAD is formed from what vitamin
The vitamin deficiency disease pellagra means
rough skin
Which of the following vitamins is synthesized by intestinal bacteria
What is the adult Adequate Intake for biotin
30 µg (micrograms)
What vitamin forms a part of coenzyme A
Pantothenic acid
What is the AI for pantothenic acid for adults
5 mg
Which of the following vitamins is known to sustain substantial losses during processing of food
Pantothenic acid
Which of the following vitamins is stored primarily in muscle tissue
Vitamin B6
The chief symptoms of early vitamin B6 deficiency include
confusion and depression
What vitamin is involved intensively in amino acid metabolism
Vitamin B6
What is the adult RDA for vitamin B6
1.3 mg
Research has shown that the risk for neural tube defects is lowered by taking supplements of ___________ during pregnancy
y law, what amount of folate (µg) must be added to 100 g of food products such as breads, flour, and rice
hat vitamin is involved mainly with the replacement of red blood cells and digestive tract cells
Which of the following is required for the absorption of dietary vitamin B12
Intrinsic factor
Pernicious anemia results from a deficiency of
vitamin B12
Why are vegetarians at risk of developing a vitamin B12 deficiency
Vegetarian diets provide insufficient amounts of the vitamin
Which of the following is a general function of vitamin C
Antioxidant agent
In what capacity does vitamin C function
Cofactor in collagen formation
Which of the following is an early sign of vitamin C deficiency
Bleeding gums
Which of the following food groups is a rich source of vitamin C
In the United States, what is the adult RDA for vitamin C
75-90 mg
What is the major carrier of the fat-soluble vitamins from the intestinal epithelial cell to the circulation
Which of the following food substances can be converted to vitamin A in the body
Which of the following is the name of the vitamin A compound that is active in the visual response
What tissue contains the majority of the body's store of vitamin A
How many micrograms of dietary beta-carotene are equivalent to 1 retinol activity equivalent (RAE)
On average, one retinol activity equivalent (RAE) is equal to about how many international units (IU)
Which of the following foods is a very good source of vitamin A
Pumpkin pie
Vitamin A does not play an important role in which of the following processes
Blood clotting
An example of a symptom of Vitamin A deficiency is
night- blindness
Which of the following is the most likely side effect for a person who regularly consumes large quantities of carrots or carrot juice
Skin yellowing
n which of the following individuals would vitamin A toxicity be most likely to occur
Those taking vitamin A supplements
The adult RDA for vitamin A is approximately
800 retinol activity equivalents (RAE)
Your sister Ellen has just joined the Peace Corps and will be working on ways to improve the nutritional status of children in Indonesia. .......
Sweet potato
All of the following organs are required for the complete synthesis of activated vitamin D except the
Which of the following compounds serves as the major precursor for the body's synthesis of vitamin D
What is/are the main function(s) of vitamin D
Promotes calcium and phosphorus absorption and promotes calcium mobilization from bone
All of the following are characteristics of vitamin D nutrition except
the requirement is increased in most people who are exposed to the sun
Which of the following symptoms would indicate a vitamin D deficiency
Bowed legs
Which of the following is not known to promote vitamin D deficiency in the elderly
Excessive use of hypertension medications
Which of the following may result from excessive intakes of vitamin D by adults
Mineral deposits in soft tissues such as the kidney
hich of the following enables much of the world's population to maintain adequate vitamin D status
Outdoor exposure of the skin to sunlight
Which of the following is a naturally occurring food source of vitamin D
Egg yolks
Which of the following is not a feature of vitamin D nutrition
Excessive exposure to the sun increases risk for vitamin D toxicity
The main function of vitamin E in the body is to act as a(n)
How is vitamin E thought to play a role in reducing the risk of heart disease
It slows oxidation of low-density lipoproteins
Which of the following disorders may result from vitamin E deficiency in people
Erythrocyte hemolysis
Which of the following are major sources of vitamin E in the diet
Vegetable oils
In what chief capacity does vitamin K function
Blood clotting
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin K
Bacteria in the intestines synthesize bioavailable vitamin K
What type of foods should be controlled in individuals taking anticoagulant medicines
Green leafy vegetables
Approximately what percentage of the body's store of vitamin K is derived from GI tract bacterial synthesis
Approximately how much water (lbs) is found in a 134-lb person? Hint:
Which of the following is not a function of water in the body
Source of energy
In the body, water that resides between cells is known as
interstitial fluid
All of the following are mild symptoms of dehydration except
spastic muscles
Which of the following body structures helps to regulate thirst
Which of the following is a feature of water and nutrition
Water intoxication is rare but can result in death
The average daily loss of water via the kidneys, lungs, feces, and skin is approximately
1.5 to 2.5 liters
Approximately how many mL of water/day are produced by metabolism
Which of the following types of drinking water contains the lowest amount of minerals
Distilled water
What organ provides the major control for homeostasis of body fluids
How does antidiuretic hormone function
It stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys
Which of the following describes a way to make an electrolyte solution
Dissolve a teaspoon of salt in a glass of water
What is the major extracellular cation
What is the major intracellular cation
What is the term for the pressure that develops when two solutions of varying concentrations of solutes are separated by a semi- permeable membrane
Osmotic pressure
The normal blood pH range is approximately
All of the following play important roles in acid-base balance except
the gall bladder
What cardiovascular condition occurs most often in persons who consume too much sodium
Which of the following does not have sodium
high fructose corn syrup
How much sodium is contained in a fast-food deluxe hamburger that lists a salt content of 2.5 g? Hint:
1,000 mg
Which of the following is a major function of chloride
Helps maintain gastric acidity
All of the following are characteristics of chloride in nutrition except
the recommended intake has recently been set at 10 mg/kg body weight
Which of the following is the primary function of potassium
Acts as principal intracellular electrolyte
Which of the following is not a feature of potassium deficiency
It is common due to availability of only a few good food sources
Which of the following is a symptom of potassium deficiency
Muscle weakness
Which of the following is a poor source of potassium? Hint
white rice
All of the following are features of potassium in nutrition except
processed foods are a major source
As far as is known, which of the following is not a process that directly involves calcium
pH regulation
Which of the following regulates the level of calcium in the blood
Parathyroid hormone and calcitonin hormone
Which of the following are good sources of dietary calcium
Certain green vegetables
Which of the following shows the highest bioavailability for calcium
A measure of the amount at which a nutrient is absorbed and used by the body is termed
Which of the following is not a trace element
Which of the following is a protein that carries iron through the circulation to the tissues
Which of the following is a characteristic of iron absorption
Absorption of heme iron is about 50% higher than nonheme iron
How does vitamin C enhance iron absorption when consumed in the same meal
It keeps iron in the reduced ferrous form
Which of the following foods provides iron in the most absorbable form
Which of the following nutrients enhances iron absorption from the intestinal tract
Vitamin C
Which of the following population groups is least susceptible to iron-deficiency anemia
Men 20-45 years of age
The most common tests to diagnose iron deficiency include all of the following measures except
DNA content of red blood cells
In the United States, iron is currently added to which of the following foods
Breads and cereals
All of the following are considered heavy metals except
Approximately how much iodized salt must be consumed to meet but not exceed the RDA for iodine
1/2 teaspoon
Which of the following foods has the riches source of iodine
The RDA for iodine is
150 micrograms
In the United States what is added to salt
Simple goiter is caused by a dietary deficiency of
Cretinism is caused by a deficiency of
A classical sign of zinc deficiency is
growth retardation
The rare genetic disorders Menkes disease and Wilson's disease result from abnormal utilization of
Which of the following is a feature of copper nutrition
It is involved in collagen synthesis and wound healing
Which of the following meats would be the best source of coppe
Fluoride deficiency is best known to lead to
dental decay
Naturally occurring food sources of fluoride include all of the following except
Which of the following is known to cause discolored enamel of the teeth
Excessive fluoride in the water
What trace mineral enhances insulin activity
One of the chief functions of chromium is participation in the metabolism of
Chromium deficiency is characterized by
Which of the following is a characteristic of chromium in nutrition
Whole grains represent an excellent source
What trace mineral is part of vitamin B12
Which of the following trace minerals is known to be involved in bone development
The components of fitness include all of the following except
bone fragility
Substantial health benefits may be achieved by engaging in a moderately intense level of exercise at a frequency of at least
2.5 hours/week
Which of the following is not
derived directly from cardiorespiratory conditioning
Increased flexibility
For maximum benefits, cardiorespiratory endurance episodes should be sustained for at least
20 minutes
In weight training, muscle endurance can best be emphasized by combining a
high number of repetitions with lighter weight
What high-energy compound acts as a reservoir of energy for the maintenance of a steady supply of ATP
Creatine phosphate
What substance contains the chemical energy that drives immediate muscle contraction
What is the usual fate of muscle glycogen during exercise
Utilized as a fuel within the muscle cells only
What dietary nutrients are most effective at raising muscle glycogen concentration
A tissue deprived of an oxygen supply (anaerobic) during exercise would develop an accumulation of
lactate (lactic acid)
What is the name of the biochemical pathway describing the conversion of lactate to glucose
Cori cycle
When a marathon runner experiences the phenomenon known as "hitting the wall," what nutrient is most likely depleted
What type of meal and time of its ingestion promotes the most rapid restoration of glycogen stores after physical activity
High-carbohydrate meal taken within 15 minutes
What cellular organelles are responsible for producing ATP aerobically
Which of the following describes fat utilization during physical activity
Fat represents the major fuel source during sustained, moderate activity
Which of the following is a feature of iron nutrition in athletes
Iron losses occur from accelerated destruction of fragile, older blood cells
Physical performance is noticeably affected when body water loss first reaches
All of the following are characteristics of heat stroke except
it is rarely fatal.
Hyponatremia refers to low blood levels o
Which of the following should be a component of a healthy diet for athletes
Nutrient-dense foods
All of the following are characteristics of nutrition and pregnancy except
underweight has little, if any, effect on fertility
Which of the following describes the capacity of a man to produce sperm and a woman to periodically produce a normal egg
What is the placenta
An organ from which the infant receives nourishment from the mother
A newly fertilized egg is known as a(n)
What is the term given to the developing infant from the eighth week after conception until birth
Gestation is generally divided into equal periods of
3 months, called trimesters
All of the following statements are specific to the critical periods of cell division except
high-nutrient-density food fed after the critical period can remedy a growth deficit
Which of the following is a characteristic of neural tube defects
They are found in about 1,000 newborns in the United States each year
Which of the following nutrients taken as a prenatal supplement has been found to be associated with a lower incidence of neural tube defects
What is the most reliable indicator of an infant's future health status
Infant's birth weight
What is the recommended range of weight gain during pregnancy for a normal-weight woman
25-35 lbs
All of the following are normal body responses to pregnancy except
body water level decreases
To maintain physical fitness during pregnancy, all of the following activities are considered acceptable except
What is the recommended increase in daily energy intake for the third trimester of pregnancy
450 kcal
Which of the following nutrients are required in higher amounts during pregnancy due to their roles in the synthesis of red blood cells
Folate and vitamin B12
According to the recommended food intake for pregnancy, which of the following food groups is the only one that is provided in sufficient amounts by this menu
All of the following reflect a state of iron nutrition in pregnancy except
most women enter pregnancy with adequate stores of the mineral.
During pregnancy, which of the following nutrients show a dramatic increase in absorption
Calcium and iron
The common problems of pregnancy include all of the following except
low blood pressure
Which of the following is the standard classification for a low-birth weight infant
5 lbs or less
What is the name of the condition characterized by high blood pressure, edema, and protein in the urine of a pregnant woman
What is gestational diabetes
Abnormal blood glucose maintenance during pregnancy
Which of the following is a characteristic of gestational diabetes
It leads to adult-onset diabetes in about a third of the women
With few exceptions, all of the following substances or practices should be totally eliminated during pregnancy except
artificial sweeteners
What is the risk of giving birth to a child with Down syndrome for a woman who is 40 years old compared with a 20 year old
much higher
What is fetal alcohol syndrome
congenital defects including brain and facial deformation that occur in the fetus when the mother drinks alcohol during the pregnancy
Which of the following recommendations for pregnant women and alcohol intake has been issued by the U.S. Surgeon General
They should drink absolutely no alcohol
All of the following are effects of tobacco use in pregnancy except
an increased risk for macrosomia
The number of extra kcalories per day needed to produce a normal supply of milk during the first six months of lactation is approximately
Which of the following is a function of prolactin
It acts on mammary glands to promote milk production
A positive relationship exists between sudden infant death syndrome and which of the following behaviors during pregnancy
Cigarette smoking
What would be a normal body weight after 1 year for a healthy infant with a birth weight of 8 lbs
24 lbs
What is the approximate energy requirement of infants, in kcalories per kilogram body weight
What organ in the infant uses more than half of the day's total energy intake
Breast milk as the sole source of nutrition, up to the first 6 months in healthy infants, is satisfactory for all nutrients except
vitamin D
Which of the following represents a good age to introduce solid foods to infants
Five months
Which of the following nutrients need to be supplied first by solid foods in a baby's diet
Vitamin C and iron
Approximately how many kcal per day does an average 6 year old need to obtain
The food pyramid for children recommends that children 2-5 eat how many cups of fruits and vegetables
1.5 cups of vegetables and 1 cup of fruit
Children between 4-18 years old should consume how much fat
between 25 and 35%
How much more total energy does a normal-weight 10 year old need vs. a 1 year old
A reasonable daily fiber intake for a 5 year old would be
25 g
Which of the following is the most prevalent nutrient deficiency among U.S. and Canadian children
A life-threatening whole-body allergic reaction is known as
anaphylactic shock
A child known to be allergic to peanuts who begins to show signs such as difficulty breathing, swelling of the tongue, and severe abdominal discomfort is most likely in immediate need of a life-saving injection of
Persons who show adverse reactions to foods such as increased pulse rate, nausea, and hives, but do not
show antibodies to the offending foods, are displaying
food intolerances
Approximately what percentage of U.S. children between 2 and 19 years of age are overweight
The typical can of soft drink contains the equivalent of how many teaspoons of sugar
Which of the following is a feature of nutrition and behavior in children
Television commercials featuring snack foods have been found to affect children's food preferences
Which of the following is an effective strategy for dealing with obesity in a child
Engage the individual in at least 1 hour per day of moderate to vigorous physical activity
Which of the following practices is not among the recommendations to help children develop an interest in vegetables
Serve vegetables with the promise that after they are eaten, dessert will follow
All of the following are features of snacking in children except
snacking should be prevented
Which of the following is not among the recommended methods for introducing new foods to children
Present new foods at the end of the meal
What minimum fraction of the RDA for key nutrients for children 10-12 years of age should be provided by public school lunches
Which of the following is a feature of public school food programs
They must follow the Dietary Guidelines for Americans
What is the approximate duration of the adolescent growth spurt
2 years
Which of the following is a characteristic of the adolescent period
Obesity occurs more often in African-American females
All of the following are features of the iron RDA for adolescents except
the frequency of iron deficiency is similar among males and females of the same age
Approximately how much caffeine is delivered by a typical cola beverage
30-55 mg
Approximately how much caffeine is delivered by a typical cola beverage
30-55 mg
What is the fastest-growing age group in the United States
Over 85 years
What is the most important predictor of a person's mobility in the later years
Regular physical activity
The relationship of overweight and health risks diminishes with age, starting after age
What is sarcopenia
Loss of muscle mass and strength associated with aging
A person with dysphagia has
difficulty swallowing
Atrophic gastritis is typically characterized by all of the following signs except
insufficient secretion of pepsinogen and gastrin
Among the elderly, malnutrition is most common in those living
in nursing homes
What is the highest age group recognized in the Dietary Reference Intakes
71 years and older
Approximately what percentage decline in total energy expenditure is seen in a 70 year old versus a 30 year old
Which of the following is a feature of elderly people and water metabolism
They do not feel thirsty or recognize dryness of the mouth
What is the minimum number of glasses of water per day recommended for older adults
To prevent and treat the high incidence of constipation in the elderly, all of the following practices are known to be effective except
taking vitamin B12 injections
A condition that increases the likelihood of iron deficiency in older people is
poor iron absorption due to reduced stomach acid secretion and/or use of antacids
What nutrients appear to be protective of cataract formation
Vitamin C and vitamin E
Which of the following foods seems to benefit rheumatoid arthritis in some people
Olive oil
Which of the following is not a common feature of gout
It is treated by reducing intake of milk products
What percentage of U.S. adults are affected by Alzheimer's disease after age 70
Goals of the federal Older Americans Act nutrition program include the provision of all of the following except
high-cost nutritious meals
All of the following are features of the Meals on Wheels program except
it provides the same social benefits as congregate meals
What fraction of prescription drugs sold in the United States is taken by people over 65 years of age
Which of the following leading causes of death in the United States does not bear a relationship to die
Pneumonia and influenza
Which of the following may be classified as a risk factor for coronary heart disease
High C-reactive protein levels
What disease accounts for the majority of deaths in U.S. women
Coronary heart disease
What blood cholesterol carrier is of greatest concern in atherosclerosis
A person who produces a normal amount of insulin but whose cells show suboptimal response is said to be
insulin resistant
Which of the following is not one of the factors that would lead a person with high blood pressure to develop the metabolic syndrome
Diuretic use
Risk factors for coronary heart disease that can be minimized by behavioral change include all of the following except
To lower a high blood cholesterol level, all of the following are recommended except
decrease the carbohydrate intake to <50% of total energy
The DASH diet is actually the acronym for
Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension
Which of the following is not among the recommendations by health professionals to treat hypertension
Decrease intake of dairy products to avoid sodium
People who use diuretics are most at risk of developing imbalances of
In which of the following conditions would the pancreas be unable to synthesize insulin
Type 1 diabetes mellitus
All of the following are among the symptoms of diabetes except
swollen lymph nodes
The excessive thirst common in diabetes is known as
Which of the following is known to speed up the passage of substances through the large intestine, thereby decreasing exposure time to carcinogens
Which of the following foods is known to contain abundant amounts of phytonutrients that protect against cancers of the esophagus and endometrium
Cruciferous vegetables
Being obese is known to increase the probabilities of contracting all of the following diseases except
Which of the following affects the immune system the most
protein deficiencies
Diets rich in fiber, phytochemicals, and the antioxidant nutrients (beta-carotene, Vitamin C and Vitamin E) help protect against chronic diseases
What is C- reactive protein
an inflammation protein that is predictive of heart attack
Five cans of soft drinks provide approximately how many kcalories
The single most effective way to teach nutrition to children is by