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Arts and Humanities
The Cold War
Terms in this set (61)
A state of diplomatic hostility that developed between the United States and the Soviet Union from 1949 to 1991, involving spying, propaganda, diplomacy and secret operations with their dealings with each other but no actual combat between the two nations
The tactic of seeming to approach the verge of war in order to persuade one's opposition to retreat
Wars in which the superpowers armed and financed one side in a country's civil war so that a certain system would win power in that country
A political and economic system where the government has total control of the economy and all people are seen as equals and is based largely on the words of the revolutionary Karl Marx
An economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state
A policy developed by Truman in the late 1940's involved in keeping Soviet communism from the spreading or expanding into other nations
President Eisenhower's theory that if one nation comes under Communist control, then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control.
A military doctrine and nuclear strategy coined by Eisenhower in which in the event of an attack from an aggressor, a state would massively retaliate by using a force disproportionate to the size of the attack
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea lasting from 1950- 1953 and ending in stalemate
Demilitarization Zone (DMZ)
The region on the Korean peninsula that demarcates North Korea from South Korea on the 38th parallel
A war starting on 1954 and ending 1975 between the communist armies of North Vietnam and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam eventually in the US withdrawing their troops
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
A resolution put before Congress by Johnson in 1964 in reaction to two allegedly unprovoked attacks by North Vietnamese torpedo boats on the destroyers Maddox and C. Turner Joy and allowed for the president to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack
Nixon's policy that involved withdrawing 540,000 troops from South Vietnam over an extended period of time
A top-secret study, published by The New York Times in 1971, that showed the mistakes and deceptions that led the United States into the Vietnam War
Bay of Pigs Invasion
CIA plot in 1961 to overthrow Fidel Castro by training Cuban exiles to invade and supporting them with American air power which failed and became a public relations disaster early in John F. Kennedy's presidency.
Cuban Missile Crisis
Standoff between John F. Kennedy and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev in October 1962 over Soviet plans to install nuclear weapons in Cuba
Dumbarton Oaks Conference
A meeting held in 1944 with the United States, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and China met to draft the constitution of the United Nations.
United Nations (UN)
An intergovernmental organization created in 1945 to promote international cooperation consisting of a General Assembly and a Security Council
Meeting between Franklin Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin in February 1945 to lay down the foundations for the postwar division of power in Europe, including a divided Germany and territorial concessions to the Soviet Union.
Division of Germany
The Allies divided Germany into East Germany, which was controlled by the Soviet Union, and West Germany, which was shared by Britain, France, and the United States, and the capital of Germany, Berlin, was also divided into East and West
The fortified and guarded barrier between East and West Berlin erected on orders from Nikita Khrushchev in 1961 to stop the flow of people to the West until its destruction in 1989
An attempt in 1948 by the Soviet Union to limit the ability of France, Great Britain and the United States to travel to their sectors of Berlin, which lay within Russian-occupied East Germany
In 1948, NATO sent planes many times a day for almost a year into west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin, in order to supplied food and fuel to citizens there
The political, military, and ideological barrier erected by the Soviet Union to seal off itself and its dependent eastern and central European allies from open contact with the West and other non-communist areas
Strip of nations along the Soviet Union's Western border in which Stalin believed would be a buffer or protection from future attacks
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Military alliance developed in 1949 of Western European powers and the United States and Canada established to defend against the common threat from the Soviet Union
A military alliance developed in 1955 by the Soviet Union with the satellite countries of Eastern Europe in response to Western military alliances
Alliance for Progress
A program in which the United States tried to help Latin American countries. JFK's "ten-year plan for americans" promised Latin American leaders that U.S. would reverse the cycle of poverty and stimulate exonomic growth at the cost of $20 billion.
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
An agency created to gather secret information about foreign governments
A commitment to defend the Middle East against attack by any communist country, announced by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1957
Program proposed by Secretary of State George Marshall in 1947, under which the United States supplied economic aid to European nations to help them rebuild after World War II
President Truman's policy announced in 1947 of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
An agreement signed in 1955 by the Soviet Union and other iron curtain countries that created an alliance for military defense.
The practice of publicly accusing someone of trying to overthrow or undermine the government without evidence to back up the charges in the early 1950's
House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
A congressional committee that investigated Communist influence inside and outside the U.S. government in the years following World War II
A campaign to arrest suspected communists who encouraged the overthrow of the U.S. government.
40th President of the U.S., from 1981-1989. Helped with the tearing down of the Berlin Wall and Ending the Cold War after spending millions of dollars on supplying weapons.
Soviet leader whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms.
Lyndon B. Jonson
President during the Vietnam War after JFK was shot
Dwight D. Eisenhower
President during the Cold War
John Foster Dulles
Dwight D. Eisenhower's secretary of state, an anti-Communist who supported full-on military retaliation against Communist nations
Richard M. Nixon
Cuban revolutionary who overthrew the dictator Batista in 1959 and established a Communist state; the U.S. disliked him because he took control of the Cuban sugar industry away from American companies.
Cuban revolutionary who overthrew Batista dictatorship in 1958 and assumed control of the island country. His connections with the Soviet Union led to a cessation of diplomatic relations with the United States in such internationl affairs as the Bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis. Oversaw his country through the end of the Cold War and through nearly a half-century of trade embargo with the US.
Harry S. Truman
The 33rd U.S. president, who succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon Roosevelt's death in April 1945. Truman, who led the country through the last few months of World War II, is best known for making the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945. After the war, Truman was crucial in the implementation of the Marshall Plan, which greatly accelerated Western Europe's economic recovery.
In 1948, he was accused by a former Communist spy, Whittaker Chmambers, of spying for the Soviet Union.
Republican Senator from Wisconsin who made unsubstantiated accusations on suspected Communists
A US senator who gained fame and power by launching a one-man crusade against communist sympathizers in government agencies.
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communists after 1924, and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial production and terror to crush opposition.
Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communists after 1924, and the dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial production and terror to crush opposition.
Was an American general and field marshal of the Philippine Army who was Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and played a prominent role in the Pacific theater during World War II. He was one of only five men ever to rise to the rank of General of the Army in the U.S. Army, and the only man ever to become a field marshal in the Philippine Army.
John F. Kennedy
President of the United States who aunched New Frontier programs and urged legislation to improve civil rights; assumed the blame for the Bay of Pigs ivasion and was credited as well for the superb handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis
In 1960, the Soviets shot down an American spy plane and captured the American pilot, causing mistrust and tensions between the two superpowers
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
Minor activists in the American Communist Party who were accused of giving the Soviet Union information about America's atomic bomb who were executed by the Federal government
A political movement started by Gorbochev for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s
Gorbachev's policy that called for increased openness and transparency in government institutions and activities in the Soviet Union.
Competition in the skies between the United States and the Soviet Union to develop more advanced rockets and to explore and control space
The first spaceflight that landed astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin on the Moon that was launched by the United States in 1969
The first artificial Earth satellite which was launched by the Soviet Union into a low elliptical orbit in 1957
Competition between the United States and Soviet Union to build up their armed forces and weapons
Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBM)
A long-range ballistic missile designed for nuclear weapons delivery of one or more nuclear warheads
Hydrogen Bomb (H-bomb)
A type of nuclear weapon at least one thousand times more powerful than the atomic bomb
An herbicide used as a chemical weapon during the Vietnam war to kill vegetation and expose the enemy's hiding places
Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)
An understood rule that if two opposing sides used nuclear weapons to fight each other, they would both be destroyed
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