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Terms in this set (53)
800-1500 ish water base transportation network that existed for hundred of years, they are also mountain builders
Mexico before it was tenochtitlan adonde Vivian los Aztecs
Aztec city which is now Mexico City
Potosi and Zacatecas
-towns produce wealth-silver
-30,000 African slaves were taken to Potosí during the colonial era
English explorer and admiral who was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe and who helped to defeat the Spanish Armada (1540-1596)
Treaty of Todesillas
An agreement between Portugal and Spain which declared that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.
Elizabeth I (Elizabethan Settlement)
1599- Catholic and Protestant (Middle)
-tries to be the voice of reason and settle religious conflict
-formed England in powerful way
Protestant Reformation (Martin Luther)
led by Martin Luther. In 1517, Martin Luther nailed 95 "theses"
-questioned the Catholic Church's ability to define Christian practice
-led to counter-reformation
Prince Henry of Portugal (Atlantic Slave Trade)
-Led expeditions to West African coast to create maps to:
->defeat the Muslims
->establish trade routes.
Helped begin the Great Age of Discovery that began in the1400's
(1608): The group of Indian tribes living in the Jamestown area, all ruled by the ruler Powhatan. That is pretty much it, in essence. It is this Confederacy that the early Jamestown conflicts
Pocahontas (powhatan daughter who married John Smith), John Smith and Opechancanough (later becomes king)
Roanoke (Lost Colony)
-late 16th-century attempt by Queen Elizabeth I to establish a permanent English settlement.
-The colonists disappeared during the Anglo-Spanish War, three years after the last shipment of supplies from England
irst permanent English settlement in the New World located in Virginia on the Chesapeake Bay/James River; settled by the Virginia Company of London.
Original settlers suffered from disease (especially malaria), internal strife, & starvation.
John Smith - Demanded that "He who does not work, will not eat."
John Rolfe - Introduced tobacco to the colony.
King James & James Bible
Is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, completed in 1611
-considered a great achievement in English Literature
-eflect the episcopal structure of the Church of England and its belief in an ordained clergy
-Soft towards Roman Catholic
-James pulls church towards more "Puritans"
-King Charles granted the province of Carolina to the Lords Proprietors in 1663.
-Originally peopled by small tribes of hunter-gathers.
-It's early economic growth was fueled by agriculture (with cotton as the primary crop), regional mercantile trade and a short-lived gold rush
Great Dismal Swamp
In 1650, Algonquian-speaking Native Americans of coastal tribes lived in the swamp.
-Black refugee slaves worked and used it to escape slavery
The most powerful Algonkian-language tribe in Coastal NC in 1585
September 22, 1711- February 11, 1715, Eastern NC
-Native Americans/ Indian settlers settled outside of the proposed (Albemarle) barriers, which causes conflict.
-South Carolina sends Yamasee which causes war
-> enslave several nations. Exporting native slaves
-> kidnap wives of Yamasee
-Indian population lowered by 400%
-South Carolina runs scared for 100s of years of racial differences
->cash prizes to whoever returns enslaved fugitives
Oliver Cromwell (and the protectorate and "Levellers"
In 1653 and 1658, he dominated England
-he ruthlessly suppressed the Levellers when their plans for social and political change became too radical
- he was appointed Lord Protector of the Commonwealth
-His forces defeated many political forces (Royalists & Confederates)
Nathaniel Bacon led landless frontiersmen to rebellion when Berkley refused to fight back against Indian attacks on frontier settlements. Bacon and his followers murdered the Indians and burn the capital. However, it ended when Bacon suddenly died and Berkley crushed the uprising and hung more than 20 rebels. However, this event triggered the smoldering resentments of landless former servants.
Led to a move from indentured servants to African slaves for labor purposes.
Started hundreds of churches, the sending of countless number of preachers, state conventions, institutions, and more
Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries. 1651
formed when henry split form church, separated from catholic church and ruled by the king but shared most of the same doctrines as the catholic church, only believed 2 sacraments
A sect of Protestants who believed that "everybody has the light of god in them". Breakaway movement from Puritanism. Puritans HATE these people. REALLY hate these people. Mary Dyer is hanged for being one of them in the Massachusetts Bay colony.
English religious sect who hoped to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice & organization.
-Conflict between British settlers of colonial South Carolina and various Native American tribes
-A direct result of the Yamasee War highlighted the inability of the Lords Proprietors to act decisively and led to separate governments for North and South Carolina.
-7 of the Lords Proprietors sold their interests in Carolina to the Crown, and both North Carolina and South Carolina became royal colonies.
A South Carolina slave revolt. Many blacks along the Stono River attempted to march to Spanish Florida. However, they had to stop because of the local militia. This is significant because it proved that enslaved Africans was a more tightly controlled labor force than the white indentured servants whom they gradually replaced.
Dominion of New England
-An administrative union of English colonies
-Church of England was introduced in Massachusetts
Glorious Revolution (James II, William and Mary Blackbeard)
A reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange., In this bloodless revolution, the English Parliament and William and Mary agreed to overthrow James II for the sake of Protestantism. This led to a constitutional monarchy and the drafting of the English Bill of Rights.
Scotch and German Immigrants
80% of the main land colonies are Scotish
-explosive of demographic diversity
-Push from England
-Start colonizing Irish
-Population of Colonies diversifies
Process of becoming English (Church of England)
-all different colonies, become like England, almost all become alike. (Love the king and queen) 1530s
-mechanism=ALL TRADE (we give our stuff, they give theres->all become alike)
-direct control doesn't work! Remember Dominion NE
-process whereby everyone had to accept English social, political, and institutional patterns of life during the 18th century
"gang" v. "task system"
Either the owners of slaver people give slaves a specific task
Everyone worked together
-government chooses religion and supports it to establish it.
Evangelical v. Rationalist
-Ministers who took part in the revivalist, emotive religious tradition pioneered by George Whitefield during the Great Awakening.
-Orthodox clergymen who rejected the emotionalism of the great awakening in favor of a more rational spirituality.
English clergyman who was known for his ability to convince many people through his sermons. He involved himself in the Great Awakening in 1739 preaching his belief in gaining salvation.
Seven Years War
Also known as the French and Indian War
Successful attempt to move the French out of the Ohio Valley & to stop Indian raids on frontier settlements.
Colonists gained pride in their own military strength, felt more disconnected from Britain, & were left without fear of French a invasion.
1763 - An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottowa chief. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when the Indian king was killed.
Proclamation line of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east
Regulators and Paxton Boys
The Irish led the march of the Paxton Boys on Philadelphia which was the act of protest against the Quaker oligarchy's lenient policy toward the Indians. This is significant because it shows how the Irish did not care about the British government or any other government. They also raided Native American camps.
The Irish in North Carolina led a rebellion against eastern domination of the colony's affairs. This is very significant because it shows how the Irish had no respect for the British government. Many of the people who participated in this movement later participated in the American Revolution as well.
Battle of Alamance
On May 16, 1771, a two hour battle between Tryon's militia and the band of Regulators, in which Tryon soundly defeated the Regulators. After this, Governor Tryon offered a pardon to any Regulator who laid down his arms and swore allegiance to the government. Four Regulators, including Herman Husband were denied a pardon and fled the colony. Within six weeks, 6,000 Regulators took advantage of Tryon's offer
This was designed to raise money to defend the colonies, by taxing imports such as sugar, molasses, coffee, wine, and silk.
Put a tax on legal documents and taxed newspapers, almanacs, playing cards, and even dice. All of those items had to carry a stamp that the tax had been paid. This act led to riots in NYC, Newport, Charleston, Boston, 1765
Stamp Act Congress
Delagates from every colony except Georgia, North Carolina, Virginia and New Hampshire met in New York City to discuss the Stamp Act. They sent Parliament a list of reasons why the stamp act is unconstitutional, but Parliament just dismissed their document
Sons of liberty
Founded by Samuel Adams. They dressed up as Native Americans during the Boston Tea Party and dumped the tea into Boston Harbor. This was the first act of open defiance to the British Government.
An incident in which British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them; five colonists were killed.
Boston's radicals used to incident to wage an Anti-British propaganda war.
Edenton Ladies Tea Party
Group of prominent North Carolina women who signed a pledge to work for the common good and to support colonial resistance to British measures. One of the earliest organized efforts on the part of women to influence public policy.
Continental Congress and NC's Provincial Congress
Met to discuss a response to the Intolerable Acts; adopted the Declaration and Resolves in which they:
Declared the Intolerable Acts null and void.
Recommended that colonists arm themselves and that militias be formed.
Recommended a boycott of British imports.
Thomas Paine & Common Sense
Common Sense is a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in 1775-76 that inspired people in the Thirteen Colonies to declare and fight for independence from Great Britain.
->Credited with uniting average citizens and political leaders behind the idea of independence, "Common Sense" played a remarkable role in transforming a colonial squabble into the American Revolution.
Promised freedom for slaves of American revolutionaries who left their owners and joined the royal forces.
Great Britain fighting against slavery and racial inequality
Elites have a feeling of fervor
Decisive colonial victory in upstate New York; considered to be the turning point of the American Revolution.
Caused France to openly support the colonies with military forces in addition to the supplies and money already being sent.
Battle of Guilford Courthouse
A 2,100-man British force under the command of Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis defeated Major General Nathanael Greene's 4,500 Americans. The British Army, however, sustained such heavy casualties that the result was a strategic victory for the Americans.
-battle is considered pivotal to the American victory in the Revolution.
Born in Ireland.
Came to America in 1760.
Fought in Revolution (willing to fight to defend the cause of political freedom)
Became Lay Preacher during the war.
Became an early precursor to what becomes the larger Restoration Movement.
New State Constitution
first constitution of the independent state. The Declaration of Rights was ratified the preceding day
The Great Awakening
Religious revival movement during the 1730s and 1740s; stressed the need for individuals to repent and urged a personal understanding of truth.
Jonathan Edwards - "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
Reduced the number of church leaders and led to a schism within the Protestant Church.
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