What was a distinct advantage of confining organic molecules within a pre-cell?
a specific ribozyme can catalyze only a specific RNA
How can simple membranes be chemically produced?
subjecting a warm-water solution of amino acids to cool temperatures and mixing lipids and water.
When did the era of RNA occur in accordance with the era of life?
the era of RNA preceded the era of life
Among the simpler microbes metabolic precesses involved relatively few genes that produced soluble enzymes, proteins, and _________.
three kinds of RNA
In some bacterial cells ____ is changed to ______ when respiration is prevented.
pyruvic acid, lactic acid
In other bacteria, under oxygen-poor conditions _________ is converted to _________.
pyruvic acid, CO2, and ethanol
Nitrogen fixation is a process that makes available __________ to living organisms.
On of the first metabolic pathways considered a step towards autotrophy involves the conversion of ________ to ________.
Microbes that evolved a chemical machinery to withstand extreme temperatures are considered ________.
The biological species concept of bacteria is based on ________ and ________ grounds.
color, shape, phenotypic, genetic, size, and shape.
__________ bacteria rely on other organisms for their sustenance, __________ bacteria are microbes that gather their own food and energy from the environment.
Botulism toxins stops the release of ________ for muscular contraction.
acetylcholine and molecular messenger
The two major groups of bacterial autotrophs involve bacteria that can utilize _______ and _______ to produce energy.
organic, inorganic compounds
An organelle in the cell of photosynthetic eukaryotes that is the site for photosynthesis is called ________.
Most of the organisms living today are fundamentally similar in all but one of the following characteristics.
A significant difference between the archaea and the bacteria is in the molecular composition of their _______.
Gram-positive cell walls differ from Gram-negative cells walls in that the cell walls of Gram-positive bacteria contain _______.
Protein molecules that lie on the surface of the cell membrane are called _________.
The process of transmembrane movement that involves a transporter is called ______.
When a cell is in a medium that has a higher concentration of solutes than there is in the cell we say that the cell is in a _______ solution.
Under the ideal conditions, the complete aerobic oxidation of one molecule of glucose by a bacterium allows a net gain of how many ATP molecules?