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a refusal to buy certain goods or services.

guerrilla warfare

where small bands of fighters stage hit-and-run attacks against a larger power.

negritude movement

the movement encouraged Africans to value their heritage, and it strengthened Pan Africanism.

Pan Africanism

many nationalists embraced this idea which called for unifying all of Africa.

Leopold Sedar Senghor

a senegalese poet who took the lead in the negritude movement.


became the first black African nation to win independence.


to break away


accepting many different political parties.


where the government owns and operates major businesses and controls other parts of the economy.

multinational corporations

huge enterprises with branches in many countries.


an african nation that set up socialist governments.

one-party rule

to build national unity, some african leaders set this up. they believed that competing political parties created divisions in society.

military rule

in some african nations, the military has stepped in to restore order and get rid of corrupt leaders. military rulers often use harsh measures to stay in power.

stability and progress

after independence, countries that had stable governments made the most economic progress.

african socialism

some african nations set up socialist governments. many africans felt that the state should direct the economy to meet the basic needs of food, housing, and health care. they also saw socialism as a way to end special privileges and bring about equality.

mixed economies

today, most african nations have this. the governments exercise control over many aspects of business, but they also encourage private investment.

developing agriculture

although most africans are subsistence farmers, government programs focus on cash crops for export. governments also have kept prices for food crops low. this policy helps poorly paid city workers to buy food. farmers suffer low prices.

economic dependence

a major goal of african nations is reducing economic dependence. because they rely heavily on the export of a single crop or commodity, they are at the mercy of world market prices.

shanty town

people who don't have money to buy the goods shown in stores or to see the movies advertised on billboards live here.




changing family life.


western culture and western technology which are everywhere in the cities. the western culture glorifies individual desires and material goods at the expense of the community.


attachment to one's own ethnic group, and regional loyalties play an important role in shaping Nigeria today.

ken saro-wiwa

a well-known author who fought oil driving in the niger river delta.


religious, economic, and ethnic divisions flared after independence. these divisions led to a tragic civil war.

civilian and military rule

after independence the government moved back and forth between civilian and military rule. At times, the military won support by promising to end corruption and mismanagement. Yet military rulers were caught in corruption.

industry and agriculture

the nigerian government owns many key industries. nigerians are also concerned that they depend too much on oil revenues. Nigeria has tried to diversify its economy.

economic sanctions

when the UN called on member nations to stop trading with Rhodesia. although the sanctions hurt the economy, the minority government clung to power.

zambezi river

zimbabwe uses the kariba dam to harness the energy of this river.

Linda Muntondoro

a guerrilla commander who rose to become a skillful company commander.

Robert Mugabe

a leader of the independence struggle who formed a government.

cecil rhodes

a businessman who promoted imperialism in Africa.


This is what the british called their colony. thousands of white settlers migrated here. they took over the best land and set up large plantations to grow cash crops. The british also used african labor to develop the mineral resources of rhodesia.

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