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38 terms

test 4

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allegro
a fast tempo in music
andante
a moderate tempo in music
brass
a family of wind instruments that usually includes the French horn, trumpet, trombone, and tuba
cantata
a multi-movement composition for voices and instrumental accompaniment; smaller in scale than the oratorio
caricature
exaggeration of peculiarities or defects to produce comic or burlesque effects
coda
passage added to the closing section of a movement or musical composition in order to create the sense of a definite ending
concerto
an instrumental composition consisting of one or more solo instruments and a larger group of instruments playing in "dialogue"
deductive reasoning
a method of inquiry that begins with clearly established general premises and moves toward the establishment of particular truths
deism
a movement or system of thought advocating natural religion based on human reason rather than revelation; deists describe God as Creator, but deny that God interferes with the laws of the universe
equal temperament
a system of tuning that originated in the seventeenth century, whereby the octave is divided into twelve half-steps of equal size; since intervals have the same value in all keys, music may be played in any key, and a musician may change from one key to another with complete freedom.
etching
a kind of engraving in which a metal plate is covered with resin, then incised with a burin; acid is applied to "eat" away the exposed lines, which are inked before the plate is wiped clean and printed
fête galante
a festive diversion enjoyed by aristocrats, a favored subject in rococo art
figured bass
in baroque music, the line of music with numbers written below (or above) it to indicate the required harmonies, usually improvised in the form of keyboard chords accompanying the melody
fortissimo
a directive indicating that the music should be played very loud; its opposite is pianissimo ("very soft")
fugue
a polyphonic composition in which a theme (or subject) is imitated, restated, and developed by successively entering voice parts
geocentric
earth-centered
heliocentric
sun-centered
heroic couplet
a pair of rhymed iambic pentameter lines that reach completion in structure and in sense at the end of the second line
homophony
a musical texture consisting of a dominant melody supported by chordal accompaniment that is far less important than the melody
idealism
in philosophy, the theory that holds that reality consists of the mind and its ideas; transcendental (or critical) idealism is Kant's name for the doctrine that knowledge is a synthetic product of the logical self
impasto
a style in painting in which the paint is applied thickly or heavily
inductive reasoning
a method of inquiry that begins with direct observation and experimentation and moves toward the establishment of general conclusions or axioms
laissez-faire
a general policy of non-interference in the economy, defended by such classical economists as Adam Smith
largo
a very slow tempo; the slowest of the conventional tempos in music
movement
a major section in a long instrumental composition
opera buffa
a type of comic opera usually featuring stock characters
oratorio
a musical setting of a long text, either religious or secular, for soloists, chorus, narrator, and orchestra; usually performed without scenery, costumes, or dramatic action
percussion
instruments that are sounded by being struck or shaken, used especially for rhythm
philosophes
the intellectuals of the European Enlightenment
prelude
a piece of instrumental music that introduces a church service or another piece of music
ritornello
in baroque music, an instrumental section that recurs throughout the movement
score
the musical notation for all of the instruments or voices in a particular composition; a composite from which the whole piece may be conducted or studied
sonata
an instrumental composition consisting of three movements of contrasting tempo, usually fast/slow/fast
strings
instruments that usually includes the violin, viola, cello, and double bass (which are normally bowed); the harp, guitar, lute, and zither (which are normally plucked) can also be included, as can the viol, a bowed instrument common in the 16th and 17th centuries and a forerunner of the violin family
suite
instrumental composition consisting of a sequence or series of movements derived from court or folk dances
symphony
an independent instrumental composition for orchestra
vanitas
a type of still life consisting of objects that symbolize the brevity of life and the transience of earthly pleasures and achievements
woodwinds
a family of wind instruments, usually consisting of the flute, oboe, clarinet, and bassoon