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psoas major muscle

proximal attachment- lumbar vertebrae
insertion- lesser trochanter of the femor
action- strong flexor of the thigh

psoas minor muscle

absent in 40% of cases

iliacus muscle

origin- iliac fossa
insertion- lesser trochanter of the femur
action- flexes the thigh

quadratus lumborum muscle

origin- 12 rib and lumbar transverse process
insertion- iliolumbar ligament & iliac crest
action- flexes vertebral column laterally

transversus abdominis muscle

lies posterior to quadratus lumborum muscle

right and left kidney location

right= 12 rib
left= 11th rib

nerves of the posterior abdominal wall

ventral rami of spinal nerves T12- L4

lumbar plexus

L1-4 formed within psoas major muscle

genitofemoral nerve

L1-2 roots- motor nerve of the creamastor muscle and supplies small area of skin inferior and medial to inguinal ligament

lateral cutaneous nerve of the thight

L2-3. passes deep to inguinal ligament. supplies skin on lateral aspect of the thigh

femoral nerve

L2-4. lateral side of the psoas major muscle in the groove btw psoas major and iliacus muscles

obturator nerve

L 2-4 . supplies motor and sensory innervation to medial thigh

lumbosacral trunk

ventral rami L4-5.

sympathetic trunk

found on ventral body btw crus of diaphragm and psoas major muscle- sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system

lumbar splanchnic nerves

pass anteriorly from sympathetic trunk to the aortic autonomic nervev plexus- parasympathetic

rami communicans

pass posterirly from sympathetic ganglia to lumbar ventral rami

central tendon

aponeurotic center of diaphragm

right and left crus of diaphragm

greater splanchnic nerve pierces this to enter abdominal cavity
right= L1-3. esophageal hiatus opening in right crus
left= L1-2

arcuate ligaments

thickenings of fascia that serve as proximal attachments for some of the muscle fibers of the diaphragm

phrenic nerves

innervate diaphragm. supplie most sensory innervation to abdominal and thoracic surfaves of diaphragm

what is the innervation of the pleural and peritoneal coverings of the diaphragm

sensory fibers from lower intercostal nerves T5-11 and subcostal nerve

celiac ganglia

found on left and right sides of celiac trunk. largest of sympathetic ganglia that are located on surface of the aorta

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